Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Handbook for scaling irrigation systems 2022 8 pp 31 ref ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2167283

ABSTRACT

The demand for more efficient use of land and water resources to enable farmers to produce food using climate-resilient processes continues to grow in the face of a growing global population and the impacts of climate change and other shocks such as Coronavirus (COVID-19). Although irrigation has been widely promoted as important for productivity and resilience, it has not been sufficiently expanded. Large, well-established irrigation projects developed by public institutions and select private sector projects play an important role in providing access to irrigation, but they are insufficient to meet need. In parallel, farmers have been developing effective small-scale irrigation (SSI) options that include a range of technologies, financing methods, and operating models. International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) are global organizations focused on promoting resilient agriculture and food system transformation. This handbook takes a practical approach in guiding its target readers, which comprise policy makers, governments and government agencies, private sector actors, and development institution partners, on how to deliver effective design and operation strategies, combined with financing models, to implement and sustainably expand use of irrigation.

2.
ACIAR Final Reports 2020. (FR2021/030):45 pp. 31 ref. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034270

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to identify and prioritize opportunities for sustainable development of groundwater resources with specific focus on the lowland plains and upland plateaus of Laos. It addressed this aim through three key objectives: (1) establish the potential to develop groundwater for irrigation in key hydrogeological settings in Southern Laos;(2) assess the opportunities that solar-powered pumping technologies may provide smallholder farmers seeking to engage in more profitable, market-oriented agriculture;and (3) enhance the capacity of current and emerging groundwater professionals in Laos. Two areas with promising aquifer development potential were selected in Southern Laos: a drought-prone lowland area underlain by sandstone aquifers in Savannakhet province (Outhomphone district);and a wetter, upland basaltic area on the Bolaven Plateau (Pakxong district). For the first objective, a preliminary hydrogeological assessment was undertaken based on the collation and analysis of existing (limited) data supplemented by data from a network of around 40 to 50 monitoring wells in each district and other hydrogeological measurements collected during two field campaigns. For the second objective, the opportunities for solar-powered groundwater pumping to provide an alternative to conventional grid electricity or fuel pumps was explored through policy analysis and the evaluation of a demonstration project as well as actual field operations. The third and final objective involved a cross-cutting effort to enhance capacity of current or emerging groundwater professionals. For Outhoumphone, where the need for dry season access to reliable groundwater sources is high, the sandstone aquifers present are likely sufficiently replenished but inadequately productive to provide a substantial resource for expanding dry season irrigation. Drillers in the area report well instability, saline water and drilling failure as common technical challenges. With adequate field investigations these challenges may be overcome and supplies for commercial agriculture could become feasible. For Pakxong, where the basaltic aquifers are more productive and reliable, field observations show that more entrepreneurial farmers have already started to develop groundwater for high value commercial crops. There is clear scope to expand irrigation development. Drillers report high success rates for wells and this is supported by the aquifer testing undertaken during this research. Even though policies on solar technologies in agriculture are limited, the solar industry appears to be expanding rapidly, with over twenty solar companies based in Laos;most of which are also servicing the agricultural sector. A demonstration site operated by the National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute in Vientiane Capital provides firsthand experience of solar pumping and data is emerging on its functioning and performance. Rapid assessments of six solar pumping sites on the Vientiane Plain show that better-off farmers and investors with the means to afford the upfront capital cost are accessing water on demand at effectively little or no marginal cost. Although the situation is evolving rapidly, solar water pumping for agriculture still remains an emerging technology in Laos and hence the long term technical performance, economic viability and potential impacts on the groundwater resources remain entirely unanswered at the present time. A one-week hydro-geophysics training course took place in Pakxong in November 2020 that involved 14 attendees from government agencies and the national university. Training was provided in fieldwork and analysis in new techniques to investigate groundwater using geophysical equipment, site wells, drilling and aquifer testing and aquifer conceptualization. In-situ guidance was provided by in-country team members supported by higher level oversight provided remotely by trainers based in Australia due to travel restrictions associated with COVID-19. The project has also enabled 5 Bachelor, Master and Doctorate students to unde

3.
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Horticolas ; 16(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025869

