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1.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 3007-3016, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are essential health care workers (HCWs). Although they play an extraordinary role during the COVID-19 pandemic, they are mostly exposed to various occupational health and safety risks that have significantly impacted their mental health, giving rise to symptoms, such as stress and burnout. AIM: This study aimed to assess the perceived levels of stress and burnout amongst EMTs in relation to their socio-demographic characteristics and to explore the associations between their stress and burnout levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This work is an observational cross-sectional design study conducted between 29 March and 30 April 2021, with a convenience sample of 280 Spanish EMTs yielding a response rate of 28%. The online survey had 42 items that aimed to determine participants' socio-demographic characteristics, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). RESULTS: The results showed that more than half of the EMTs (53%) perceived a moderate stress level, 37% perceived moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (EE) and 40% had moderate levels of depersonalization (DP). Furthermore, 48% had low levels of personal accomplishment (PA). Gender, age, having personal protective equipment (PPE) and experiencing fear of infection were statistically significant areas where participants experienced greater stress (p < 0.05). A positive correlation between stress, EE and DP and a negative correlation between stress and the PA subdimension of burnout were found. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a tremendous impact on the mental health of ambulance EMTs. Further studies building on this study and others on the psychological status of EMTs before the pandemic and follow-up during the pandemic, as well as deeper investigations on their work conditions, are needed to facilitate the implementation of various interventions. Such efforts can mitigate the negative impacts of the pandemic on their mental health, and prepare them for future disasters.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of the majority of the world's population. In particular, it has impacted the mental health of various communities, including HCWs. Highly stressful and insecure work conditions have placed frontline HCWs at a high risk of psychological distress, making them victims and service providers simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Technicians , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Emergency Medical Technicians/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological
2.
Revista Espanola De Sociologia ; JOUR(4), 31.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083166

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research note is to carry out a protest event analysis in Spain in 2020, while inserting it into a broader longitudinal study (2000-2020) in order to discuss the extent to which collective action has been transformed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study addresses, from a database built through PEA (protest event analysis), both the quantitative dimensions of the protest and its main qualitative characteristics (type of participants, demands, organizers, methods, and objectives), and compare them to the protest dynamics observed in previous years. Results show that protests did not decrease in pandemic as much as might be expected (although participation did) and that a particular and differentiated profile of protest can be identified in times of COVID.

3.
Revista Espanola De Sociologia ; JOUR(4), 31.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082926

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis has been characterised by an increased fragility of the labour market, especially in the Southern European countries. Nevertheless, official data do not accurately capture the real upheavals of their labour markets. In this context, this paper compares the labour market performance of vulnerable populations (youth, women and migrants) in three Southern European countries with a cross-analysis of data over time. To this end, we have developed an alternative hidden unemployment indicator that recovers and includes unemployed persons from the categories of involuntary underemployment and inactivity. Our analyses include data from Spain, Portugal, and Italy, and take the European Union-Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) as their basis. Our results show that the impact of unemployment in the South of Europe is best measured when using an extended indicator, particularly when analysing the cases of vulnerable collectives. This tool shows great analytical potential for unveiling hidden unemployment in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Comedia Performance ; 19(1):123-142, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072074

ABSTRACT

With the closure of theaters in March of 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, theatrical companies in Spain were forced to change their seasonal programs, After interviewing actors, directors, and producers from different provinces of Andalusia who work with classical theater, this work exposes the difficulties that theater practitioners faced during the closures of the theaters and how they adapted to the restrictions imposed upon the reopening of theatrical spaces. These professionals explained what could or could not be adapted from their work, how long this adaptation took (or would have taken), and what other barriers they faced that are not obvious for laypersons. Furthermore, this article introduces these companies' opinions on virtual adaptations, recordings, and other alternative forms of theater. Finally, this work reveals how theater practitioners see the future of theater and comedia after the emergence of digital performances during the pandemic.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12628, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066442

