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1.
Nursing & Health Sciences ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819921

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to identify the social determinants related to COVID-19 infection. This secondary data analysis study used data from 2020 Community Health Survey, a nationwide sample survey to understand the health status of Korean residents. The participants were 220,970 adults, 19?years of age or older. COVID-19-related social determinants were age, education level, marital status, household income, hypertension, eating habits, social support, and regional income. The risk of COVID-19 infection increased in those who were under 40?years, were high school graduates or higher, were single, had a household income over US$ 4,166.7, ate breakfast 5-7 times a week, had three or more helpers during COVID-19, and lived in a region with above-average income. Hypertension reduced the risk of COVID-19 infection. In conclusion, adults with high socioeconomic activity showed a high risk for COVID-19 infection, which was assumed to include only adults living in residential housing in the community. Further studies are required to include adults living in long-term care or communal living facilities, known to be frequently infected with the corona virus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818131

ABSTRACT

U.S. non-citizen residents are burdened by inequitable access to socioeconomic resources, potentially placing them at heightened risk of COVID-19-related disparities. However, COVID-19 impacts on non-citizens are not well understood. Accordingly, the current study investigated COVID-19 mortality disparities within New York (NYC) and Los Angeles (LAC) to test our hypothesis that areas with large proportions of non-citizens will have disproportionately high COVID-19 mortality rates. We examined ecological associations between March 2020–January 2021 COVID-19 mortality rates (per 100,000 residents) and percent non-citizens (using ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) for NYC and City/Community units of analysis for LAC) while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between the percentage of non-citizen residents and COVID-19 mortality rates in NYC (95% CI 0.309, 5.181) and LAC (95% CI 0.498, 8.720). Despite NYC and LAC policies intended to provide sanctuary and improve healthcare access for non-citizen residents, communities with larger proportions of non-citizens appear to endure higher COVID-19 mortality rates. The challenges that non-citizens endure—e.g., inequitable access to public benefits—may discourage help-seeking behaviors. Thus, improved health surveillance, public health messaging, and sanctuary policies will be essential for reducing COVID-19 mortality disparities in communities with large shares of non-citizens.

4.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816941

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Determine the role of social determinants of health (SDOH), including socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income in predicting intent to vaccinate for COVID-19 among a diverse community-based population, over sampled for cancer survivors in Connecticut (CT). Background: Race, ethnicity, and the SDOH (e.g., food insecurity, housing instability, trouble paying utilities bills) have a known impact on COVID-19 incidence, morbidity, and mortality. Although the impact on cancer survivors is not as well understood, this population may also face disproportionately severe outcomes. To our knowledge, there are no published studies that address intention to vaccinate in community based populations that are predominantly African American/Black (AA) or Hispanic/Latinx (H/L), nor in the cancer survivors who live in these communities. Prior studies have suggested that some vulnerable populations have lowered willingness to vaccinate (e.g., for influenza) than other groups. This study will explore the role of the high burden of SDOH barriers and selected socio-cultural factors such as perceived risk, medical mistrust, and source of health information. Methods: Data for this study are from 252 CT residents, collected from August - December, 2020 using Qualtrics, an online survey platform. Using an extensive network of community partners, we recruited through list serves and social media, targeting communities known to be most impacted by the pandemic. The intent was to enroll a population that was similar to the racial/ethnic sociodemographic profile of the city of New Haven, while oversampling cancer survivors. Using SAS 9.4, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to identify the role of SDOH in willingness to vaccinate. Results: The study population was disproportionately African American/Black (23.5%) and Hispanic/Latinx (17.5%) and included 83 (32.9%) cancer survivors. In this high-risk population, 38.9% of the sample were unwilling or uncertain whether they would vaccinate against Covid-19 in the future. In multivariate adjusted model, individuals reporting at least one SDOH barrier (food insecurity, trouble paying utilities bills, or housing instability) were significantly less likely to vaccinate (odds ratio=2.26;95% Confidence Interval 1.17-4.36). Other significant predicators included low perceived risk and lacking confidence in information provided through the health care system. Conclusion: Social determinants of health play a critical role in predicting intent to vaccinate for COVID-19. Special efforts are needed to ensure that vulnerable populations understand their individual risk, the benefits and risks of getting the COVID-19 vaccine, with interventions aimed at enlisting trusted entities that may not be recognized as traditional sources of health information.

