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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-498, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967329

ABSTRACT

Background Gastrointestinal infections cause a significant burden to the Australian healthcare system each year, with acute gastroenteritis infections costing up to $359 million AUD ($258 million USD) in 2016. Viral causes of gastroenteritis, particularly Norovirus, account for the majority of these cases. Given the contagious nature of many causes of bacterial and viral gastroenteritis, it was hypothesized that widespread lockdowns and increased public health focus on regular hand hygiene would contribute to a reduction in hospital presentations with gastrointestinal infections. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia first went into lockdown in March 2020 and remained in various forms of lockdown until late 2020. Methods A retrospective study comparing rates of hospitalization for bacterial and viral gastroenteritis was performed at The Royal Melbourne Hospital between February-August in both 2019 and 2020. Rates of admission were compared between the two years, as well as the causative organism and the outcome of the presentation. Descriptive statistics were provided to summarise demographic characteristics. Outcomes between the two years were compared using paired t-tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square for categorical variables. All data analysis was performed using Stata 16.1 and p-values £0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Demographic data are summarised in Table 1. 283 patients were hospitalized with gastroenteritis in 2019 pre-pandemic, compared to 147 in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted with positive fecal cultures from 2019 to 2020 (87 vs 57, p < 0.01). The number and percentage of patients presenting with Norovirus reduced by greater than 90% in 2020 compared to 2019 (Table 2) (Odds Ratio: 0.093 [Confidence Interval: 0.02-0.41], p<0.01). There was a reduction in the number of presentations with Salmonella, however, this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.50). The number of patients presenting with Clostridium difficile significantly increased in 2020 compared to 2019 (21 versus 25, p=0.01) (Table 2). Rates of antibiotic treatment and intensive care admission were greater in 2020 compared to 2019 however there was no significant difference in biomarkers, length of stay, or mortality (Table 2). Conclusion A significant decrease in the incidence of hospitalization secondary to acute gastrointestinal infections was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Norovirus presentations decreased by greater than 90% between 2019 and 2020. The rate of other GI infections was similar between pre-pandemic and pandemic time points. These findings suggest that public health measures, such as social distancing and hand hygiene, may be a useful adjunct to prevent Norovirus infections in the future and could result in significant healthcare savings.(Table Presented)TABLE 1: PATIENT DEMOGRAPHICS(Table Presented) TABLE 2: GASTROINTESTINAL CULTURE POSITIVE INFECTIONS 2019 VERSUS 2020

2.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966873

ABSTRACT

The early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was temporally associated with a reduction in many childhood infections, although the impact on bacterial colonization is unknown. We longitudinally assessed Staphylococcusaureus colonization prior to and through the first year of the pandemic. We observed a decline in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization associated with SARS-CoV-2 prevention mandates.

3.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4052-4059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse. Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Scenarios were "unsustainable" if either of admissions was larger than the maximum of its occupancy. Results: At VC of 65%, scenarios of full SDMs relaxation (mean daily social encounters prior to COVID-19 pandemic = 14.1 contacts) for outbreaks triggered by ancestral strain, Alpha and Beta were sustainable. Restricting levels of SDMs was required such that the optimal population mobility had to be reduced to 0.9, 0.65 and 0.37 for Gamma, Delta and Omicron associated outbreaks respectively. VC improvement from 65% to 75% and 95% allowed complete SDMs relaxation in Gamma-, and Delta-driven epidemic respectively. However, this was not supported for Omicron-triggered epidemic. Discussion: To seek a path to normality, speedy vaccine and booster distribution to the majority across all age groups is the first step. Gradual or complete SDMs lift could be considered if the hybrid immunity could be achieved due to high vaccination coverage and natural infection rate among vaccinated or the COVID-19 case fatality rate could be reduced similar to that for seasonal influenza to secure hospital system sustainability.