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the promotion of university spin-offs has become a measure adopted by many European universities to facilitate the commercialization of new technologies and knowledge that can lead to more sustainable economies and societies. However, the effectiveness of university-based companies has also been questioned, as many of them are resource-constrained, remain small in size and struggle to consolidate once they leave the university context. This paper addresses two main research questions: what are the critical factors inhibiting the consolidation, performance, and sustainable development of university spin-offs at a mid-range European university, and which critical factors need to be addressed the most thoroughly by the university’s support programs in order to improve their efficiency? To answer these questions, we collected relevant information from a panel of experts and interviewed academic entrepreneurs from a public university in the South of Spain. The analytic hierarchy process was applied to identify and prioritize the critical factors and sub-factors encountered by the university-based companies. The results show that poor management is the biggest critical factor in the consolidation of the spin-offs. One implication, the findings of our study reveal, is the need for university administrators to improve support for university spin-offs in terms of managing the new business as opposed to prioritizing the difficulties associated with the launch. Another is the need to raise awareness among faculties of the importance of finding an appropriate balance between technical and managerial skills in order to improve the chances of entrepreneurial success.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2243-2252, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065411

ABSTRACT

Evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout on socioeconomic COVID-19-related inequalities is scarce. We analyzed associations between socioeconomic deprivation index (SDI) and COVID-19 vaccination, infection, and hospitalization before and after vaccine rollout in Catalonia, Spain. We conducted a population-based cohort study during September 2020-June 2021 that comprised 2,297,146 adults >40 years of age. We estimated odds ratio of nonvaccination and hazard ratios (HRs) of infection and hospitalization by SDI quintile relative to the least deprived quintile, Q1. Six months after rollout, vaccination coverage differed by SDI quintile in working-age (40-64 years) persons: 81% for Q1, 71% for Q5. Before rollout, we found a pattern of increased HR of infection and hospitalization with deprivation among working-age and retirement-age (>65 years) persons. After rollout, infection inequalities decreased in both age groups, whereas hospitalization inequalities decreased among retirement-age persons. Our findings suggest that mass vaccination reduced socioeconomic COVID-19-related inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Spain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Vaccination Coverage , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2321-2325, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065410

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the effect of COVID-19 on healthcare demand and invasive pneumococcal disease in children in Catalonia, Spain. Compared with 2018-2019, we noted large reductions in healthcare activities and incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in 2020. These changes likely resulted from nonpharmaceutical measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Spain/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Incidence , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Vaccines, Conjugate
8.
Hypertension. Conference: American Heart Association's Hypertension ; 79(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064366

ABSTRACT

Objective: Decision-making in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised questions related to the disease progression in hypertensive patients according to their BP control and the presence of comorbidities or target organ involvement. It has been reported that HTN can worse the outcomes of patients infected by COVID-19. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and sociodemographic parameters in this population of hypertensives treated in Primary Care, according to the severity of the disease progression (mild-asymptomatic or those who required hospital admission). Design and Methods: Multicentric, observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and analytical study. The patients were selected through a random sampling in 12 provinces in Spain, among patients older than 18y with treated hypertension and COVID-19 (PCR positive) under the primary care scope (119 investigators). Data collection time was 15 months (IQR= 5), from November 2020 to February 2022, outside the first wave. Result(s): 1372 patients were recruited (51% women, mean age 67yo), smoking 12.5%, obesity 43.9%, diabetes 27.5%, controlled arterial hypertension 55.9% (BP<140/90). The severity of COVID-19 progression was: mild-asymptomatic 971 (71%), hospital admission 401 (29%), admission to ICU 74 (5%), death 48 (4%). Comparing the progression of the covid-19 disease of patients who requires hospital admission vs mild-asymptomatic, statistically significant differences were found between some comorbidities: COPD 21.7% vs 11.9%, p<0.001;Diabetes 33.7% vs 24.9%, p<0.05;Dyslipidemia 64.6% vs 57.9%, p<0.05;CKD 21.5% vs 11.1%, p<0.01;Stroke 9.5% vs 5.5%, p<0.05;Atrial Fibrillation 17.7% vs 7.2%, p<0.001;Heart Failure 17% vs 5.8%, p<0.01;Ischemic Heart Disease 13.2% vs 4.6%, p<0.001. As well as: GFR <60 ml/min 110 (27%) vs 140 (14%), p<0.001;ACR (median, IQR) 72 mg/g (10-118) vs 62 (7-115), p<0.05 . Conclusion(s): Among Spanish hypertensive patients in Primary Care, Covid-19 mortality achieves 4%. Some comorbidities such as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease or dyslipidemia, in which hypertension itself develop obvious vascular organ damage, results in worsening the outcomes of this population.

