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1.
Journal of Biotech Research ; 13:177-188, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033805

ABSTRACT

The 3C protease is distinguished from most proteases due to the presence of cysteine nucleophile that plays an essential role in viral replication. This peculiar structure encompassed with its role in viral replication has promoted 3C protease as an interesting target for therapeutic agents in the treatment of diseases caused by human rhinovirus (HRV). However, the molecular mechanisms surrounding the chirality of inhibitors of HRV 3C protease remain unresolved. Herein using in silico techniques such molecular dynamic simulation and binding free estimations via molecular mechanics poisson-boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA), we present a comprehensive molecular dynamics study of the comparison of two potent inhibitors, SG85 and rupintrivir, complexed with HRV3C protease. The binding free energy studies revealed a higher binding affinity for SG85 of 58.853 kcal/mol than that for rupintrivir of 54.0873 kcal/mol and this was found to be in correlation with the experimental data. The energy decomposition analysis showed that residues Leu 127, Thr 142, Ser 144, Gly 145, Tyr 146, Cys 147, His 161, Val 162, Gly 163, Gly 164, Asn 165, and Phe 170 largely contributed to the binding of SG85, whereas His 40, Leu 127, and Gly 163 impacted the binding of rupintrivir. The results further showed that His 40, Glu 71, Leu 127, Cys 147, Gly 163, and Gyl 164 were crucial residues that played a key role in ligand-enzyme binding, and amongst these crucial residues, His 40, Glu 71, and Cys 147 appeared to be conserved in the active site of HRV-3C protease when bound by both inhibitors. These findings provided a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics and structural features and would serve as guidance in the design and development of potent novel inhibitors of HRV.

2.
Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research ; 6(8):1233-1240, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033551

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the recently discovered coronavirus and affects several countries worldwide. Some medications may alleviate or minimize some of the disease symptoms, but no drug have been proven to prevent or cure it. However, this study was aimed at investigating the role of some medicinal plants as potent inhibitors of COVID-19 main protease (MPro). More than 250 plant extracts with antiviral activity were exploited for their potential SARS-CoV2 medication using molecular docking. The conformational stability of the compounds extracted from the plants with MPro interactions was evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations. Then, the plant extracts with the highest binding energies were used for treatments by administering them to 50 COVID-19 patients, while the other 50 cases received only the drug without the plant extracts. The results of the theoretical analysis revealed high binding energies for seven compounds. Alliin stabilized COVID-19’s MPro while retaining critical connections and remained stable throughout the simulations. Marrubin and thymoquinone are also capable of protein stabilization over the simulated time. The test plants were observed to be effective against the virus in the COVID-19 patients, with a disease symptom improvement response rate of 78-86 and 60-72% for the first and second groups, respectively. Also, the percentage of oxygen increased from the second day after taking the extracts. Ground-glass opacity disappeared from the second group that received the plant extracts. The findings of this study suggest that these compounds have a great potential for therapeutic activity if isolated and administered alone.