ABSTRACT

Cape gooseberry fruits have positioned in the world market due to their excellent nutritional characteristics, because they are an ideal food that contributes to raising the defenses of the human body and helps it to face diseases such as COVID-19, they are also a natural source of antioxidants and anticancer agents. In order to avoid the physiopathy of cracking in cape gooseberry fruits, these were characterized at harvest time, coming from greenhouse plants irrigated with different applications of water levels and irrigation frequencies, as well as different calcium doses, in a design of randomized complete blocks with 12 treatments. The blocks were the irrigation frequencies (4, 9 and 14 days), while the treatments were the combination of four irrigation coefficients (0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3 of the evaporation of the tank class A) and three doses of calcium (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1). The plants were sown in 20 L pots with peat moss substrate. Fruits were harvested at the color stage 5 and 6 of the calyx, from 19 weeks after transplanting. The different water levels and irrigation frequencies did not significantly affect the firmness of the cape gooseberry fruits, but there was a strong tendency that cracked gooseberry fruits are less firm than healthy fruits. As the irrigation coefficient increased, the total soluble solids (TSS) increased while the total titratable acids (TTA) decreased. Irrigation frequency of 14 days generated fruits with higher TSS and pH values. The calcium doses did not affect the calcium concentration in the fruits or the TSS, TTA and pH values. Therefore, it can be concluded that incremented irrigation coefficients (up to 1.3) increase the quality of cape gooseberry fruits.

4.
Journal of Cotton Research and Development ; 36(2):244-251, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010741

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID 19 on the economy in general is no doubt ravaging and its impact on agriculture is complex and varied across diverse segments that form the agricultural value chain. Cotton has a complex supply chain that stretch from input suppliers, farmers, traders, ginning factories, spinning mills, textile companies and oil processors. The study was designed to capture the panoramic view of world and national cotton economy during the pandemic period and its impact on cotton fanning in India. Cotton prices declined in the initial months for January to April, 2020 and later recouped once the lock down restrictions were phased out. As such from the study during the year 2020-2021, it was noticed in general, as per CAB estimates, cotton fanning in India was not Effected in its area and production excepting in north zone which was not due to lock down but for the pest attack and lack of irrigation facilities. Districtwise analysis confirmed that labour availability for loading and unloading and its transport was the major impediment especially in the southern zone while it was market uncertainty in the other zones. During the COVID 19 pandemic year, the cotton value chain, like others, had faced unprecedented disruptions. Cotton farmers and supply chain actors should work together to make sure that the farmers have secured acquaintance to sell their cotton. Farmers' protection should be considered a priority in getting the minimal requirements regarding the input supply, logistics and remuneration for their produce.

5.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank 2021. (9805):29 pp. 33 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918732

ABSTRACT

Do Sahelian countries face specific risks of water-related conflict Sahelian countries face growing fragility and climate challenges-especially those belonging to the Group of Five Sahel States (known as the G5 Sahel)-Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger. This study examines how their relation to water availability and irrigation infrastructure factors in. It documents that the G5 Sahel countries, given their high baseline water scarcity and state fragility, face a higher risk of conflict over water resources compared to the rest of Africa. This is demonstrated through empirical analyses using geospatial data and exploiting (i) climate-induced variation in water availability, and (ii) an event study analysis of conflict trends, which sharply increased post-2010 in the region following the Arab Spring and the rise of the Boko Haram. Irrigated areas are found to be important for buffering against weather shocks but are also more prone to targeting during conflict events compared to non-irrigated regions. The evidence suggests that this reflects increased competition for scarce (fertile) resources between state and rebel groups on this climate frontier with a well-documented history of agropastoral conflict. Other regions of Africa are not found to experience similar conflict related to water resources. These findings are especially pertinent for informing projects and policy interventions in fragile countries as post-COVID-19 recovery and climate action plans are rolled out.

6.
Proceedings of the Annual Congress South African Sugar Technologists' Association ; 94:1-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904830

ABSTRACT

This paper characterises South African sugarcane production for the 2020/21 milling season from an agricultural perspective, in order to evaluate recent production strategies, and to identify priorities for improved efficiencies. The industry produced 18.22 million tons of cane, harvested from an estimated 254 028 ha (71.73 t/ha). The cane to sugar ratio was 8.89, and sugar production decreased from the 2019/20 season by 7%, to 2.28 million tons. After closing early in 2019/20, the Darnall Mill (along with Umzimkulu) remained closed in 2020/21, resulting in cane oversupply at some mills and considerable carryover tonnages. Cane quality improved in northern irrigated areas. Decreasing cane quality in the Noodsberg and UCL mill supply areas warrants investigation. Rainfall was generally below-average, with dry 2019 and 2020 winters;however, relief was offered by good spring/summer rains. Irrigation water supplies from the Bivane Dam and the Umhlatuze Catchment were significantly improved. The 2020 winter was particularly cold, and the Midlands cane was affected by frost. Eldana incidence decreased overall from the previous season, but flourished in carryover cane in the South Coast and Amatikulu regions. Smut prevalence was slightly higher than in 2019, and efforts to reduce these levels remain a priority in the northern parts of the industry, particularly in Pongola. A 19% increase in the Recoverable Value (RV) price saw a return to profitability for large- and small-scale growers alike. The negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on local sugarcane producers were minimal, and the increase in the RV price is partly attributed to COVID. The Sugar Industry Value Chain Master Plan also contributed to the increase in the RV price, by securing local sales and more effectively discouraging imports.