5.
Journal of the National Medical Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814781

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been a devastating disease, especially in underserved communities. Data has shown that Indigenous peoples, Latinx communities, and Black Americans have a 3.3, 2.4, and 2 times higher mortality rate than White communities, respectively, due to COVID-19. Therefore, in this paper, we sought to understand how Social Determinants of Health and genetic factors influence COVID-19 incidence, mortality rates, and complications by assessing existing literature. Studies showed that identifying with a racial/ethnic minority, being homeless, housing insecurity, lower household median income, and living in an area with decreased air quality were associated with higher incidence and mortality from COVID-19. Analyses of these studies also showed a lack of resources to collect patients’ social determinants of health, revealing an urgent need to create databases with information on local support programs and operationalize the referral and tracking outcomes to address the health inequities for Black, Indigenous, and Latinx communities.

6.
Gaceta Sanitaria ; 2022.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814421

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los factores sociales asociados a la salud autopercibida durante el confinamiento en la población residente en Chile según la perspectiva de género. Método: Estudio transversal realizado mediante encuesta online durante el confinamiento por la COVID-19 entre el 17 de mayo y el 17 de agosto de 2020. Se analizó la salud autopercibida en población de 18 años o más en relación con variables sociales. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para evaluar la asociación entre las variables independientes con la salud autopercibida, a través de odds ratio ajustadas (ORa). Los análisis se estratificaron por sexo (H: hombres;M: mujeres). Resultados: Se analizaron 5981 personas (el 63,9% mujeres). El 29,6% de las mujeres y el 19,2% de los hombres reportaron mala salud autopercibida. En las mujeres, empeora al aumentar la edad. La peor salud autopercibida se asoció principalmente con la falta de apoyo social (ORa H: 2,05;ORa M: 2,34), la preocupación por la convivencia en el hogar (ORa H: 1,66;ORa M: 1,38), percibir inadecuadas condiciones de la vivienda (ORa H: 1,89;ORa M: 2,63) y el desacuerdo con las medidas gubernamentales (ORa H: 2,80;ORa M: 1,82). En las mujeres, además, se asoció al trabajo informal o estar inactivas laboralmente (ORa: 2,11). En los hombres, una peor salud autopercibida se asoció a ser trabajador independiente (autónomo) (ORa: 1,65;intervalo de confianza [IC]: 1,11-2,45) y tener educación secundaria (ORa: 2,81;IC: 1,32-5,98). Conclusiones: El impacto social del confinamiento en la salud autopercibida se relaciona con el sexo, la edad, el trabajo de cuidados y las condiciones socioeconómicas, así como con el desacuerdo con las medidas implementadas para gestionar la pandemia. Objective: To analyse the social factors associated with self-perceived health during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Chilean resident population according to gender perspective. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown between May 17 and August 17, 2020 with an online survey. Self-perceived health was analysed in the population aged 18 years or older in relation to social variables. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between independent variables with self-perceived health, through adjusted odds ratio (aOR). Analyses were stratified by sex (M: men;W: women). Results: 5981 persons were analysed (women: 63,9%). 29,6% of women and 19,2% of men reported poor self-perceived health. In women it worsens with increasing age. Worse self-perceived health was mainly associated with lack of social support (ORa M: 2,05;ORa W: 2,34), concern about living together at home (ORa M: 1,66;ORa W: 1,38), perceived inadequate housing conditions (ORa M: 1,89;ORa W: 2,63), and disagreement with government measures (ORa M: 2,80;ORa W: 1,82). In women, it was also associated with informal work or being inactive in the labour market (ORa: 2,11). In men worse self-perceived health was associated with being self-employed (ORa: 1,65;confidence interval [CI]: 1,11-2,45) and has secondary education (ORa: 2,81;CI: 1,32-5,98). Conclusions: The social impact of lockdown in self-perceived health is related to gender, age, care work, and socioeconomic conditions, as well as, by disagreement with the measures implemented to manage the pandemic.