3.
Anaesthesia ; 77:45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032362

ABSTRACT

Widely publicised mathematical modelling predicted a respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis surge during the COVID-19 pandemic [1]. This predicted an increase in severely unwell paediatric patients presenting locally requiring respiratory support and stabilisation ahead of transfer to tertiary intensive care. Emergency airway management is associated with life-threatening complications including hypoxia and haemodynamic instability [2]. Emergency paediatric airway management has the added complexity of selection of appropriate airway equipment, correct dosing of induction agents and variable anaesthetist experience. We implemented changes to improve management of paediatric patients requiring emergency intubation and stabilisation prior to transfer. Methods Quality-improvement methodology was utilised. A questionnaire was completed by anaesthetic consultants and trainees. This assessed confidence anaesthetising paediatric patients, evaluated the selection of airway equipment and medication dosing for a simulated patient. Using the results, we constructed lists for medication dosing, airway equipment sizing and an intubation checklist, which were included in the paediatric emergency airway trolley. Improvement was assessed with a secondary questionnaire featuring a different simulated patient with the help of the new measures. Accuracy and time taken to complete were compared. Results We obtained a total of 12 responses. Mean score on initial questionnaire was 51.5%, compared to mean score on the secondary questionnaire of 88%. This shows a mean improvement of 36.5% in accuracy in paediatric medication dosing and airway equipment selection. Average time taken to complete the initial simulated scenario was 222 s, this was decreased on average by 31.5 s. In total, 90% of respondents reported increased confidence in managing an unwell paediatric patient. Discussion We have demonstrated an improvement in both time taken and accuracy in medication dosing and selection of appropriate airway equipment in paediatric patients. This had added relevance in secondary care as fewer elective paediatric cases due to the pandemic have de-skilled the workforce reducing confidence in paediatric anaesthesia. Patient safety is improved with reduced errors and decreased cognitive load in high-pressure, time-limited scenarios. We have created a standardised system, which is widely applicable, improving delivery of care and communication between colleagues.

4.
Anaesthesia ; 77:34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032349

ABSTRACT

There have been at least three fires in intensive care units in the UK over the past 10 years, requiring full-scale evacuations. Fires have also occurred in operating theatres during the use of lasers, including in combination with high-flow nasal oxygen and as a result of diathermy reacting with chlorhexidine. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought increasing relevance to fire safety and the safe use of oxygen. As a result, the Association of Anaesthetists and Intensive Care Society have brought out new fire safety guidelines in May 2021, written by a multidisciplinary working group. Part of this guidance includes recommendations that all clinical staff have annual multidisciplinary training on the management of a fire and evacuation and biannual practical 'walk-through' training or simulation training. This should include where to find manual fire call points, evacuation aids, evacuation plans with routes and procedures and oxygen shut-off valves in their clinical areas. Methods We carried out a quality-improvement project, looking at qualitative data from surveying clinical staff at Newham University Hospital, before and after delivering our intervention. Our intervention consisted of delivering fire safety teaching, covering the national guidelines and local protocols on how to manage a fire and resulting patient evacuation. This was then followed by running a simulated practical session of a fire in an operating theatre at NUH and the evacuation of an anaesthetised patient down a set of stairs. This was delivered to anaesthetists of all grades, theatre staff including operating department practitioners and surgeons. This was achieved with the collaborative effort of the theatre department, the fire safety team and the simulation team. Results Our results highlight the necessity of this new guidance, as there was significant improvement reported in all categories of the survey after versus before our fire safety training and simulation, as well as positive feedback from colleagues. These categories included: (1) knowledge of where to find manual fire call points, patient evacuation aids, fire action cards and evacuation plans in your clinical area;(2) knowledge of the evacuation route from the operating theatres and (3) confidence in responding to a fire alarm and managing a patient evacuation. In addition, there was a lack of any similar organised fire safety teaching or simulation, as advised to occur bi-annually by the Association of Anaesthetists, prior to our quality-improvement project.

