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1.
Front Public Health ; 10:1060043, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199544
2.
Food for All: International Organizations and the Transformation of Agriculture ; : 1-1024, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2190115

ABSTRACT

This book is a historical review of international food and agriculture since the founding of the international organizations following the Second World War, including the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and into the 1970s, when CGIAR was established and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was created to recycle petrodollars. The book concurrently focuses on the structural transformation of developing countries in Asia and Africa, with some making great strides in small farmer development and in achieving structural transformation of their economies. Some have also achieved Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG2, but most have not. Not only are some countries, particularly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, lagging behind, but they face new challenges of climate change, competition from emerging countries, population pressure, urbanization, environmental decay, dietary transition, and now pandemics. Lagging developing countries need huge investments in human capital, and physical and institutional infrastructure, to take advantage of rapid change in technologies, but the role of international assistance in financial transfers has diminished. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only set many poorer countries back but starkly revealed the weaknesses of past strategies. Transformative changes are needed in developing countries with international cooperation to achieve better outcomes. Will the change in US leadership bring new opportunities for multilateral cooperation?. © Uma Lele, Manmohan Agarwal, Brian C. Baldwin, and Sambuddha Goswami 2021.

3.
Alzheimer's and Dementia ; 18(S8) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2172390

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed attention to the conflicting demands placed on caregivers worldwide. Nowhere is this more evident than in South Asia, where cultural norms and a scarcity of long-term care facilities have made the home the locus of caregiving for individuals with brain health conditions and disabilities. A hidden cost of this informal arrangement is the burden experienced by the primary caregiver. This may be exacerbated when traditional caregiving expectations clash with personal aspirations outside the family. Method(s): The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed attention to the conflicting demands placed on caregivers worldwide. Nowhere is this more evident than in South Asia, where cultural norms and a scarcity of long-term care facilities have made the home the locus of caregiving for individuals with brain health conditions and disabilities. A hidden cost of this informal arrangement is the burden experienced by the primary caregiver. This may be exacerbated when traditional caregiving expectations clash with personal aspirations outside the family. Result(s): The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed attention to the conflicting demands placed on caregivers worldwide. Nowhere is this more evident than in South Asia, where cultural norms and a scarcity of long-term care facilities have made the home the locus of caregiving for individuals with brain health conditions and disabilities. A hidden cost of this informal arrangement is the burden experienced by the primary caregiver. This may be exacerbated when traditional caregiving expectations clash with personal aspirations outside the family. Conclusion(s): Role strain may be a significant driver of burden when the caretaker's educational and professional potential collide with traditional South Asian family obligations. The burden reported by our respondents suggests that role strain may elevate stress among young, educated caregivers. Our results, therefore, provide indirect evidence concerning the changing economic and socio-cultural context of caregiving in South Asian households. Copyright © 2022 the Alzheimer's Association.

4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e24251, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 transmission rates in South Asia initially were under control when governments implemented health policies aimed at controlling the pandemic such as quarantines, travel bans, and border, business, and school closures. Governments have since relaxed public health restrictions, which resulted in significant outbreaks, shifting the global epicenter of COVID-19 to India. Ongoing systematic public health surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic is needed to inform disease prevention policy to re-establish control over the pandemic within South Asia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to inform public health leaders about the state of the COVID-19 pandemic, how South Asia displays differences within and among countries and other global regions, and where immediate action is needed to control the outbreaks. METHODS: We extracted COVID-19 data spanning 62 days from public health registries and calculated traditional and enhanced surveillance metrics. We use an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in South Asia as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shifts in variables with a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Traditional surveillance metrics indicate that South Asian countries have an alarming outbreak, with India leading the region with 310,310 new daily cases in accordance with the 7-day moving average. Enhanced surveillance indicates that while Pakistan and Bangladesh still have a high daily number of new COVID-19 cases (n=4819 and n=3878, respectively), their speed of new infections declined from April 12-25, 2021, from 2.28 to 2.18 and 3.15 to 2.35 daily new infections per 100,000 population, respectively, which suggests that their outbreaks are decreasing and that these countries are headed in the right direction. In contrast, India's speed of new infections per 100,000 population increased by 52% during the same period from 14.79 to 22.49 new cases per day per 100,000 population, which constitutes an increased outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Relaxation of public health restrictions and the spread of novel variants fueled the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Asia. Public health surveillance indicates that shifts in policy and the spread of new variants correlate with a drastic expansion in the pandemic, requiring immediate action to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Surveillance is needed to inform leaders whether policies help control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(5):S2-S14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163909