7.
Behaviour Research and Therapy ; : 104102, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814175

ABSTRACT

Trajectory studies of the COVID-19 pandemic have described patterns of symptoms over time. Yet, few have examined whether social determinants of health predict the progression of depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 or identified which social determinants worsen symptom trajectories. Using a sample of racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse adults participating in a randomized clinical trial with pre-existing moderate to severe depression and/or anxiety symptoms, we compare symptom patterns before and during COVID-19;characterize symptom trajectories over a 20-week follow-up period;and evaluate whether social determinants are associated with within and between person differences in symptom trajectories. Data were collected before and during COVID-19 in Massachusetts and North Carolina. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms did not seem to worsen during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. During COVID-19, anxiety scores at follow-up were higher for participants with baseline food insecurity (vs no food insecurity). Depression scores at follow-up were higher for participants with food insecurity and for those with utilities insecurity (vs no insecurity). Participants with child or family care responsibilities at baseline had depression symptoms decreasing at a slower rate over time than those without these responsibilities. We discuss the important implications of these findings.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10:846861, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809618

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 booster hesitancy (VBH) is a serious public health challenge which acts simultaneously with the waning vaccine-elicited immunity and the emerging viral variants to prolong the pandemic interval. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of COVID-19 VBH among a highly educated subset of the German population and to explore the potential demographic, anamnestic, and psychosocial determinants of this problem. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted in December 2021 among German university students and employees to evaluate their attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccine booster (VB) doses. The study used a self-administered questionnaire that was developed and disseminated digitally, and the questionnaire inquired about participants' demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related anamnesis, COVID-19 vaccine-related anamnesis, and psychosocial predictors of COVID-19 VBH. A total of 930 participants were recruited, of which 608 (65.4%) were students, 682 (73.3%) were females, and their mean age was 29.08 ± 10.93 years. Fifty-five participants (5.9%) had been previously infected by COVID-19 and the vast majority of infections happened before the first vaccine dose. Over 95% of the participants had received at least one vaccine dose, and the most commonly administered vaccine was BNT162b2. The overall COVID-19 VB acceptance was satisfactory (87.8%) and induced by various altruistic promoters, e.g., family health protection, community health protection, and patients' health protection. The students (86.3%), the previously infected participants (76.4%), the participants who did not receive primer doses of COVID-19 vaccines (2.5 %), and those who were hospitalized (40%) and sought medical care/treatment after receiving primer doses (86.8%) were less likely to accept COVID-19 VB compared to the employees (90.7%), the participants who were not previously infected (88.6%) and those who received primer dose (91.7%), and the participants who were not hospitalized (92%) nor sought medical care/treatment after primer doses (92.9%), respectively. The perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 VB against severe illness (adjusted odds ratio "AOR": 47.65-95% confidence interval "CI": 23.65-96.49), symptomatic infection (AOR: 9.87-95% CI: 5.20-18.71), community transmission (AOR: 5.34-95% CI: 3.00-9.49) and emerging variants (AOR: 19.12-95% CI: 10.57-34.55) were key predictors for COVID-19 VB acceptance;therefore, it needs to be highlighted in vaccine messaging. In addition, the perceived safety of COVID-19 VB and ethical dilemmas of vaccine justice need to be addressed publicly.

9.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(2):186-191, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1806240

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, New York City instituted a shelter-in-place order, dramatically affecting the area's social and economic landscape. Pediatric primary care practices universally screen for social determinants of health (SDOH) and mental health (MH) needs, providing an opportunity to assess changes in the population's needs during COVID-19. To assess changes in SDOH and MH needs of pediatric families before and during COVID-19, the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of patients seen in the hospital's pediatric primary care practices. Baseline data were collected during well visits from March 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020, and included the following outcome measures: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ2) score >0, PHQ9 scores ≥5, pediatric symptom checklist (PSC17) scores ≥15, and SDOH needs. Follow-up pandemic data were collected from June to August 2020. A total of 423 patients (215 [51%] female, 279 [66%] Hispanic, and 248 [59%] primary English speakers) were enrolled in the study. The following SDOH needs significantly increased during COVID-19: food (17%-32%;P < 0.001), legal (19%-30%;P = 0.003), public benefits (4%-13.8%;P < 0.001), and housing (17.2%-26%;P = 0.002). There was no significant change in MH screening results during COVID-19 compared with baseline: positive PHQ2 depression screen (27.9% vs. 34.3%, P = 0.39), positive PHQ9 depression screen (45.5% vs. 64.1%, P = 0.32), or positive PSC17 measuring emotional and behavioral concerns (4.9% vs. 8.2%, P = 0.13). During COVID-19, patients with food, housing, or legal needs had a significantly higher likelihood of having emotional or behavioral difficulties (P < 0.01). Further research is needed to evaluate outcomes in the following months.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1):780, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1793964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of COVID-19 and its control measures have exacerbated existing mental health conditions. Although the deleterious effects of mental health problems are well known, fewer studies have examined the links between the Social Determinants of Health (SDHs) and depression. This study provides insights into the relationship between SDHs and depression during the first strict lockdown in Spain, which lasted for a period of 7 weeks. METHODS: Fifty-two structured interviews were conducted with people diagnosed with depression during June 2020 in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Interviews were conducted by telephone due to lockdown constraints. Inductive thematic content analysis was used to explore, develop, and define emergent categories of analysis, which were mapped against the SDH framework. RESULTS: Listening to people's experiences of living with depression during lockdown provided insights into their concerns and coping strategies, which are greatly influenced by the conditions in which they live, their job and their age. Examples of these factors include access to and quality of physical spaces, including housing conditions and public spaces for socialising, social support, adverse working conditions which include caring responsibilities, and access to digital technologies and healthcare services. CONCLUSION: SDHs have played a fundamental role in shaping people's health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this study has shown that they have a considerable effect on depression outcomes. Governments should consider implementing social welfare programs to tackle both psychosocial problems and material need during crisis situations.