7.
ACIAR Final Reports 2020. (FR2021/016):101pp. 26 ref. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898201

ABSTRACT

The combination of appropriate agricultural and irrigation practices, and innovative social interventions through farmer collectives, were shown to strengthen fragile agricultural livelihoods in the project "Improving water use for dry season agriculture by marginal and tenant farmers in the Eastern Gangetic Plains" (DSI4MTF - ACIAR Project LWR/2012/79), which operated from 2014-2019. The success of the DSI4MTF model is dependent on the scalability and sustainability of the collectives, as well as the ability to manage risks associated with irrigated agriculture and climate change. This small research activity (SRA) continued engagement with farmer collectives in six villages in Saptari (Nepal) and Bihar and West Bengal (India), with the aim to extend the use of climate-smart irrigation and water management practices and strengthen institutional structures to sustain farmer collectives to ensure their long term sustainability. It was found that "measuring to manage" helps to improve on-farm irrigation and water management decisions, thereby mitigating climate risk. A Smart Irrigation Toolkit (SIT) approach has been outlined, which incorporates simple field level assessments using low-cost measurement equipment, supported by decision support mobile Apps. SIT provides the farmer with timely information to improve irrigation practice. It also provides managers operating at a program or scheme level, with information to support spatial and temporal benchmarking, as well as system operating, maintenance and replacement decisions. The establishment of farmer collectives, which allow farmers to pool land, labour and capital, has been shown to be foundational for sustainable agricultural intensification by marginal farmers. The SRA period was used to identify the longer-term strategy to sustain these collectives and build their scalability. These include the need to harness existing cohesion and collective spirit within communities, the importance of expanding to form larger plots, and the critical role played by ethical community engagement in ensuring buy in from communities. Most importantly, to strengthen the collectives and ensure their sustainability after the end of the project, a Collectives Association has been proposed and piloted under this SRA. The Collectives Association brings several groups together under a single institutional framework. It helps offer broader economies of scale, strengthens linkages with other institutions, and could support training of farmers in irrigation technologies, renting of equipment, facilitating conflict resolution, and supporting blue sky ideas such as a land lease bank. The project has had substantial success in building gender equity through the collectives, and in considering gender across the supply chain. There has also been considerable progress in strengthening links between the farmer collectives and a range of institutions and programmes. Links to the private sector, especially with regards to the marketing of agricultural produce, need to be further strengthened, and the collectives association could play a critical role. It was suggested that the scaling of improved irrigation practices through a Smart Irrigation Toolkit (SIT) is best done through a pilot project, which integrates project learnings with organisations responsible for irrigation development. While there is good potential for scaling, business cases are required to demonstrate potential benefits to the range of beneficiaries. These business cases need to be developed in association with irrigation scheme implementation agencies, as well as with organisations supporting farmer communities. The public sector has a key role to support the initial scaling of SIT. Alignment with irrigation and agricultural department functions would establish a program for deployment, demonstration and alignment with policy. The Collectives Association would play a key mediating role for marginal farmers, and could support the deployment of SIT locally. The COVID19 pandemic, which started in the last few months of the SRA pe

8.
Agricultural Sciences ; 13(02):105-116, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818486

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to assess the factors that influence the sustainability of agricultural development. The study was carried out in the municipality of Bobonaro for about four months, from July to October 2021. Slovin's method was used to determine the sample size, with a desired percentage of 10% of the total population. Thus, 154 producers were interviewed as respondents and key persons in the area of agriculture. The variables interviewed are the main factors of agricultural productivity and the factors that affect sustainable agricultural development. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the data showed that about 94.87% of the respondents' productive area is in operation, with an average of 1.84 ha per respondent and the abandoned area around 0.11 ha per respondent. The average value of rice production is 2.38 ton per ha and corn 1.07 ton per ha. About 87% of producers raised the main types of animals such as cattle, pigs, goats with an average density of 2 to 5 animals per establishment. About 61% of producers have access to the market at a normal price for agricultural products. The factors that hinder less successful agricultural development, such as: those of nature with the greatest impact are climate changes, which influence changes in cultivation sessions and in the characteristics of productive soils, availability of water for irrigation and animal feed. On the socioeconomic side, it includes the willingness or interest of young people who want to work as farmers, less investment and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. It is concluded that natural and socioeconomic impacts can reduce agricultural productivity, so that this will be a major challenge for the development of the agricultural sector in the future.