9.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1065-1066, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063498

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The increased COVID-19 severity observed in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) has been widely reported. In addition, several studies have shown a reduced humoral and cellular response after mRNA vaccination in this population compared to hemodialysis patients. However, there is currently no information on real-life clinical protection (deaths and hospitalizations), a gap that this study aims to fill. Method(s): Observational prospective study. A total population of 1336 KTR and hemodialysis patients from three dialysis units affiliated to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain, vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. The outcomes measured were SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed by a positive RT-PCR fourteen days after the second vaccine dose, hospital admissions derived from infection, and a severe COVID-19 composite outcome, defined as either ICU admission, invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. Result(s): Six per cent (18/302) of patients on hemodialysis were infected, of whom four required hospital admission (1.3%), only one (0.3%) had severe COVID-19, and none of them died. In contrast, 4.3% (44/1034) of KTR were infected, and presented more hospital admissions (26 patients, 2.5%), severe COVID-19 (11 patients, 1.1%) or death (4 patients, 0.4%). There were no correlations on the multivariate analysis between measured outcomes and baseline characteristics nor immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion(s): The study highlights the need for further booster doses in KTR. In contrast, the hemodialysis population appears to have an adequate clinical response to vaccination, at least up to four months from its administration.

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A692-A693, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060669

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection ranges from asymptomatic to severe disease as defined by WHO. Emerging fungal infections such as mucormycosis and aspergillosis have been described in critically ill patients, most notably in India, when treated with steroids due to severe COVID-19 [1]. We present a unique case of an atypical presentation of mucormycosis in a non-severe COVID-19 patient not treated with corticosteroids. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old male with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency room for evaluation of shortness of breath, nausea and fatigue. History was significant for insulin noncompliance with home blood glucose in the 300s and a positive COVID-19 test one day prior to arrival. Initial vitals positive for tachycardia, tachypnea and hypertension while on room air. Labs showed leukocytosis 14,000 cells/uL, bicarbonate 7.2 mmol/L, anion gap 24.8, glucose 428 mg/dL, beta-hydroxybutyrate 58 mg/dL and nucleic acid amplification COVID-19 positive. Physical exam showed left eyelid and facial swelling, nasal congestion without sinus tenderness or other deformity, and kussmaul breathing pattern. CT face confirmed left periorbital cellulitis. Transfer to tertiary center for Ophthalmology evaluation was attempted but refused due to capacity. He was started on diabetic ketoacidosis treatment as well as broad spectrum antibiotics with the assistance of Infectious Disease, however COVID-19 treatments were held due to mild illness. Despite these interventions, he became stuporous and amphotericin was started. MR Brain showed findings suggestive of cavernous sinus thrombosis, acute ischemia and local mass effect. ENT then performed an endoscopic antrostomy with ethmoidectomy and biopsies were taken. Pathology resulted as invasive fungal sinusitis with 90° branching hyphae confirming mucormycosis and a lumbar drain was placed with intrathecal amphotericin started for concern of mucormycosis meningitis. The patient was ultimately transferred to a tertiary care center where he expired. DISCUSSION: Mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection affecting the immunocompromised and diabetics, is rare but deadly. The estimated prevalence in the United States is 0.16 per 10,000 hospital discharges [2] and bears a mortality rate of 46%. Recent systematic reviews report 275 cases of COVID associated mucormycosis with 233 in India [1] with 76.3% receiving corticosteroids prior to diagnosis [3], likely contributing to an immunocompromised state. Our case demonstrates that despite not receiving corticosteroids, even those with mild COVID-19 are at risk for this disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes, immunocompromised states, and now COVID-19, presenting with orbital symptoms warrant consideration of mucormycosis. Prompt management of the underlying condition, IV amphotericin, and possible debridement may increase survival. Reference #1: John TM, Jacob CN, Kontoyiannis DP. When Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and Severe COVID-19 Converge: The Perfect Storm for Mucormycosis. J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Apr 15;7(4):298. doi: 10.3390/jof7040298. PMID: 33920755;PMCID: PMC8071133. Reference #2: Kontoyiannis DP, Yang H, Song J, et al. Prevalence, clinical and economic burden of mucormycosis-related hospitalizations in the United States: a retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):730. Published 2016 Dec 1. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-2023-z Reference #3: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):102146. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019. Epub 2021 May 21. PMID: 34192610;PMCID: PMC8137376 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by james abraham No relevant relationships by christian ALMANZAR ZORRILLA No relevant relationships by Grace Johnson No relevant relationships by Thanuja Neerukonda No relevant relationships by Blake Spain No relevant re ationships by Michael Su No relevant relationships by Steven Tran No relevant relationships by Margarita Vanegas No relevant relationships by Alexandra Witt

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A310, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060559

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: As the coronavirus pandemic continues to burden the global health care system, strong associations have emerged with hypercoagulability. Recent reports of Covid-19 support both venous and arterial thromboembolism, thus coagulopathy emerging as one of the most severe sequelae of the disease, which has also been associated with poorer outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity presented with progressively worsening shortness of breath and cough. She was found to be hypoxic to 80% on arrival and tested positive for COVID-19. She was subsequently intubated and admitted to the ICU. Her D-dimer was noted to be 9.04mcg/mLFEU (0-0.55mcg/mLFEU), ferritin 256ng/mL(10-291ng/mL), LDH 707 U/L(130-270U/L), CRP 138mg/L (< 10mg/L). She was treated with a ten-day course of dexamethasone and a five-day course of Remdesivir. On Day 7, purple discoloration was noted in the second to fifth digits of the left hand, concerning acute ischemia. Left upper extremity ultrasound revealed intraluminal heterogeneous echogenicity likely occlusive ulnar arterial thrombus with no flow to mid or distal segment and normal flow in the radial artery into a complete palmar arch. This was seen to be classical for micro-embolic phenomenon attributable to the hypercoagulable state associated with Covid-19 infection. Treatment with Heparin drip was initiated along with the local application of nitro paste. The patient was subsequently discharged home but re-presented a month later for gastrointestinal bleeding. At this admission, her left second digit was noted to express purulent drainage. Imaging confirmed osteomyelitis in the second through fifth digits and was referred to a tertiary center for definitive treatment. DISCUSSION: Covid-19 has been shown to provoke catastrophic inflammatory responses by triggering a dysfunctional cascade of thrombosis in the pulmonary vasculature leading to both micro and macroangiopathic manifestations. The quick progression of ischemia to digital gangrene, despite collateral circulation and early intervention, indicates severe microangiopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Thus physicians must always have a high index of suspicion for thromboembolic complications in patients with Covid-19. The development of severe complications despite prompt anticoagulation highlights the need for alternative or newer therapies like targeted immunotherapy that would effectively manage these complications of SARS-CoV-2. Reference #1: Digital Gangrene as a Sign of Catastrophic Coronavirus Disease 2019-related Microangiopathy Jessica S. Wang, MD,* Helena B. Pasieka, MD, MS,† Vesna Petronic-Rosic, MD, MSc, MBA,† Banafsheh Sharif-Askary, MD,* and Karen Kim Evans, MDcorresponding author Reference #2: Galván Casas C, Català A, Carretero Hernández G, Rodríguez-Jiménez P, Fernández-Nieto D, Rodríguez-Villa Lario A, Navarro Fernández I, Ruiz-Villaverde R, Falkenhain-López D, Llamas Velasco M, García-Gavín J, Baniandrés O, González-Cruz C, Morillas-Lahuerta V, Cubiró X, Figueras Nart I, Selda-Enriquez G, Romaní J, Fustà-Novell X, Melian-Olivera A, Roncero Riesco M, Burgos-Blasco P, Sola Ortigosa J, Feito Rodriguez M, García-Doval. Classifications of the cutaneous manifestations of Covid-19: a rapid prospective nationwide consensus study in Spain with 375 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Jul;183(1):71-77. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19163. Epub 2020 Jun 10. Reference #3: Mouhamed Yazan Abou-Ismail 1, Akiva Diamond 2, Sargam Kapoor 3, Yasmin Arafah 2, Lalitha Nayak 4.The hypercoagulable state in COVID-19: Incidence, pathophysiology, and management Thromb Res. 2020 Oct;194:101-115. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.06.029. Epub 2020 Jun 20. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Navyamani Kagita No relevant relationships by ABHIGNA KULKARNI No relevant relationships by Rajesh Thirumaran

12.
Embase; 2020.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344373

ABSTRACT

Variation in individual susceptibility or frequency of exposure to infection accelerates the rate at which populations acquire immunity by natural infection. Individuals that are more susceptible or more frequently exposed tend to be infected earlier and hence more quickly selected out of the susceptible pool, decelerating the incidence of new infections as the epidemic progresses. Eventually, susceptible numbers become low enough to prevent epidemic growth or, in other words, the herd immunity threshold (HIT) is reached. We have recently proposed a method whereby mathematical models, with gamma distributions of susceptibility or exposure to SARS-CoV-2, are fitted to epidemic curves to estimate coefficients of individual variation among epidemiological parameters of interest. In the initial study we estimated HIT around 25-29% for the original Wuhan virus in England and Scotland. Here we explore the limits of applicability of the method using Spain and Portugal as case studies. Results are robust and consistent with England and Scotland, in the case of Spain, but fail in Portugal due to particularities of the dataset. We describe failures, identify their causes, and propose methodological extensions. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

13.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):341-F0172, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058679

ABSTRACT

Purpose : To assess the visual impact and reasons for treatment delay during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients in ongoing anti-VEGF therapy. Methods : Retrospective, national, multicentre, observational study in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGF therapy and registered in the Fight Retinal Blindness (FRB) Spain platform prior to lockdown. Study cohort was divided in timely treated patients (TTP) and delayed treatment patients (DTP). Mean change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, in ETDRS letters) from the last follow-up visit (FUV) before lockdown (BLD) (baseline [BL] visit) to the first FUV after lockdown (ALD) was assessed. A specific questionnaire was distributed to the participant centers to investigate further the reasons for treatment delay in all individual cases. Results : A total of 245 eyes fulfilled the eligibility criteria, from which 39.6% were TTP (n=97) and 60.4% were DTP (n=148). TTP presented greater baseline and final BCVA compared to DTP (64.1 vs 58.7 letters, p=0.023, and 63.6 vs 57.1, p=0.004). BCVA loss was significantly greater for DTP vs TTP (-2.0 vs -0.6 letters, p=0.016). For DTP cohort, the primary reason for visit delay was patient decision (48.2%) followed by limited hospital clinic capacity (42.7%). When patients decided not to attend scheduled visits, the main reason was fear to Covid-19 infection (49.4%). Conclusions : This study provides relevant data about the impact on visual outcomes of Covid-19 pandemic lockdown on nAMD patients and specifically provides new additional information regarding the main reasons for treatment and visits delay from both patients and healthcare service delivery perspectives.

14.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1034-1039, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058576

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 disease, which was declared pandemic by WHO on the 11th of March 2020, has affected more than 200 countries worldwide and adversely affected whole areas of life. Aim: Our aim in this study is to investigate whether scientists in countries with low mortality rates and a higher reported number of COVID-19 cases among OECD countries sufficiently share their scientific knowledge. Methodology: A literature search was conducted with the keywords, "COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, Coronavirus" in scientific databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Medline to find the number of published articles conducted by scientists in OECD countries between the period 01 March 2020 to 01 July 2020. To define the number of academic population of the countries, the number of residents in tertiary education levels of OECD countries was obtained from the educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds report published on the OECD website. Results: In regards to the countries with the lowest fatality rates, India (n:1578), Australia (n:1097), and Korea (n:876) are the top three countries that have contributed to the scientific literature with the most published studies on COVID-19 issue. Conclusions: Concerning the current scientific data, about 2,000 papers regarding COVID-19 disease have been registered in the PubMed database since the early beginning of this year. The number of scientific publications is not consistent with the rate of tertiary education levels. Besides, the number of observed cases, and the data-sharing policies of the countries are determinants of the number of scientific publications.

15.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1731-F0191, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057633

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The main purpose of this study is to describe the fundoscopic alterations and retinal vessel caliber measurements in SARS-CoV2 positive patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Madrid (Spain) and to correlate the retinal vessel caliber with the severity of the disease. Methods : A single-center cross-sectional observational study to document the retinal vascular findings in SARS-CoV2 patients admitted to a tertiary Hospital during the first wave in Madrid, Spain. Fundoscopy was performed in both eyes (when possible) with a manual retinography Zeiss Visuscout 100. All patients signed a consent form to participate in the study. Pharmacological mydriasis prior to retinography was achieved by applying one drop of tropicamide 1% in each eye. Data collected included previous medical and ophthalmic history, prescribed medical and postural treatments, and laboratory findings at the time of admission. All cases were classified according to their outcome as per the WHO clinical progression scale on a scale of 0 to 10, with being 0 the uninfected state and 10 being death. All the retinal images were analysed by two medical retina experts independently. Retinal vessel calibers were measured by a single masked grader using a validated research software with high reproducibility.The relationship between the WHO clinical progression scale and retinal vessel caliber was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples. Results : In total, 81 patients and 154 eyes were included in the study. The fundus retinal assessment disclosed signs of hypertensive retinopathy in 8 right eyes (OD) (8/77) and 9 left eyes (OS) (9/77);vascular tortuosity was present in 13 OD (13/77) and 13 OS (13/77);age-related macular degeneration was found in 13 OD (13/77) and 12 OS (12/77);myopic retinopathy in 3 OD (3/77) and 3 OS (3/77);finally incidental choroidal nevi were found in 4 OD (4/77) and 2 OS (2/77). The retinal microvascular caliber assessment was performed in a total of 72 eyes from 72 subjects, the right eye was used in 61 cases, left eye in the rest. There was no statistically significant difference according to vessel caliber and WHO outcome score. Conclusions : COVID-19 has been linked to an increase risk of cardiovascular events. However, we could not find a correlation among retinal vascular findings and clinical outcome in our cohort.

16.
Land ; 11(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the world economy since 2020. This study analyzed the impact of the pandemic on innovative agri-food companies from different branches of agro-industrial activity located in Extremadura (Spain). The main aim of this study was to determine which activities have been most affected. Differences between actions and changes made depending on the nature of the product, process, or services were also evaluated. The information was obtained from an online questionnaire in which the research questions were posed (what consequences, actions, or changes has the pandemic had on the development of firms' activities?). Data were analyzed descriptively, and a statistical study was conducted on the existence or absence of independence between effects and actions based on the branches of activity of agri-food industries. The main results showed that companies' financial (decrease in turnover and reduction/displacement of product demand) and operational functioning (difficulty in marketing activities and standstill/decline in the fiscal year) has mainly been affected. In response, innovative agro-industries have acted regarding their processes (increased ICT use and new marketing strategies) and procedures (implementation of stricter hygienic-sanitary protocols and reorganization of activities and personnel) to deal with the negative effects on their activities. In general, all agro-industrial branches have incorporated changes in their products and services, mainly by providing new and better customer benefits, and improving product formats and forms of payment to suppliers. These findings provide information for the regional public administration in the development of initiatives that mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and favor the implementation of actions that help the adaptation of agro-industrial activities. Agricultural policies should incorporate specialized measures to ensure the global sustainability of the food and agriculture system and the supply and production.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2181-2189, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054900

ABSTRACT

We compared hospital-acquired catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) episodes diagnosed at acute care hospitals in Catalonia, Spain, during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with those detected during 2007-2019. We compared the annual observed and predicted CRB rates by using the negative binomial regression model and calculated stratified annual root mean squared errors. A total of 10,030 episodes were diagnosed during 2007-2020. During 2020, the observed CRB incidence rate was 0.29/103 patient-days, whereas the predicted CRB rate was 0.14/103 patient-days. The root mean squared error was 0.153. Thus, a substantial increase in hospital-acquired CRB cases was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the rate predicted from 2007-2019. The incidence rate was expected to increase by 1.07 (95% CI 1-1.15) for every 1,000 COVID-19-related hospital admissions. We recommend maintaining all CRB prevention efforts regardless of the coexistence of other challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bacteremia/etiology , Catheters/adverse effects
18.
J Med Access ; 6: 27550834221123425, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053840

ABSTRACT

Prior to the outbreak of the COVID pandemic, pharmaceutical shortages were already recognised as a major policy problem by most, if not all, European governments; and virtually all European national governments today publicise official shortage lists. Policy making in the area has been centred on the national government level, which meant that the understanding, definition, and response to shortages has remained highly heterogeneous. When the advent of the COVID pandemic exacerbated shortages, this situation continued against a background of a weak collective European response. As part of their responses to COVID-shortages, the medicines regulators of European countries expanded the range of products pharmacies could manufacture, process and distribute as well as their procedural authority in issuing, handling and processing prescriptions. While these measures were fairly common across Europe and alleviated some bottlenecks or improved medicine access for some patient groups, other responses were highly individualistic and included export bans of certain medications as well as efforts to draw on veterinary supplies. Our own data analysis of officially recorded shortage data during the first COVID wave (to October 2020) indicates that countries that had prepared for these types of crisis and maintained an active policy stance (e.g. Germany and Norway) were more likely to encounter fewer shortages than others. We also note that there is no direct correlation between officially recorded numbers of shortages and the ways in which national governments responded to these - which indicates that cultural expectations also might have been a significant policy driver.

19.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology ; 31(5):667-684, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2050759

ABSTRACT

The aim of this intensive longitudinal study was (1) to explore the temporal evolution of two mental health indicators (anxiety and depressive symptoms, and insomnia) throughout COVID-19 lockdown in Spain, and (2) to examine its association with two work-related stressors (job insecurity and work-family conflict). A sample of 1519 participants responded to several questionnaires during the lockdown (between 16 March and 29 April 2020). Results of latent growth modelling showed a curvilinear increase of our two mental health indicators over time (a logarithmic growth for anxiety and depression, accentuated during the first part of the lockdown, and a quadratic growth for insomnia, accentuated during the second part). Regarding its association with work-related stressors, we found that higher levels of job insecurity and work-family conflict were related to higher levels of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between time and the two forms of work-family conflict (work-to-home and home-to-work), showing that people with more work-family conflict experienced stronger growth in all mental-health indicators. Overall, this study contributes to the description of the temporal dynamics of mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain, as well as its association with two key work-related stressors.

20.
European Journal of Cancer ; 173:S32-S33, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2050115
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