12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221092244, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794054

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Disparities in COVID-19 infection, illness severity, hospitalization, and death are often attributed to age and comorbidities, which fails to recognize the contribution of social, environmental, and financial factors on health. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between social determinants of health (SDOH) and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Southwest Georgia, U.S. The primary outcome was the severity of illness among patients on hospital admission for COVID-19. To characterize the effect of biological and genetic factors combined with SDOH on COVID-19, we used a multilevel analysis to examine patient-level and ZIP code-level data to determine the risk of COVID-19 illness severity at admission. RESULTS: Of 392 patients included, 65% presented with moderate or severe COVID-19 compared to 35% with critical disease. Compared to moderate or severe COVID-19, increasing levels of Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24), tobacco use (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.10-3.11), and unemployment or retired versus employed (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.50 and OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.17-4.02, respectively) were associated with increased odds of critical COVID-19 in bivariate models. In the multi-level model, ZIP codes with a higher percentage of Black or African American residents (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97) were associated with decreased odds of critical COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Differences in SDOH did not lead to significantly higher odds of presenting with severe COVID-19 when accounting for patient-level and ZIP code-level variables.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 750, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testing is a foundational component of any COVID-19 management strategy; however, emerging evidence suggests that barriers and hesitancy to COVID-19 testing may affect uptake or participation and often these are multiple and intersecting factors that may vary across population groups. To this end, Health Canada's COVID-19 Testing and Screening Expert Advisory Panel commissioned this rapid review in January 2021 to explore the available evidence in this area. The aim of this rapid review was to identify barriers to COVID-19 testing and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. METHODS: Searches (completed January 8, 2021) were conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, medRxiv/bioRxiv, Cochrane and online grey literature sources to identify publications that described barriers and strategies related to COVID-19 testing. RESULTS: From 1294 academic and 97 grey literature search results, 31 academic and 31 grey literature sources were included. Data were extracted from the relevant papers. The most cited barriers were cost of testing; low health literacy; low trust in the healthcare system; availability and accessibility of testing sites; and stigma and consequences of testing positive. Strategies to mitigate barriers to COVID-19 testing included: free testing; promoting awareness of importance to testing; presenting various testing options and types of testing centres (i.e., drive-thru, walk-up, home testing); providing transportation to testing centres; and offering support for self-isolation (e.g., salary support or housing). CONCLUSION: Various barriers to COVID-19 testing and strategies for mitigating these barriers were identified. Further research to test the efficacy of these strategies is needed to better support testing for COVID-19 by addressing testing hesitancy as part of the broader COVID-19 public health response.

14.
Eur J Midwifery ; 6:17, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1791612

ABSTRACT

This article outlines the protocol for a qualitative Constructivist Grounded Theory study, examining the public health role of caseloading midwives working in a continuity model of care in areas of urban social deprivation. The study is currently being conducted in a city in the south of England during the COVID-19 pandemic. Focusing specifically on the Social Determinants of Health impacting women and babies in this context and from the perspectives of women themselves, the study is developing a theoretical framework examining the actions caseloading midwives take in response to these determinants and how these actions contribute to advancing equity and equality for women and babies at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Examining and integrating the experiences of women and midwives from a Constructivist Grounded Theory perspective, the study findings will inform current NHS maternity policy and contribute to our understanding about the social processes and mechanisms underpinning the known benefits of midwifery continuity of care models in different contexts.

17.
Non-conventional in English | NCCMT Repository, Grey literature | ID: grc-754176
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