4.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18(8):125-131, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965190

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Young adults have been identified to potentially have a low compliance rate with public health measures aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is thus, critical to recognize barriers and motivators of social distancing adherence among this population to inform of ongoing and future public health initiatives. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of the mental health status, barriers and motivators of adherence to social distancing measuring among university students. Methods: A cross-sectional, online survey-based research was conducted. A total of 142 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. A questionnaire was taken from the Wisconsin residents’ beliefs, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors related to social distancing and COVID-19. Data were statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: Of the 142 respondents, 22.5% reported moderate stress, 33% reported severe anxiety, and 46.5% reported moderate symptoms of depression. There was significant effect on attitudes and belief towards the barriers in compliance towards social distance among the university difference. In contrast, no significance was shown in possible reinforcement in keeping the social distancing among the students. Conclusion: The attitude and belief factors should be considered when healthcare policies are designed to uphold social distancing, especially among young adults. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

5.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(10):9792-9824, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964171

ABSTRACT

Saudi Arabia was among the countries that attempted to manage the COVID-19 pandemic by developing strategies to control the epidemic. Lockdown, social distancing and random diagnostic tests are among these strategies. In this study, we formulated a mathematical model to investigate the impact of employing random diagnostic tests to detect asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. The model has been examined qualitatively and numerically. Two equilibrium points were obtained: the COVID- 19 free equilibrium and the COVID-19 endemic equilibrium. The local and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points depends on the control reproduction number Rc. The model was validated by employing the Saudi Ministry of Health COVID-19 dashboard data. Numerical simulations were conducted to substantiate the qualitative results. Further, sensitivity analysis was performed on Rc to scrutinize the significant parameters for combating COVID-19. Finally, different scenarios for implementing random diagnostic tests were explored numerically along with the control strategies applied in Saudi Arabia. © 2022 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. All rights reserved.

6.
Local Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960746

ABSTRACT

Social distancing has contributed enormously to controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. From Latin America to East Asia and Africa, the majority of the urban dwellers are living in congested, ignored and criminalised squatter settlements with meagre resources restricting them to exercise social distancing. Stretching boundaries of the theory of planned behaviour, this article discusses how the utopia of social distancing interacts with the dystopia of living in slums. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews, this article compares the lived experiences of the urban poor of Pakistan and Brazil to explore their subjectivities concerning the pandemic. This research finds that neglect of the “social distancing” is premised on socio-economic structures shaping socio-spatial realities of the urban poor. The exclusion and otherisation of these poor by the politicians, bureaucracies, and society at large is both discriminatory and criminalising. It further reveals that the absence of “social distancing” exhibits the socio-economic helplessness of such dwellers who mainly struggle to attain their basic survival needs. Therefore, the adoption of a class-sensitive approach to the pandemic is pivotal to devising an inclusive policy framework addressing the marginalised geographies. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

7.
J Sch Nurs ; : 10598405221114398, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962681

ABSTRACT

During the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety and depression were common among caregivers and parents more prone to adopt harsh disciplinary techniques when angry or stressed. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are any differences in parents' disciplinary strategies following social distancing efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of parents (N = 605) and mothers (n = 533; 88.1%) aged 37.80 years old (SD = 5.66; range = 20-59) who lived with children aged 6-12 years in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey questionnaire was used to gauge child discipline. There was an increase in shaking (1.8%), shouting and yelling (15.5%). The findings of this study serve as a reminder to researchers and government officials that child abuse and violence are more likely to occur during stressful times and provide the scientific foundation for the development of tailored psychological treatment.

8.
Health Promot Int ; 37(3)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961045

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an international public health and economic crisis. Despite the COVID-19 vaccine rollout in many countries from late 2020, non-pharmaceutical interventions are still required to minimize the spread of the virus. However, notable variation in voluntary compliance with these interventions has been reported. This study investigated various individual differences associated with intentions to comply with COVID-19 restrictions during a sustained (112 day) lockdown in Melbourne (Australia) in late 2020. Participants (N = 363) completed an online survey where they responded to various socio-demographic, health and psychological questions. Participants also responded to a series of vignettes that assessed their intended behaviour in specific situations and their knowledge of the current COVID-19 restrictions. Overall, it was found that greater levels of organization predicted greater intentions to comply with the COVID-19 restrictions, while higher socio-economic status, sociability and anxiety predicted lower compliance intentions. Further, individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19 reported lower intentions to comply with the COVID-19 restrictions. The strongest predictor of compliance intentions, however, was a greater knowledge of the current restrictions. These findings highlight that public health orders around COVID-19 restrictions should be presented in a clear and uncomplicated manner and should target specific groups to increase compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Individuality , Intention , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals ; 161, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958531