ABSTRACT

Infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. Although many infections are common worldwide, there are differences in various geographic locations. South Asia and India, in particular, has a very active transplant program for kidney and liver transplantation, however, there are no guidelines as how to screen and provide prophylaxis to solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and donors for both specific infections prevalent in this region along with usual infections. Keeping this in mind, a working group was created comprising transplant physicians, surgeons, and infectious disease specialists from South Asia as well as experts from other countries. This working group developed guidelines based on published evidence, unpublished data from large centers in this region, along with expert opinion. This section of the guidelines deals with pretransplant screening of donors and recipients, which should be useful in dealing with transplants performed in this region for patients belonging to these countries, for those coming for transplantation from other countries, and for programs outside of South Asia who are screening donors and recipients from this region or who have spent significant time in this region. Copyright © 2022 Indian Journal of Transplantation Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

6.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(5):106-111, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163908

ABSTRACT

Infections are common after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and are an important cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Many of these infections can be prevented or their severity reduced by vaccination in pre and posttransplantation period. It is better to complete the vaccination before transplantation as protection and seroconversion is better, and live vaccines are mostly contraindicated after SOT. Live vaccines should be given at least 4 weeks before transplantation but killed vaccines can be given up to 2 weeks before the planned transplantation. Vaccination for some diseases which are endemic in South Asia should be given, along with usual vaccinations. Serological monitoring is required for some vaccines to check their efficacy. Similarly, some vaccines are recommended for SOT recipients traveling to various endemic regions. Copyright © 2022 Indian Journal of Transplantation Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

7.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(5):98-105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163907

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are among the most common and serious infections after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Infections within a month after transplant are usually donor-derived or bacterial infections related to surgical infections or ventilator associated. Infections between 1-6 months after SOT are mostly opportunistic due to various viruses, or fungal infections. After 6 months of transplantation usually community acquired infections predominate, however it is not uncommon to find opportunistic fungal and viral infections in this period. The signs and symptoms of these infections are often mitigated in SOT recipients, so a high index of suspicion is required along with microbiological or tissue diagnosis early in the course to timely treat these infections. Thorough screening for common infections and endemic infections is required in donor and recipients before transplantation to reduce the risk of infections in posttransplant period. Finally, a longer duration of treatment and prophylaxis is required for adequately treat these infections and prevent the relapse. Copyright © 2022 Indian Journal of Transplantation Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

8.
Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law ; 23(3):315-353, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162102

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 outbreak has brought forth the existing cracks and crevices in the governance of Bangladesh. At such a time, the National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh (nhrcb), as the only State institution mandated to protect and promote human rights exclusively and impartially, is tasked with a crucial role to ensure respect for human rights. This article assesses the activities undertaken by the nhrcb during the pandemic and finds that the nhrcb evinced only a limited role in monitoring the violation of rights and provided formulaic recommendations to the government. It did not observe the implementation of their recommendations and has performed rather formalistically. While the country has experienced a deteriorating human rights situation, the nhrcb has failed to flex its muscles when compared to other national human rights institutions in South Asia. This article argues that the national human rights institutions (nhri s) in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, embedded in a similar context and armed with almost identical mandates, have demonstrated a novel and strenuous effort intending to adapt to and fulfil their functions during the unprecedented crisis. The nhrcb may benefit by learning from these nhri s as well as taking lessons from its own past activities. Previously, it did not eschew politically sensitive issues and earmarked a strong leadership even with limited institutional capacities. The nhrcb has however responded to the changing dynamics and challenges posed by the covid-19 pandemic with silence. It needs to become more vibrant to enhance, regionally and internationally, the country's image in upholding human rights norms and standards. © 2022 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

9.
Emerging Science Journal ; 7(Special issue):81-94, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146285

ABSTRACT

This study is designed to support the development of strategies to recover from the disrupted impact of COVID-19 on HE institutes of the South Asian Region (SAR), as the nations in this region are severely cursed by poverty and unemployment. During the unusual phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the face-to-face learning method is no longer appropriate, and the crisis leads to force on distance learning instead of physical learning. Like all other educational institutions, HE institutions are also in big trouble. Changes in educational structure change the pattern of academic work, which may have an inverse impact on acquiring knowledge and improving skills. Not only students but also a greater number of teachers at the HE institutions required to continue their service through online during this closure period. However, well digital infrastructure and digital contents appear to be the prime requirements for this educational transmission, which are extensively accessible in SAR countries. By following a mixed-methods strategy, the study specifically examines the impact of the pandemic on higher education in the South Asian Region, with an emphasis on the impact on learners, educators, and institutions, and to identify the measures that have been taken by these countries to survive and continue the education system with all the obstacles of the crisis. It concludes with some vital suggestions that may be applied to mitigate the crisis moment and assist in moving forward with more technological advancements for a new future. © 2023 by the authors. Licensee ESJ, Italy.

10.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2144301

ABSTRACT

South Asia is one of the hot-spots of extreme heat events and associated health risks. As heat waves continue to get harsher due to climate change, South Asia's exposure to them is probably going to increase. After a heatwave in 2010, Ahmedabad implemented South Asia’s first heat action plan (HAP). The Ahmedabad HAP can serve as a model for other cities across South Asian nations interested in intervention strategies against excessive heat. In recent years, 2020 and onwards, Ahmedabad’s healthcare system faces an extreme COVID-19 crisis which resulted in severe negligence of heat wave-influenced mortality and morbidity cases. Though the city continued to disseminate the necessary information for public heat preparedness from the existing heat action plan, there was no record made separately for COVID-19 and heat stress-related mortality/morbidity by the health department. Thus, due to a lack of heat-related health records, we were unable to track the HAP intervention effect in 2022.

11.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090354

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the vaccination status and factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in the largest province of Pakistan. A multicentric, prospective, survey-based study using an interviewer-administered tool was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics between 1 December 2021 through 30 January 2022 across seven hospitals in Pakistan. The healthcare professionals providing care at the participating hospitals administered the survey. Four hundred and five pregnant women fully consented and completed the study. The majority of the study participants (70.6%, n = 286) were aged between 25 and 34 and had a previous successful pregnancy history. More than half of the study participants (56.0%, n = 227) did not receive COVID-19 vaccination at the time of data collection despite their family members (93.9%, n = 372) had already received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Among those who received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 173), vaccine efficacy, protection for the foetus, and risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalisation were the main driving factors for vaccine hesitancy. The majority of the unvaccinated women (77.8%, n = 182) had no intention of receiving the vaccine. However, more than two-thirds (85.7%, n = 342) consulted the doctor about COVID-19 vaccines, and most were recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccines by the doctors (80.7%, n = 280). Women were significantly more likely to be vaccinated if they had employment (odds ratio [OR] 4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-8.64) compared with their counterparts who were homemakers, consulted their doctors (OR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.04-0.35), and if they did not have pregnancy-related issues (OR 6.02, 95% CI: 2.36-15.33). In this study, vaccine hesitancy was prevalent, and vaccine uptake was low among pregnant women. Education and employment did impact COVID vaccination uptake, emphasising the need for more targeted efforts to enhance the trust in vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnant Women , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pakistan/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination
12.
Twelfth International Convention of Asia Scholars (Icas 12) ; : 73-80, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082896

ABSTRACT

India has been a key strategic player in the Indian Ocean where it sees itself as a net security provider in the region. However, engagement of other powers in its neighborhood, as well as their partnerships with other South Asian nations towards defense, economics, infrastructure development and technology, has posed a challenge for India's security and foreign policy. The study analyses how the change in South Asia's regional dynamics (especially Pakistan and Bangladesh) have impacted India's neighborhood policy within its larger Indo-Pacific vision. The study also captures the changes and continuities brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic in India's bilateral and multilateral relationships in the region. The paper argues that while the bilateral relations between India and its South Asian neighbors have been contentious, New Delhi has constantly sought to balance the same through an engagement based on development partnership and new security arrangements. This has helped India in its balancing act in the changing relations of South Asian neighbors with other global powers like China and the US.

13.
Global Business Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070674

ABSTRACT

The study attempted to explain the role of regional identity on the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility (PCSR) and purchase intention through customer satisfaction and brand loyalty in South and Southeast Asian regions during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A quantitative research was conducted with a survey including a sample of 3,870 regular retail customers from six countries in South and Southeast Asia. The data were analysed to test the hypotheses using SmartPLS. It found a significant and positive chain relationship between PCSR, satisfaction, brand loyalty and purchase intention in all six countries. In a comparative analysis, regional identity significantly, strongly and positively moderated the relationship in India and Pakistan except Sri Lanka while regional identity significantly and positively but weakly moderated the relationship in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. The study is the first investigation to discover dynamic role of customers' regional identity in making impactful CSR in a pandemic. It also made several theoretical and managerial implications with future research insights on retail consumer behaviour.

14.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:16, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716597

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, regular handwashing, and self-isolation are being touted as preventive measures to tackle the spread of COVID-19. But, for the majority of Indians, complying with such norms are privileges that they cannot afford.

15.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 9: 20499361221103876, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064694