9.
Forest and Society ; 5(1):136-158, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727250

ABSTRACT

Livelihood systems of nomadic duck herders make a unique study subject due to the livelihood assets, strategies, and outcomes they manage, which involve interactions with various actors that keep moving around. Social capital the duck herders build in their interaction with other actors, namely rice farmers, play an important role to face different vulnerability context, including those brought by the Covid-19 pandemic. This study aims to characterize components of bonding, bridging and linking social capital in the context of relationships between duck herders and other actors, and seeks to find the essential role of the combination of the three types of social capital for livelihood outcomes, particularly in facing vulnerabilities due to the pandemic. The method of grounded theory research was applied for its ability to allow researchers to reveal processual relationships between duck herders and other actors. Data were collected through semi structured interviews, analyzed by open, axial, and selective coding. The duck herders combine components of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital selectively depending on the interests behind each interaction with different actors. The bridging and linking role that social capital plays in herders' interactions with farmers and irrigation officials is undertaken in order to gain access to natural capital (rice fields and irrigated water), while in their interaction with egg traders, they utilize bridging social capital to gain access to financial capital (in the form of cash and loans). The vulnerability context due to the pandemic has shaken the livelihood system of the duck herders by upsetting the egg supply chain due to social restriction policies. Social capital therefore plays an important role in facing vulnerability, in the context of forming good will among egg traders that continued to buy eggs from the duck herders, which served as a kind of pay back for the loyalty of the duck herders. The researchers find that social capital plays a vital role in a livelihood system, within which the access to livelihood assets depend on social relations. This study also explored the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic as it resonates more on supply chains than production processes.

10.
Cahiers Agricultures ; 30(11), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1721629

ABSTRACT

While vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 were launched worldwide, a drama has been unfolding in the Moroccan countryside. It has been marked, over the last couple of decades, by rapid agrarian transformation, manifestations of which have included expanding irrigation frontiers and the increasing growth of high-value crops. These dynamics rely strongly on female agricultural wageworkers. Although they earn low wages, their income is crucial and is used to care for loved ones by paying for school fees, rent, electricity, and medicines. These workers, therefore, cannot afford to quit their jobs. However, most female wageworkers in Morocco are employed without a contract or social security cover. While working in an informal environment and living already in a precarious situation, little is known about how the pandemic has affected them. In this article, the researchers seek to supply some of this information by drawing on the authors' commitment over almost a decade of covering female wage-workers' experiences in different agricultural regions in Morocco. Additionally, since March 2020, the researchers have conducted 30 phone interviews with female laborers and farmers in the Saiss and in the coastal area of the Gharb and Loukkos. Using the pandemic as a focus, our results illustrate the inherent contradictions upon which Morocco's agricultural boom has been founded. Although many female laborers are de facto heads of household or contribute in fundamental ways to the household income, they continue to be considered as secondary earners or as housewives, leading to low structural wages. Moreover, these women assume the prime responsibility for all domestic tasks, which are not economically recognized or valued. Consequently, they face new challenges in addition to their already precarious situations. Reduced work opportunities and limited state support have led to financial and psychological hardship which jeopardize their own and their family's survival.

11.
Cahiers Agricultures ; 30(47), 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1721625

ABSTRACT

The agricultural sector is strategic for the Moroccan economy, still accounting for around 14% of the Gross Domestic Product and employing 40% of the active population. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, it has been literally shaken up, with growing uncertainties with regard to market opportunities and physical distancing which has amplified work constraints. However, citizens have rapidly acknowledged the importance of agriculture, as it ensured a regular supply of food during the lockdown at relatively affordable prices. The pandemic, which has emerged in a particularly dry year, has provided an opportunity to revise the constraints facing the agricultural sector, particularly water scarcity and limited work remuneration. It has also shown to consumers the significant share of imported staple food. In fact, the food trade balance remains in deficit despite the exports of high value commodities, which are emphasized by the public authorities. Moreover, recent studies have shown that these exports rely on increasing amounts of groundwater uptakes. This has happened despite the significant subsidies awarded to farmers to convert gravity irrigation to drip irrigation systems. On-farm investigations have demonstrated that subsidies mainly resulted in an expansion of the area with cash crops needing significant amounts of water. This situation is the opposite of the goal sought by the agricultural policy, i.e. a higher economic water productivity. It is therefore crucial to recognize that the post Covid-19 agriculture should be different. Indeed, there is a need for a paradigm shift where rain-fed agriculture has to get at the top of the political agenda, with more attention to food sovereignty. This has to encompass wide topics, such as environment preservation, rural development and sustainable food systems, to ensure social inclusiveness, and guarantee better wages that can increase the attractiveness of work within farming activities and reduce rural exodus.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL