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1.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10862, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024206

ABSTRACT

The waste generated by small-scale ultra-fresh juice producers, such as bistros and restaurants, has been little studied so far, mainly because it is unevenly distributed and dissipated in the economic ecosystem and would require high costs associated with transportation and subsequent recovery of bio composites. The present article seeks to offer solutions by providing sustainable methods to reduce their waste losses to a minimum and transform them into valuable products, with affordable equipment and techniques. The study focuses on the preliminary phase of quantitative analysis of fruit and vegetable by-products generated on a small scale, the results showing a mean 55% productivity in fresh juices. Due to the high amount of remnant water content in waste, a new process of mechanically pressing the resulting squeezed pulp was introduced, generating an additional yield in juice, ranging from 3.98 to 51.4%. Due to the rising trend in healthier lifestyle, the by-products were frozen or airdried for conservation in each of the processing stages, and the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were analyzed in order to assess the traceability of these bioactive compounds to help maximize their transfer into future final products. The polyphenols transferred into by-products varied between 7 and 23% in pulps and between 6 and 20% in flours. The highest DPPH potential was found in flours, up to three-fold in comparison with the raw material, but the high dry substance content must be accounted for. The results highlight the potential of reusing the processing waste as a reliable source of bioactive compounds.

2.
Foods ; 11(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023329

ABSTRACT

The present study proposes a green extraction approach for the recovery of lycopene from tomato fruits. Different hydrophobic natural deep eutectic solvents (HNADESs) based on terpenes (i.e., menthol and thymol) and fatty acids (i.e., decanoic acid and dodecanoic acid) were prepared at different molar ratios, characterised in terms of density, rheological properties, and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and were examined for their effectiveness to extract lycopene from tomato. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimise the extraction parameters, namely duration (min) and solvent:solid ratio (v/w). Spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC-DAD were used in order to monitor the process efficiency. The combination of decanoic acid and dodecanoic acid was found to exhibit comparable extraction capacity to acetone. Taking into account that the HNADESs used in the present study are considered green, biodegradable and of low cost, the obtained carotenoid rich extracts are expected to be of use in industrial food applications.

3.
Journal of Chemistry ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2001948

ABSTRACT

Two novel metal complexes, that is, Ni (StmAn)2(4) and Cu (StmAn)2(5), were synthesized from unsymmetrical Schiff base ligand StmAn (3). The ligand was prepared by refluxing streptomycin (2) and aniline (1). They were characterized by elemental microanalysis, conductivity measurements, and spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, FT-IR, ESI-mass, and electronic absorption spectral study. Interestingly, the study revealed metal coordination through azomethine nitrogen and N-atom of NH-CH3 of N-methyl-L-glucosamine unit of streptomycin. The electronic absorption spectral study supported an octahedral geometry for complex 4 and a tetrahedral geometry for complex 5. Particle size calculation by Scherrer’s formula indicated their nanocrystalline nature. The geometry optimization of the complexes was achieved by running an MM2 job in Gaussian supported Cs-ChemOffice ultra-12.0.1 and ArgusLab 4.0.1 version software. Based on SwissADME predictions, a theoretical drug profile was generated by analyzing absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) scores of the compounds. They were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against four clinical pathogens such as E. coli, S. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study demonstrated greater inhibitory potency of complex (4) (0.024 g/L) for S. aureus relative to ligand (3) and complex (5). Studies show that metal complexes are more toxic to bacteria.

4.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994111

ABSTRACT

Rising global populations and enhanced standards of living in so-called developing countries have led to an increased demand of food, in particular meat, worldwide. While increasing the production of broiler meat could be a potential solution to this problem, broiler meat is plagued by health concerns, such as the development of antimicrobial resistance and lower meat quality. For this reason, the supplementation of poultry feed with vitamins and antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, has become an attractive prospect for research in this sector. Such supplements could be obtained by extraction of agricultural byproducts (in particular, grape pomaces and artichoke leaves and bracts), thus contributing to reductions in the total amount of waste biomass produced by the agricultural industry. In this review, the effects of poultry feed supplementation with bioactive extracts from grape pomace (skins and/or seeds), as well as extracts from artichoke leaves and bracts, were explored. Moreover, the various methods that have been employed to obtain extracts from these and other agricultural byproducts were listed and described, with a particular focus on novel, eco-friendly extraction methods (using, for example, innovative and biocompatible solvents like Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs)) that could reduce the costs and energy consumption of these procedures, with similar or higher yields compared to standard methods.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Vitis , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chickens , Food Industry , Poultry
5.
J Mol Liq ; 363: 119878, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937005

ABSTRACT

Hydrocortisone (termed as D1) and dexamethasone (termed as D2) are corticosteroids currently used to treat COVID-19. COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Exploring additional chemical properties of drugs used in the treatment protocols for COVID-19 could help scientists alike improve these treatment protocols and potentially even the vaccines (i.e., Janssen, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech). In this work, the charge-transfer (CT) properties of these two corticosteroids (D1 and D2) with two universal acceptors: 7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (termed as TCNQ) and fluoranil (termed as TFQ) in five different solvents were investigated. The examined solvents were MeOH, EtOH, MeCN, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3. The CT interactions formed stable corticosteroid CT complexes in all examined solvents. Several spectroscopic parameters were derived, and the oscillator strength (f) and transition dipole moment (µe.g. ) values revealed that the interaction between the investigated corticosteroids with TCNQ acceptor is much stronger than their interaction with TFQ acceptor. The CT interactions were proposed to process via n â†’ π* transition.

6.
Food Hydrocolloids ; : 107861, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1885771

ABSTRACT

Approximately 75,000 tonnes of durian seeds are disposed to the environment every year and the amount will continue to increase due to the escalating demand for durians. The long-term accumulation of the wastes will lead to destruction of the ecological environment, and the disposal requires considerable effort. In fact, valuable products including durian seed gum and flour could be processed from the discarded durian seeds and hence, they should not be regarded as wastes. At the same time, the value of food wasted every year exceeds 1 trillion USD, of which 20% is caused by storage or shelf-life issues. After the outbreak of COVID-19, consumers tend to reduce the number of trips required to get fresh foods from the markets. Eventually, storage of larger amount of foods at extended period time is crucial. Thus, safe and effective food preservation materials extracted from these biomasses could potentially help in reducing food wastes. Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) is a green solvent composed of primary metabolites (PRIM). When combined with gum into the form of eutectogel, the characteristics are tunable indicating that the properties of natural durian seed gum can be further improved for specific application. This paper discusses the potential of eutectogels formulated using NADES and durian seed gum for use as food coating. Since the coated gel is edible, potentially low in cost, and strongly sustainable, the food preservation period can be lengthened at higher commercial value.

7.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics ; 942, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1873375

ABSTRACT

Modern biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery require a delivery system capable of enhanced transport beyond that of passive Brownian diffusion. In this work, an osmotic mechanism for the propulsion of a vesicle immersed in a viscous fluid is proposed. By maintaining a steady-state solute gradient inside the vesicle, a seepage flow of the solvent (e.g. water) across the semipermeable membrane is generated, which in turn propels the vesicle. We develop a theoretical model for this vesicle–solute system in which the seepage flow is described by a Darcy flow. Using the reciprocal theorem for Stokes flow, it is shown that the seepage velocity at the exterior surface of the vesicle generates a thrust force that is balanced by the hydrodynamic drag such that there is no net force on the vesicle. We characterize the motility of the vesicle in relation to the concentration distribution of the solute confined inside the vesicle. Any osmotic solute is able to propel the vesicle so long as a concentration gradient is present. In the present work, we propose active Brownian particles (ABPs) as a solute. To maintain a symmetry-breaking concentration gradient, we consider ABPs with spatially varying swim speed, and ABPs with constant properties but under the influence of an orienting field. In particular, it is shown that at high activity, the vesicle velocity is \(\boldsymbol {U}\sim [K_\perp /(\eta _e\ell _m) ]\int \varPi _0

8.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874326

ABSTRACT

We present the design and analysis of a graphene metasurface-based cross polarization converter operating within the terahertz gap for detecting biomolecules over a broad spectral range, taking the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a specific example. To the best of our knowledge, our design reports the widest band of operation in the THz region of a graphene-based metasensor. Each meta-atom comprises a graphene pattern on silicon dioxide atop a continuous gold layer and exhibits near-unity cross polarization conversion ratio (PCR) and a 90% PCR bandwidth of 0.926 THz within the desired band (1.88 THz-2.81 THz). The proposed device demonstrates additional benefits which include a thin configuration (λ/7.84) and compact lattice size (λ/10.66), which are significantly better than other recently reported graphene metasurface biosensors. The device provides a sensitivity up to 490 GHz/RIU and a figure of merit (FoM) of 0.377 over a wide span of 0.926 THz within the terahertz gap. The electromagnetic response of this device has been validated via rigorous numerical analyses of simulated outputs as well as by developing a detailed circuit model representation of the same. The device demonstrates angular stability of nearly 40°under oblique incidence of the incident wave. IEEE

9.
Energies ; 15(10):3753, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871473

ABSTRACT

The rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere emphasises the need for improving the current carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. A conventional absorption method that utilises amine-based solvent is known to cause corrosion to process equipment. The solvent is easily degraded and has high energy requirement for regeneration. Amino acids are suitable candidates to replace traditional alkanolamines attributed to their identical amino functional group. In addition, amino acid salt is a green material due to its extremely low toxicity, low volatility, less corrosive, and high efficiency to capture CO2. Previous studies have shown promising results in CO2 capture using amino acids salts solutions and amino acid ionic liquids. Currently, amino acid solvents are also utilised to enhance the adsorption capacity of solid sorbents. This systematic review is the first to summarise the currently available amino acid-based adsorbents for CO2 capture using PRISMA method. Physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents that contribute to effective CO2 capture are thoroughly discussed. A total of four categories of amino acid-based adsorbents are evaluated for their CO2 adsorption capacities. The regeneration studies are briefly discussed and several limitations associated with amino acid-based adsorbents for CO2 capture are presented before the conclusion.

10.
Nanomaterials ; 12(10):1629, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871472

ABSTRACT

In the past few decades, nanotechnology has been receiving significant attention globally and is being continuously developed in various innovations for diverse applications, such as tissue engineering, biotechnology, biomedicine, textile, and food technology. Nanotechnological materials reportedly lack cell-interactive properties and are easily degraded into unfavourable products due to the presence of synthetic polymers in their structures. This is a major drawback of nanomaterials and is a cause of concern in the biomedicine field. Meanwhile, particulate systems, such as metallic nanoparticles (NPs), have captured the interest of the medical field due to their potential to inhibit the growth of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses). Lately, researchers have shown a great interest in hydrogels in the biomedicine field due to their ability to retain and release drugs as well as to offer a moist environment. Hence, the development and innovation of hydrogel-incorporated metallic NPs from natural sources has become one of the alternative pathways for elevating the efficiency of therapeutic systems to make them highly effective and with fewer undesirable side effects. The objective of this review article is to provide insights into the latest fabricated metallic nanocomposite hydrogels and their current applications in the biomedicine field using nanotechnology and to discuss the limitations of this technology for future exploration. This article gives an overview of recent metallic nanocomposite hydrogels fabricated from bioresources, and it reviews their antimicrobial activities in facilitating the demands for their application in biomedicine. The work underlines the fabrication of various metallic nanocomposite hydrogels through the utilization of natural sources in the production of biomedical innovations, including wound healing treatment, drug delivery, scaffolds, etc. The potential of these nanocomposites in relation to their mechanical strength, antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity, and optical properties has brought this technology into a new dimension in the biomedicine field. Finally, the limitations of metallic nanocomposite hydrogels in terms of their methods of synthesis, properties, and outlook for biomedical applications are further discussed.

11.
BioResources ; 17(3):3880-3882, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871107

ABSTRACT

Recent years of research and development have brought frequently used terms for new types of green solvents to the lexicon of scientists. This can lead to terminological inaccuracies. In particular, different names are being used for the same types of solvents: Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES);Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents;Low-Transition Temperature Mixtures;Low-Melting Mixtures. It would, therefore, be appropriate to eliminate certain inaccuracies and to use simplification, which means using the general term “Low-Temperature Transition Mixtures” or introducing the term “DES-like mixtures”.

12.
View ; 3(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870940

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines require the use of material containers for protection, storage, and transportation. Glass and plastic materials are widely used for packaging, and a longstanding challenge in the field is the nonspecific adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs to container walls – the so‐called “sticky containers, vanishing drugs” problem – that effectively reduces the active drug concentration and can cause drug denaturation. This challenge has been frequently discussed in the case of the anticancer drug, paclitaxel, and the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has brought renewed attention to this material science challenge in light of the need to scale up COVID‐19 vaccine production and to secure sufficient quantities of packaging containers. To reduce nonspecific adsorption on inner container walls, various strategies based on siliconization and thin polymer films have been explored, while it would be advantageous to develop mass‐manufacturable, natural material solutions, especially ones involving pharmaceutical grade excipients. Inspired by how lipid nanoparticles have revolutionized the vaccine field, in this perspective, we discuss the prospects for developing lipid bilayer coatings to prevent nonspecific adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines and how recent advances in lipid bilayer coating fabrication technologies are poised to accelerate progress in the field. We critically discuss recent examples of how lipid bilayer coatings can prevent nonspecific sticking of proteins and vaccines to relevant material surfaces and examine future translational prospects.