5.
Anaesthesia ; 77:25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032345

ABSTRACT

Commonly maternity units are staffed by one anaesthetist and are distant to other theatre areas within the hospital. With the ever-growing demand the COVID-19 pandemic has on other anaesthetic colleagues across the hospital, in an obstetric airway emergency, help is not always immediately to hand. This leaves obstetric theatre staff particularly vulnerable should an airway emergency occur. At Royal Preston Hospital (RPH) an incident involving a difficult obstetric airway demonstrated that the team were unfamiliar with their roles and how to aptly call for help. Inaccurate requests were delivered to the hospital switchboard consequently delaying the arrival of help with exacerbation of maternal and fetal compromise. During COVID-19, the inability to leave the operating room relies on effective communication of the clinical situation to distant team members;a process that is further hindered with the use of personal protective equipment. Methods To improve the multidisciplinary team's (MDT) confidence in managing such situations regular simulation-based emergency obstetric intubation teaching was provided to midwives, obstetricians, scrub and anaesthetic practitioners and theatre support workers. Simulation highlighted steps to aid intubation and appropriate actions if intubation fails. Role allocation in an obstetric airway emergency was introduced to emergency theatre team members at the start of each shift, supported with task allocation cards. Results Eighteen staff members took part in the teaching. Eighty-eight per cent of respondents were unaware of the existing Difficult Airway Society/Obstetric Anaesthesia Association guidelines [1] for 'wake vs. proceed' following difficult intubation for caesarean section. (Table Presented) Discussion In conclusion, we identified that the maternity MDT lacked confidence in managing failed obstetric intubations. The anaesthetic department recognised the risk this posed to patients and staff. The provision of regular simulation-based teaching was successful in improving the confidence of the MDT in managing these situations. This is invaluable especially during the isolating COVID-19 era.

6.
Anaesthesia ; 77:65, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032344

ABSTRACT

Competence in anaesthetising children, as well as managing paediatric emergencies, is an essential skill for anaesthetists reaching their Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT). With the COVID-19 pandemic affecting training opportunities, ST4 trainees may enter Stage 2 with limited paediatric experience. The Northwest School of Anaesthesia currently delivers exam-focused training in paediatric anaesthesia to Stage 2 trainees, consisting of a mixture of lectures, tertiary theatre lists and a simulation-based workshop day. We reflected on the need to provide additional training in the management of paediatric emergencies to plug the gap in knowledge and confidence caused by the pandemic. To address this issue, we devised a simulation-based programme, which complements the existing training days. Methods We surveyed Stage 2 trainees to ascertain their confidence in paediatric anaesthesia, with the questions reflecting the key capabilities required for this stage of training. Based on the results, a working party of anaesthetists from Royal Manchester Children's Hospital developed paediatric emergency simulation scenarios, covering the management of emergencies in theatre and the emergency department. During the afternoon sessions of the existing study-day programme, the trainee group was split between theatre experience and our new simulation training. Feedback was collected. Results In our initial survey, only 16% of trainees felt confident to anaesthetise ASA 1-3 patients aged 1-5 years with supervision. Twenty-six per cent of trainees were not confident to anaesthetise ASA 1-3 children aged ≥ 5 years with distant supervision. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents felt they would benefit from further training in managing paediatric emergencies in addition to the current specialist study days and 81% would prefer this to be simulation based. Thus far, we have run two pilot simulation sessions with a further three dates planned. Feedback has been very positive with 100% of delegates stating they found the sessions beneficial. Discussion Trainees may lack confidence in paediatric anaesthesia including the management of emergencies secondary to the infrequency of these encounters in nontertiary centres. We identified this issue and implemented a successful simulation- based programme into the existing training format. The excellent feedback evidences its use as a tool and that trainees feel more confident after the sessions. We will continue to provide this training to the Stage 2 trainees in the Northwest.

7.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:106-107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032189