ABSTRACT

Background: Systematic assessment of childhood asthma is challenging in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings due to the lack of standardised and validated methodologies. We describe the contextual challenges and adaptation strategies in the implementation of a community-based asthma assessment in four resource-constrained settings in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Method: We followed a group of children of age 6-8 years for 12 months to record their respiratory health outcomes. The study participants were enrolled at four study sites of the 'Aetiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia (ANISA)' study. We standardised the research methods for the sites, trained field staff for uniform data collection and provided a 'Child Card' to the caregiver to record the illness history of the participants. We visited the children on three different occasions to collect data on respiratory-related illnesses. The lung function of the children was assessed in the outreach clinics using portable spirometers before and after 6-minute exercise, and capillary blood was examined under light microscopes to determine eosinophil levels. Results: We enrolled 1512 children, 95.5% (1476/1512) of them completed the follow-up, and 81.5% (1232/1512) participants attended the lung function assessment tests. Pre- and post-exercise spirometry was performed successfully in 88.6% (1091/1232) and 85.7% (1056/1232) of children who attempted these tests. Limited access to health care services, shortage of skilled human resources, and cultural diversity were the main challenges in adopting uniform procedures across all sites. Designing the study implementation plan based on the local contexts and providing extensive training of the healthcare workers helped us to overcome these challenges. Conclusion: This study can be seen as a large-scale feasibility assessment of applying spirometry and exercise challenge tests in community settings of LMICs and provides confidence to build capacity to evaluate children's respiratory outcomes in future translational research studies.

16.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):802-806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055475

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce the principle and method ofa-Sutte model, establish a a-Sutte model by using software R, compare the fitting and prediction effects of thea-Sutte model and multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model, SARIMA model and provides reference for the application of thea-Sutte model in epidemic prediction.

17.
Economic Journal of Development Issues ; 29(30):59-80, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2054875

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the COVID-19 and its shocks on macro-economic variables in Nepalese economy based on the secondary data sets of macroeconomics variable pre- and post-COVID-19 by applying descriptive statistical methods. The growth of COVID-19 is unpredictably spreading all over the world. Its hot spot has been in the South Asia, particularly in Delhi and Nepal. Its correlation between COVID 19 cases and per capita GDP is positive. In South Asia, its growth rate is higher than its recovery indicating inefficiency of health system. Similarly, its shocks are so strong to influence trend, pattern and structure of macro-economic variables. Economic growth declined at 0.1percent in 2020 with falling outputs of agriculture, industry and service sectors. Unemployment rate reaches at 27.8 percent from 11.4 percent. The poor population increased by 7.47 percent. Besides, residential income and household income has fallen along with sharp decline in labor and remittance income. Lastly, its negative implication is found in foreign exchange reserve and balance of payment, trade and revenue. Thus, the COVID-19 and its shocks are undesired fluctuations and impose implications in Nepalese economy. Therefore, Nepal should improve health care system and vaccine availability for reducing the effects of pandemic and the lockdown for stability and recovery of the economy and also for welfare of the poor.

18.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(3):257-275, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2051860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale's psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach: The research design used for the study is "a mixed-method study using non-experimental research with an exploratory sequential approach and instrument development design." For the formation of the item pool, theoretical evidence was collected and focus group discussions were conducted. Afterward, content validity was established with the help of subject matter experts, followed by Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis to form the instrument's factorial structure. Findings: Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis made two factors as follows: ostracism experience and psychological effect. The instrument developed has a high value of alpha reliability i.e. a = 0.97 and a = 0.96, a = 0.92 for the subscales, respectively. Research limitations/implications: The sample used for the research was enough to run the analysis, but future studies can go for a more extensive and more diverse sample. The sample was based solely on university students. The current research focused only on the target of the phenomenon, and the whole research process was conducted online because of the Covid-19 pandemic going on. The scale developed can be used in several settings to find out if the individual is being ostracized or not. Practical implications: The scale's most important implication is in the colleges and universities where young adults are found and face this problem daily. Likewise, psychologists can also use it in clinical settings. The other important implication of this scale is that it is opening a route to future research as different variables can be studied in ostracism such as depression, physical health and anxiety. Social implications: Ostracism is a hidden evil in societies that is not usually talked about. When people are not given equal importance in groups or settings, it leads to serious psychological issues in those individuals. This scale will in the identification of the problem that will lead to a proper solution to this evil. Originality/value: This work is original and not copied from anywhere. The research was conducted with the sole purpose of developing a scale on the ostracism experiences in young adults. The data is collected in the form of online surveys. The current scale is an attempt at developing a more reliable and valid scale that can be used in social settings.

19.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

20.
IUP Journal of International Relations ; 16(3):7-23, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046813

ABSTRACT

2022 has brought many shocks and surprises to the world. Even as nations across the globe were recovering from the Covid-19 pandemic, Russia invaded Ukraine causing a devastating geopolitical turmoil. Closer home in South Asia, Pakistan faced a political setback and elected a new prime minister, while Sri Lanka is facing its worst economic crisis in more than 70 years. In fact, Sri Lanka's economic woes are not new. The crisis has been festering for years, until it started unraveling in the beginning of 2022. The ensuing chaos has deeply affected its citizens, which ultimately led to political turmoil and violence. It is difficult to predict the future state of affairs in the island nation, since a new political regime has recently taken charge. This paper aims to extensively analyze the economic crisis, mainly focusing on the reasons for the sad state of affairs, such as mismanagement by successive governments and ill-timed economic and trade policies, including China's investment fallout.

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