ABSTRACT

We consider a behavioral SIR epidemic model to describe the action of the public health system aimed at enhancing the social distancing during an epidemic outbreak. An optimal control problem is proposed where the control acts in a specific way on the contact rate. We show that the optimal control of social distancing is able to generate a period doubling–like phenomenon. Namely, the ‘period’ of the prevalence is the double of the ‘period’ of the control, and an alternation of small and large peaks of disease prevalence can be observed. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

10.
Health Education ; 121(3):265-274, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the psycho-social aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pakistan. The study was conducted in Pakistan by using an online survey technique. The rationale to opt for this method was mainly based on the country's lock-down situations, social distancing and for the care of respondents. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,536 individuals participated from different parts of the country. An attitudinal scale was administered consisting of statements to measure (dis)agreement of the individuals facing the current situations of COVID-19. The ethical considerations and confidentiality of the respondents were opted by describing the purpose of research on the first page of the questionnaire. Findings: The study findings showed that the cost of personal protective equipment (PPE), social isolation and loss of intimacy have favourable positive effects on the psychological problems of individuals through the mediation of fake news and misinformation during COVID-19. Furthermore, the study findings were interpreted as per the effects of current situations of epidemic, i.e. COVID-19 on the psycho-social life of individuals. Research limitations/implications: This paper is purely limited to the quantitative approach including variables, i.e. COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. Practical implications: The present research will enhance the awareness and knowledge regarding psychological problems faced by the individuals during COVID-19. It will be a significant addition to the existing body of knowledge in the field of health and well-being. It will also provide guidelines to students, research scholars, policymakers and academicians to develop policies in future to improve the health of people during epidemics such as COVID-19 and similar nature of outbreak in the future. Originality/value: This paper focused on an important gap in the research on COVID-19 in the country in the context of COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Webology ; 19(2):7578-7585, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958335

ABSTRACT

Family is a fundamental unit of every society and plays a vital role in providing strong and happy environment, guidance, protection of children and fostering harmonious social development. The outbreak of COVID-19 has severely affected the families nationally and globally by disrupting their routines and recreational activities. The current study aims to highlight the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on family life such as: family resilience, patient to face the harsh circumstances, close family bonds, cooperation and share in housework with family members. One of the major positive impacts of COVID-19 is an increase of interaction between family members by spending more times with each other. Moreover, families got more opportunity to spend time with their children, educate them at home, and arrange more indoor activities for them that help them to improve their skills. The paper concludes that besides the negative impacts, COVID 19 has many positive and beneficial changes in family life such as, getting more opportunity to spend time with family members and children, work-family balance, the ability to work from home and peace of life in general. This paper will be helpful in highlighting and recognizing the importance of the family during the pandemic COVID 19.

12.
Motiv Emot ; 46(4): 476-485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959053

ABSTRACT

Social distancing (SD) was an effective way of reducing virus transmission during the deadly and highly infectious COVID-19 pandemic. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study explored how the Big 5 traits relate to variations in SD in a sample of university students (n = 285), and replicated these findings using informant reports. Self-determination theory's concepts of autonomous motivation and intrinsic community values were explored as potential mechanisms linking traits to SD. Individuals who were higher on trait agreeableness and conscientiousness engaged in more SD because they more effectively internalized the importance and value of the guidelines as a function of their concerns about the welfare of their communities. Informant reports confirmed trait agreeableness and conscientiousness to be associated with more SD. These results enhance our understanding of individual differences associated with better internalization and adherence to public health guidelines and can inform future interventions in similar crises.