13.
Molecules ; 27(9):2939, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843148

ABSTRACT

Dihydrouracil presents a crucial intermediate in the catabolism of uracil. The vital importance of uracil and its nucleoside, uridine, encourages scientists to synthesize novel dihydrouracils. In this paper, we present an innovative, fast, and effective method for the synthesis of dihydrouracils. Hence, under mild conditions, 3-chloroperbenzoic acid was used to cleave the carbon–sulfur bond of the Biginelli hybrids 5,6-dihydropyrimidin-4(3H)-ones. This approach led to thirteen novel dihydrouracils synthesized in moderate-to-high yields (32–99%).

14.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5777, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837243

ABSTRACT

Hospital workers have increased exposure risk of healthcare-associated infections due to the frontline nature of their work. Olfactory dysfunction is highly prevalent. The objectives for this investigation are to study the prevalence of long-lasting olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection in hospital workers during the first pandemic wave, to identify clinical characteristics and associated symptomatology, and to analyze how many patients with COVID-19 infection had developed olfactory dysfunction during infection and maintained a reduced olfactory function for approximately 10 weeks after diagnosis. Between June and July of 2020, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja San José and Santa Adela in Madrid, Spain. One hundred sixty-four participants were included, of which 110 were patient-facing healthcare staff and 54 were non-patient-facing healthcare staff. Participants were split into three groups, according to COVID-19 diagnosis and presence of COVID-19 related olfactory symptomatology. Participants were asked to complete a structured online questionnaire along with Sniffin’ Stick Olfactory Test measurements. In this study, 88 participants were confirmed for COVID-19 infection, 59 of those participants also reported olfactory symptomatology. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection was 11.35%, and the prevalence for olfactory dysfunction was 67.05%. Olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection leads to long-lasting olfactory loss. Objective assessment with Sniffin’ Stick Olfactory Test points to odor identification as the most affected process. Lemon, liquorice, solvent, and rose are the odors that are worst recognized. Mint, banana, solvent, garlic, coffee, and pineapple, although they are identified, are perceived with less intensity. The findings of this study confirmed a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the hospital workers.

15.
Textiles ; 1(2):152-169, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834893

ABSTRACT

Recent developments in electrospinning technology have enabled the commercial-scale production of nonwoven fabrics from synthetic and natural polymers. Since the early 2000s, polysaccharides and their derivatives have been recognized as promising raw materials for electrospinning, and their electrospun textiles have attracted increasing attention for their diverse potential applications. In particular, their biomedical applications have been spotlighted thanks to their “green” aspects, e.g., abundance in nature, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. This review focuses on three main research topics in the biomedical applications of electrospun polysaccharidic textiles: (i) delivery of therapeutic molecules, (ii) tissue engineering, and (iii) wound healing, and discusses recent progress and prospects.

16.
Crystals ; 12(4):550, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809754

ABSTRACT

Baloxavir marboxil (BXM) is a new blockbuster FDA-approved anti-influenza virus agent. However, its poor solubility has limited its oral bioavailability. In this study, BXM was crystallized from several organic solvents, obtaining three polymorphs, and their dissolution behaviors were studied. Detailed crystallographic examination revealed that Form I is monoclinic, space group P21, with unit cell parameters a = 7.1159 (3) Å, b = 20.1967 (8) Å, c = 9.4878 (4) Å, β = 109.033 (1)°, V = 1289.02 (9) Å3, and Z = 2, and Form II is monoclinic, space group P21, with unit cell parameters a = 7.1002 (14) Å, b = 39.310 (7) Å, c = 9.7808 (18) Å, β = 110.966 (5)°, V = 2549.2 (8) Å3, and Z = 4. Form I has a rectangular three-dimensional energy frameworks net, while Form II has a two-dimensional net. On the other hand, Form II has a much larger percentage of its surface area of exposed hydrogen bond acceptors than Form I. These crystallographic features offered increased solubility and dissolution rate to Form II. The results of stability and solubility experiments suggest that Form II may be preferred in the solid form used for the industrial preparation of BXM medicinal products.

17.
J Mol Liq ; 357: 119092, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778379

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (termed SARS coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2). Since the first case reported in December 2019, infections caused by this novel virus have led to a continuous global pandemic that has placed an unprecedented burden on health, economic, and social systems worldwide. In response, multiple therapeutic options have been developed to stop this pandemic. One of these options is based on traditional corticosteroids, however, chemical modifications to enhance their efficacy remain largely unexplored. Obtaining additional insight into the chemical and physical properties of pharmacologically effective drugs used to combat COVID-19 will help physicians and researchers alike to improve current treatments and vaccines (i.e., Pfizer-BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Moderna, Janssen). Herein, we examined the charge-transfer properties of two corticosteroids used as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of COVID-19, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone, as donors with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone as an acceptor in various solvents. We found that the examined donors reacted strongly with the acceptor in CH2Cl2 and CHCl3 solvents to create stable compounds with novel clinical potential.

18.
2021 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting, APS/URSI 2021 ; : 1731-1732, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1774569

ABSTRACT

Traditional molecular techniques for COVID-19 viral detection are time-consuming and can exhibit a high probability of false negatives. In this work, we present a computational study of COVID-19 detection using plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The resonance wavelength of a COVID-19 virion was recently estimated to be in the near-infrared region. By engineering gold nanospheres to bind with the outer surface of the COVID-19 virus specifically, the resonance frequency can be shifted to the visible range (380 nm-700 nm). Moreover, we show that broadband absorption will emerge in the visible spectrum when the virus is partially covered with gold nanoparticles at a certain percentage. This broadband absorption can be used to guide the development of an efficient and accurate colorimetric plasmon sensor for COVID-19 detection. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Molbank ; 2022(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765777

ABSTRACT

Cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is a cyclic nucleotide involved in the Ca2+ homeostasis. In its structure, the northern ribose, bonded to adenosine through an N1 glycosidic bond, is connected to the southern ribose through a pyrophosphate bridge. Due to the chemical instability at the N1 glycosidic bond, new bioactive cADPR derivatives have been synthesized. One of the most interesting analogues is the cyclic inosine diphosphate ribose (cIDPR), in which the hypoxanthine replaced adenosine. The efforts for synthesizing new linear and cyclic northern ribose modified cIDPR analogues led us to study in detail the inosine N1 alkylation reaction. In the last few years, we have produced new flexible cIDPR analogues, where the northern ribose has been replaced by alkyl chains. With the aim to obtain the closest flexible cIDPR analogue, we have attached to the inosine N1 position a 2″,3″-dihydroxypentyl chain, possessing the two OH groups in a ribose-like fashion. The inosine alkylation reaction afforded also the O6-alkylated regioisomer, which could be a useful intermediate for the construction of new kinds of cADPR mimics.

20.
Beverages ; 8(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760334

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: beverages based on extracts from Camellia sinensis are popular worldwide. Due to an increasing number of processed teas on the market, there is a need to develop unified classification standards based on chemical analysis. Meanwhile, phytochemical characterizations are mainly performed on tea samples from China (~80%). Hence, data on teas of other provenances is recommended. (2) Methods: in the present investigation, we characterized lyophilised extracts obtained by infusion, maceration and methanolic extraction derived from tea samples from China, Japan, Sri Lanka and Portugal by phytochemistry (catechins, oxyaromatic acids, flavonols, alkaloids and theanine). The real benefits of drinking the tea were analysed based on the bioavailability of the determined phytochemicals. (3) Results: the infusions revealed the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) amounts, while methanolic extracts yielded the lowest. The correlation matrix indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds were similar in the infusions and methanolic samples, while extractions made by maceration were significantly different. The differences could be partially explained by the different amounts of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallic acids (GA). The catechin percentages were significantly lower in the macerations, especially the quantity of EGCG decreases by 4- to 5-fold after this process. (4) Conclusions: the results highlight the importance of the processing methodology to obtain “instant tea”;the composition of the extracts obtained with the same methodology is not significantly affected by the provenance of the tea. However, attention should be drawn to the specificities of the Japanese samples (the tea analysed in the present work was of Sencha quality). In contrast, the extraction methodology significantly affects the phytochemical composition, especially concerning the content of polyphenols. As such, our results indicate that instant tea classification based on chemical composition is sensible, but there is a need for a standard extraction methodology, namely concerning the temperature and time of contact of the tea leaves with the extraction solvent.

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