ABSTRACT

Recent research shows that the number of patients with heart disease is still bigger than Covid 19 disease. Some indicators in Brazil indicate about 400,000 deaths per year. Because of heart disease, heart failure is responsible for the main cause of hospitalization of patients over 65 years of age. Part of these patients eventually developed one or more severe disease because of heart disease, leaving as clinical alternatives, treatments, and more aggressive procedures such as heart transplantation. The current scenario for patients waiting for a heart transplantation is actually aggravated each day by the pandemic. Other problem is the organ rejection that is 15% of mortality rate. Then a clinical alternative that can provide support and improve the life quality of patients with heart failure is the mechanical circulatory assistance devices. This kind of device is aiding and/or substitutes in cardiovascular function and it is recognized by the medicine showing satisfactory results over the years. However, the homologation of this kind of device to clinical use is hard and these devices need to be submitted to exhaustive tests, in distinct phases. “In Vitro” validations are applied, a test performed in simulators, whether they physical, computational or hybrid and “In Vivo”, a test that is performed on animals. After these validations, clinical evaluations are started for equipment approval. In this context, the objective of this work is to present the design, construction and functioning of a physical fluid dynamic simulator, which allows testing in ventricular assist devices, with the ability to reproduce the variations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the other phenomena related to the functioning of the cardiovascular system. For the project, we used a review of the historical line of the simulators, concepts of hydraulics, anatomy of the human cardiovascular system, heart diseases and PID control algorithms from the theoretical basis. The construction of the physical plant is finished and some tests are made presenting excellent results. The simulator is equipped with two tanks, one proportional control valves, recirculation systems, two level control sensors, blood flow meters, an Microcontroller with a PID control algorithm and a man machine interface developed in android platform. The tests demonstrated the full functioning of the simulator, with the automatic stabilization of the levels, pressure and flow. The tests were made based on the patient body conditions and the variation parameters were observed of the ventricular assist device response. Then the some heart disease were simulated with the modulation of the valve and the monitoring of the ventricular assist device flow as a function of the setpoint change, all these parameters inserted and monitored through a cellular application. (Figure Presented).

8.
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology ; 130:104749, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031723

ABSTRACT

Determining passengers’ inter-individual contact in the metro station area (MSA) is an important issue to simulate and mitigate the spread of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Taking the inter-station passenger transfer system (IPTS) as an example, this study aimed to verify the passenger flows’ influence on the inter-individual contact around the MSA. Based on actual observed data, the passengers’ space–time paths (STP) in the network were obtained through an agent-based simulation. In this study, the direct contact model and the mediate contact model were used to describe the inter-individual contact in view of the passengers’ STP. The contact count and the exposure duration were defined as indicators to measure the contact degree of individual and the system. The results show that the time-varying trip distribution of the metro passengers significantly affected the inter-individual contact degree and the spatial distribution of contact risk region in the MSA. The intersection of passenger flow in different directions and the concentrated movement of passenger flow in the same direction increased the inter-individual contact and prolonged exposure in the morning. Through simulation experiments, the study verified the effects of controlling the flow direction and equalizing passenger flow generation measures aiming to reduce inter-individual contact and cumulative exposure duration.

9.
Teaching and Learning in Nursing ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031706

ABSTRACT

Prelicensure nursing students are required to master fundamental nursing skills. The COVID-19 pandemic created challenges in maintaining excellence while teaching skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skill validation scores and student satisfaction and self-confidence using a flipped classroom approach and a low-fidelity simulation model to innovatively teach skill acquisition. Researchers used a quasi-experimental method to compare skill validation scores of a control group and intervention group using independent samples t-test. Researchers also evaluated whether prelicensure nursing students had satisfaction and self-confidence with this teaching strategy. Findings suggested that skills validations scores were no different using a flipped-classroom approach than in-person instruction. Prelicensure nursing students were satisfied and self-confident following the implementation of this teaching strategy. This teaching strategy has the potential to decrease in-person clinical practice time, provide alternative opportunities for clinical make-up and remediation, and decrease cost.

10.
Annals of Vascular Surgery ; 84:88, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031145

ABSTRACT

Objectives of the study: In France, since March 2020, we observed a significant reduction, and sometimes a suspension of the surgical activity and hospital admissions. However, operating room activity is essential for the acquisition of the technical skills required by the French College of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (CFCVE). We report the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the surgical training. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study using an anonymous survey of 11 items was sent to all the surgeons in training (SiT) registered to the CFCVE. The answers were collected between July and November 2021. Results: 52 answers were collected (residents = 48%;fellows = 52%). 7 SiT contracted COVID-19. The crisis affected their scheduled and emergency operative activities, in 96% and 77% of the cases, respectively. 31% stopped all work-related activity for 1.5 months on average. In 18% of the cases, a reassignment in another department for an average period of two months was decided. Surgical skills were affected in 67% of cases, while 56% of the SiT did not consider they had achieved their personal training objectives (55% for the fellows, and 65% for the senior residents at the end of their training [4th, 5th and 6th year] and 92% for the younger residents (1st, 2nd and 3rd year of training). The increase in training duration (>3 months) and simulation were favored by 60% and 73% of SiTs, respectively. Conclusion: The COVID-19 medical crisis affected the training in Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in France. An additional time of formation and the use of simulation training should support the acquisition of technical skills.

11.
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; 31(2):52-63, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030778

ABSTRACT

Objective: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health agencies and school boards across Canada enacted new protocols, including face masks, physical distancing and enhanced hygiene, to support the safe reopening of inperson school. This study explored the experiences and perceptions of teachers instructing children and adolescents in person during a two-day school simulation. Method: This study was part of a large school simulation exercise conducted in Toronto, Ontario. Kindergarten to grade 12 teachers taught in classrooms with either masked students, or students who were un-masked or only masked when physical distancing was not possible. A qualitative descriptive phenomenology approach was utilized, and data were collected via virtual focus groups. Qualitative data analysis involved multiple rounds of inductive coding to generate themes. Results: The sample included 14 teachers (92.9% female;85.7% White), with a median of 9.5 years teaching experience. Three primary themes emerged: 1) learning to navigate public health measures, 2) needing to adapt teaching strategies and 3) striving to manage conflicting priorities. The majority of teachers reported that mask-wearing and physical distancing impacted their classroom teaching, communication and connection with students. Conclusions: As schools transition to in-person instruction, teachers will be required to play dual roles in education and public health, with implications on safety, teaching and professional identity. Public health agencies and school boards are encouraged to engage teachers in ongoing conversations regarding in-person school planning and operations. Furthermore, evidence-based interventions, including increased teaching development programs, are recommended to support teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
RESEARCH IN TIMES OF CRISIS: Research Methods in the Time of COVID-19 ; 13:99-122, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030739

ABSTRACT

5 In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, an area could only report its first positive cases if the infection had spread into the area and if the infection was subsequently detected. A standard probit model does not correctly account for these two distinct latent processes but assumes there is a single underlying process for an observed outcome. A similar issue confounds research on other binary outcomes such as corporate wrongdoing, acquisitions, hiring, and new venture establishments. The bivariate probit model enables empirical analysis of two distinct latent binary processes that jointly produce a single observed binary outcome. One common challenge of applying the bivariate probit model is that it may not converge, especially with smaller sample sizes. We use Monte Carlo simulations to give guidance on the sample characteristics needed to accurately estimate a bivariate probit model. We then demonstrate the use of the bivariate probit to model infection and detection as two distinct processes behind county-level COVID-19 reports in the United States. Finally, we discuss several organizational outcomes that strategy scholars might analyze using the bivariate probit model in future research.

13.
ASAIO Journal ; 68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030674

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 226 papers. The topics discussed include: identification of biomarkers sensitive to pulsatile and continuous flow for identification of promising continuous flow VAD modulation protocols to mitigate non-surgical bleeding events;comprehensive machine learning analysis of pre-implantation risk factors for right heart failure after LVAD implantation;combining VA-ECMO And Impella (EC-Pella) before reperfusion mitigates left ventricular loading and injury due to VA-ECMO in acute myocardial infarction;platelet function at the intersection of the COVID-19 'cytokine storm' and mechanical circulatory support;a dialysate free portable artificial kidney device;durable right heart mechanical support system: a multi-day proof-of-concept study in pulmonary hypertension sheep;a dual-action nitric oxide-releasing slippery surface coating for extracorporeal organ support: first evaluation at clinically relevant blood flow rate for partial lung support;cannula add-on for pressure and flow measurement in VADs;and comparison of interlaboratory CFD simulations of the FDA benchmark blood pump model.

14.
Journal of Nursing Education ; 61(9):528-532, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrated educators must consider students' future practice will involve patient communication via telehealth, including breaking bad news. METHOD: This mixed-methods analysis was conducted among 33 nurse practitioner (NP) students at two universities. Questionnaires were analyzed before and after a simulation training session with standardized patients to determine students' perceptions, learning satisfaction, confidence, and self-rated preparedness for delivering bad news via telehealth. RESULTS: Students' self-rated levels of preparedness for delivering bad news were higher after participating in the simulation. Students found the teaching methods to be effective, enjoyable, motivating, and suitable to individual learning styles. Two themes emerged that described students' perceptions of the experience: valuable simulation processes and multifaceted learning applicable to future NP practice. CONCLUSION: Breaking bad news via virtual platforms is new and challenging. Findings suggest this simulation experience provided a valuable tool for augmenting didactic training for NP students. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(9):528-532.].

15.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2022 ; 2022-May:3052-3057, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029233

ABSTRACT

The proximity detection mechanism in current automatic exposure notification systems is typically based on the Bluetooth signal strength from the individual's mobile phone. However, there is an underlying error in this proximity detection methodology that could result in wrong exposure decisions i.e., false negatives and false positives. A false negative error happens if a truly exposed individual is mistakenly identified as not exposed. This misidentification could result in further spread of the virus by the exposed (yet undetected) individual. Likewise, when a non-exposed individual is incorrectly identified as exposed, a false positive error occurs. This could lead to unnecessary quarantine of the individual;and therefore, incurring further economic cost. In this paper, using a simulation platform and a notion of proximity detection error, we investigate the performance of the system in terms of false exposure determinations. Knowledge of how the Bluetooth-based proximity detection error impacts such false determinations and identification of methodologies that can reduce this impact will be helpful to enhance the effectiveness of an automatic contact tracing system. Our preliminary results indicate the substantial impact of the proximity estimation error on the exposure detection accuracy. The results also suggest how proper filtering of distance measurements may reduce this impact. © 2022 IEEE.

16.
Nonlinear Studies ; 29(3):851-863, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027130

ABSTRACT

When an epidemic disease emerges, many strategies are taken into account to restrict its spread. The application of these strategies influences the dynamic nature of the spread of the disease. In this study, we have analyzed the dynamical behavior of the spread of COVID-19 with different strategies such as health consciousness, vaccination, and isolation with the help of a mathematical model. We have tested the positivity and boundedness of the model. The basic reproduction number of the model was obtained. Conditions for local stability for the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium have been obtained in this study. Dulac’s criterion has been applied to check if the model had a periodic orbit. Nelder-Mead algorithm has been used to find optimized values of the unknown biological parameters of the model by using COVID-19 data of Italy. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters in basic reproduction number has also been conducted. Finally, Range-Kutta 4th order has been utilized to solve the model numerically and obtain graphical representation of the dynamic behavior of the model. The presented study suggests emphasizing on the health consciousness such as wearing face-masks, maintaining social distancing, etc. as well as vaccinating the population in order to control the spread of the disease. From the results of numerical simulations, it is confirmed that, if 25% of the entire population maintains health consciousness and gets vaccinated also, and at least 5% of the population gets vaccinated, the spread of the disease can be brought under control within 200 days © CSP - Cambridge, UK;I&S - Florida, USA, 2022

17.
7th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference, TFEC 2022 ; 2022-May:505-524, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026932

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 spread mainly from person to person, specially through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs and sneezes. Those droplets can drop/land in the surroundings people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. It has been confirmed that the droplets come out from an infected person coughs and sneeze. The possibility of spread can travel 6 feet (1.83 meter) based on the assumption that the no air circulation exists around people. A validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is employed to investigate the transient transport and deposition of droplets emitted by infected people's sneezes and coughs with different atmosphere with distinguished wind velocities and RH. The computational simulation is able to perform the effect of wind speed and relative humidity on the social distancing to prevent Covid-19 airborne transmission. It is shown from the result that the droplet transmission leading to virus concentrations in the air is sufficient to transmit the infections to the people more than 6 feet away. © 2022 Begell House Inc.. All rights reserved.

18.
Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology ; 11(2):91-98, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026843

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination against COVID-19 is as a key solution to interrupt its spread. This study aimed to describe the vaccination coverage required to stop the spread of COVID-19 in Sri Lanka using a mathematical modeling strategy. Materials & Methods: This longitudinal study used age-stratified and unstratified Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) models. Data on the population's age distribution were acquired from the census report of the Census and Statistics Center of Sri Lanka, consisting of groups: below 30, between 30-59, and over 60. Models with differential equations forecasted the spread of COVID-19 with vaccination based on parameter estimates and numerical simulation, assuming fixed population, infection, and recovery rates. Results: Simulations investigated how the susceptible, infected, and recovered populations varied according to the different vaccination coverages. According to the results, 75% vaccination coverage was required in the entire population of Sri Lanka to interrupt the transmission of COVID-19 completely. The age-stratified SIR model showed that over 90% of vaccination coverage in each age group (below 30, between 30-59, and over 60) was required to interrupt the transmission of COVID-19 in the country altogether. Conclusions: The number of COVID-19 infections in each age group of Sri Lanka reduces with the increase in vaccination coverage. As 75% vaccination coverage is required in Sri Lanka to interrupt the transmission of the disease, precise vaccination coverage measurement is essential to assess the successfulness of a vaccine campaign and control COVID-19. © The Author(s) 2022;All rights reserved. Published by Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences Press.

19.
International Journal of Crowd Science ; 6(3):117-127, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026374

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the Crowd Intelligence Network Model is applied to the simulation of epidemic spread. This model combines the multi-layer coupling network model and the two-stage feedback member model to study the epidemic spread mechanisms under multiple-scene intervention. First, this paper establishes a multi-layer coupled network structure based on the characteristic of Social Network, Information Network, and Monitor Network, namely, the Crowd Intelligence Network structure. Then, based on this structure, the digital-self model, which has a multiple-scene effect and two-stage feedback structure, is designed. It has an emotional state and infection state quantified by using attitude and self-protection levels. This paper uses the attitude level and self-protection level to quantify individual emotions and immune levels, and discusses the impact of individual emotions on epidemic prevention and control. Finally, the availability of the Crowd Intelligence Network Model on the epidemic spread is verified by comparing the simulation trend with the actual spread trend of COVID-19. © The author(s) 2022.

20.
Geoscience Communication ; 5(3):251-260, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025104

ABSTRACT

We present two original, video-game-style field geology experiences designed to allow flexible, open-ended exploration for geologic mapping and structural geology. One simulation features the Whaleback anticline, a site in central Pennsylvania (USA), with a three-dimensional exposure of a 30 m high fold, based on a terrain model that was acquired through structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The second example is a fictional location with simplified geology, which was built with digital modeling software and inspired by the geology of northwestern Washington. Users move through the terrain, as if in the field, selecting where to make observations of the geologic structure. Additionally, these virtual field experiences provide novel visualization opportunities through tools like a geodetic compass that instantly plots data to a stereonet and a jetpack simulation, which allows the user to interrogate geologic surfaces in hard-to-reach locations. We designed the virtual field experiences in a widely used video-game-creation software and published the field simulations for access via the internet and common web browsers so that no special hardware or software is required to play. We implemented these field simulations to partially replace field and lab exercises in two different courses offered remotely through the University of Washington Department of Earth and Space Sciences, with assignments that address many of the learning goals of traditional in-person exercises. Because the virtual field experiences are open-ended, other instructors can design different exercises to meet different learning goals. While this game environment currently serves as an enhancement to remote education, this format can also augment traditional educational experiences, overcoming several challenges to accessing the field or particular outcrops and, thereby, broadening opportunities for participation and scientific collaboration.

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