13.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956904

ABSTRACT

Introduction The government issued strict guidance issued on social distancing and not mixing out of pre-defined groups. Since social contact and mixing is required for the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI rates would be expected to be lower during this time. We look at experiences from a busy London clinic serving a diverse population throughout COVID. Methods We reviewed acute STI rates, defined as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, mycoplasma, trichomoniasis, LGV, primary herpes and primary syphilis in the year preceding COVID (April 2019 - March 2020) with the first year of COVID and the restrictions on behaviour and movement (April 2020 - March 2021). The clinic electronic patient record was investigated retrospectively. STI rates were compared between the two groups. Results There was a reduction in clinical attendances during this time 14,424 (2019-2020) down to 9,133 (2020-2021), but STI rates remained stable at 2,408/14,424 (17%) in 2019- 2020 vs 1,383/9,133 (15%) in 2020-2021. Discussion There was no significant difference between the year preceding COVID and the first year of the pandemic. There were likely confounding factors including clinic access across the region, and reduced clinic access within our own clinic.

14.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management ; 15(3):257-261, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956647
15.
Neuro-Oncology ; 24:i74-i75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-grade gliomas account for <5% of all pediatric brain tumors with a 20% 5-year overall survival even with maximal safe resection followed by concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients in low-and middle-income countries already face delays and barriers to the treatment they require. The current COVID pandemic has added unique challenges to the delivery of complex, multidisciplinary health services to these patients. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of four patients, ages 2-18 years old, with histologically confirmed high-grade glioma managed in a tertiary government institution from 2020-2021. Three of the patients had a supratentorial tumor and one patient had multiple tumors located in both supra-and infratentorial compartments. Neurosurgical procedures performed were: gross total excision (1), subtotal excision (2), and biopsy (1). The tissue diagnoses obtained were glioblastoma (3) and high-grade astrocytoma (1). Two patients survived and are currently undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The remaining two patients expired: one from hospital-acquired pneumonia and the other from COVID-19 infection. DISCUSSION: Decreased mobility due to lockdowns, the burden of requiring negative COVID-19 results before admission for surgery, reduced hospital capacity to comply with physical distancing measures, the postponement of elective surgery to minimize COVID-19 transmission, physician and nursing shortages due to infection or mandatory isolation of staff, cancellation of face-to-face outpatient clinics, and hesitation among patients and their families to go to the hospital for fear of exposure were found to be common causes of delays in treatment. Also, the redirection of health resources and other government and hospital policies to handle the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an overall delay in the delivery of health services. In particular, the management of pediatric patients with cancers, especially high-grade gliomas, was significantly disrupted.

16.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8):S40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956215

ABSTRACT

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) can severely impact quality of life. However, its specific impact on participation in social activities is not well studied. Objective: To assess HS’s interference with social activities in relation to disease severity. Methods: We recruited patients with a clinical diagnosis of HS (ICD-10 code L73.2) from clinic (n=30) and mail (n=123) to complete a survey. Respondents reported the extent to which HS interfered with social activities (none, a little, a lot). Disease severity was assessed using a validated self-assessment tool. Differences in disease severity were compared to degrees of interference with social activities using Chi-squared analysis. Results: A total of 67 completed responses were received and analyzed. Respondents were 22% Hurley Stage 1, 35% Hurley Stage 2, and 43% Hurley Stage 3 disease severity. Most reported HS interfered with their ability to go out (53%), engage in hobbies (57%), participate in sports or recreational activities (68%), go out socially or to a special event (65%), and go to parties (52%), with no significant differences by Hurley stage (p=0.31-0.68), though going out socially or to a special event (p=0.12) approached significance. Conclusion: Most patients in our cohort, regardless of disease severity, reported HS interfered with their social activities. HS is a physically and socially debilitating disease. Given social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic, HS patients may be even more prone to isolation. Interventions to help HS patients with their social support structure may be helpful in improving their quality of life.

17.
Computer Communications ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956108

ABSTRACT

Cyber-physical system (CPS) is one of the leading topics for research in academic and industry fields. CPS is an integrated system built with a collection of computation, communication, control, and physical elements to solve real-life problems. Lots of research is going on CPS, but in today’s point of view, the covid-19 is one of the most relevant. Nowadays, COVID -19 has become a headache in our society. Social or physical distancing is one of the most useful non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to minimize virus infections. The regular lifestyle of every human being has been changing rapidly. A contactless lifestyle is becoming a necessity day by day. Society is gradually dependent upon smart technological devices for a contactless lifestyle. In the new-normal lifestyle, many new technologies have been introduced. The government also makes some restrictions on human transmission. However, maintaining social distancing is one of the main challenges of our society. There is no such model that effectively helps people to maintain physical distancing. This paper highlights a framework that will guide maintaining physical distance in a social gathering. The proposed CPS-based model is entirely deployed on Edge and Fog computing architecture. The proposed model calculates the distance between all paired edge devices owned by human beings and informs the user whether the location is safe or not. This Fog and Edge-based model improves the latency and network usage compared to the Cloud computing module.

18.
Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems ; 24(3):41-45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955735

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses new challenges and requires new solutions for problems previously not faced by our generation. This particularly applies to the field of opioid dependence therapy due to the physical and psychological vulnerability of patients and the treatment model that often requires daily attendance. An overview is given of the responses of the physicians and the recommendations of medical societies in Germany during the year 2020 with a special focus on the lockdown periods and the challenges and guidelines for the patients, patient organizations and physicians, both outpatient and in prison. Reduced travel and empty inner cities led to reduced patient income combined with closed patient organizations during lockdown, leading to a temporary increase of patients in opioid dependence therapy. New hygiene procedures had to be implemented. A temporary change in the German Narcotics Prescription Ordinance, including longer periods for take-home prescriptions, allowed for ongoing supply with improved social distancing. Depot buprenorphine significantly reduces the risk of infection by avoiding the daily commute and presence at the practice with many other patients. This is even more favourable in prison settings by greatly reducing the movement of prisoners and diversion of drugs.

19.
Sustain Cities Soc ; : 104064, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956334

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing (SD) has played an essential role in controlling and slowing down the spread of the virus in smart cities. To ensure the respect of SD in public areas, visual SD monitoring (VSDM) provides promising opportunities by (i) controlling and analyzing the physical distance between pedestrians in real-time, (ii) detecting SD violations among the crowds, and (iii) tracking and reporting individuals violating SD norms. To the authors' best knowledge, this paper proposes the first comprehensive survey of VSDM frameworks and identifies their challenges and future perspectives. Typically, we review existing contributions by presenting the background of VSDM, describing evaluation metrics, and discussing SD datasets. Then, VSDM techniques are carefully reviewed after dividing them into two main categories: hand-crafted feature-based and deep-learning-based methods. A significant focus is paid to convolutional neural networks (CNN)-based methodologies as most of the frameworks have used either one-stage, two-stage, or multi-stage CNN models. A comparative study is also conducted to identify their pros and cons. Thereafter, a critical analysis is performed to highlight the issues and impediments that hold back the expansion of VSDM systems. Finally, future directions attracting significant research and development are derived.

20.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E35-E43, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955103

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing is a key behavior to minimize Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Since the change of behavior is the only way to prevent this pandemic, this study aimed to predict the social distancing behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic using protection motivation theory (PMT). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted through a convenience sampling method on 796 individuals over 15 years old from urban and rural areas of different cities in Iran during 2020. The data were collected online using demographic characteristics form, PMT and social distancing behaviors questionnaires. Afterward, the obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 16) through linear correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression tests. Results: The Mean ± SD score of social distancing behaviors was obtained at 4.42 ± 0.31. The results of the hierarchical linear regression model showed that after adjusting the effect of socio-demographic variables, self-efficacy (Beta = 0.238, P < 0.001) was the strongest predictor of social distancing behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by intention (Beta = 0.233, P < 0.001) and perceived severity (Beta = 0.083, P = 0.028). PMT constructs and intention was able to predict 40% of social distancing behaviors in total. Conclusions: In the prevalence of infectious diseases, individuals differ in adherence to social distancing behaviors. The PMT was a useful framework for prediction social distancing behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this theory can be used as a framework in designing educational programs to increase self-efficacy and encourage individuals to observe social distancing behaviors as a result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing
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