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1.
Materials ; 15(10):3433, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871463

ABSTRACT

Systematic disinfection of the stethoscope diaphragm is required to ensure that it does not act as a vector for cross-transmission of health-related diseases. Thus, an antimicrobial latex film could be used as a cover to inhibit pathogenic bacteria from growing on its surface. The aim of this work is to determine the antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of antimicrobial natural rubber (NR) latex films with different types of antimicrobial agents (mangosteen peel powder (MPP), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP), and povidone-iodine (PVP-I)). The antimicrobial loading was varied from 0.5, to 1.0, and 2.0 phr to monitor the effective inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi growth. For MPP and PVP-I antimicrobial agents, a loading of 2.0 phr showed good antimicrobial efficacy with the largest zone of inhibition. Simultaneously, ZnO NP demonstrated excellent antimicrobial activity at low concentrations. The addition of antimicrobial agents shows a comparable effect on the mechanical properties of NR latex films. In comparison to control NR latex film (29.41 MPa, 48.49 N/mm), antimicrobial-filled films have significantly greater tensile and tear strengths (MPP (33.84 MPa, 65.21 N/mm), ZnO NP (31.79 MPa, 52.77 N/mm), and PVP-I (33.25 MPa, 50.75 N/mm). In conclusion, the addition of antimicrobial agents, particularly ZnO NP, can be a better choice for NR latex films because they will serve as both an activator and an antimicrobial. In a clinical context, with regard to frequently used medical equipment such as a stethoscope, such an approach offers significant promise to aid infection control.

2.
International Journal of Microbiology ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871145

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial potential of Aspergillus sp., isolated from the Amazon biome, which is stored at the Amazon Fungi Collection-CFAM at ILMD/FIOCRUZ, was evaluated. The fungal culture was cultivated in yeast extract agar and sucrose (YES) for cold extraction of the biocompounds in ethyl acetate at 28 °C for 7 days in a BOD type incubator. The obtained extract was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Gram-positive and negative bacteria by the “cup plate” method and the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the broth microdilution method. The extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fractionated by open and semipreparative column chromatography. The fractions of interest had their chemical constituents elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The elucidated molecule was evaluated for cytotoxicity against the human fibroblast strain (MRC5). The extract presented inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria, with the range of inhibition halos from 5.3 to 14 mm in diameter and an MIC ranging from 500 to 15.6 μg/mL. Seventy-one fractions were collected and TLC analysis suggested the presence of substances with double bond groups: coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic, alkaloids, and terpenes. NMR and MS analyses demonstrated that the isolated molecule was kojic acid. The results of the cytotoxicity test showed that MRC5 cells presented viability at concentrations from 500 to 7.81 μg/mL. The kojic acid molecule of Aspergillus sp., with antibacterial activity and moderate toxicity at the concentrations tested, is a promising prototype of an alternative active principle of an antimicrobial drug.

3.
Advanced Science ; 8(11), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870661

ABSTRACT

While the ongoing COVID‐19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally‐ and chemically‐diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH‐drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV‐229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Application of these anionic polymers to frequently touched surfaces in medical, educational, and public‐transportation facilities, or personal protection equipment, can provide rapid and repetitive protection without detrimental health or environmental complications.

4.
Microbiology Research ; 13(1):49, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818178

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial resistance in staphylococci and enterococci is challenging. The aim of this work was to conduct a multipoint study using molecular detections, antimicrobial resistances profiles, patient demographics and disease patterns for objective assessments of Staphilococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens recovered from clinical infections in the Ha’il region. We have surveyed 188 non-duplicate Gram-positives against 22 antimicrobials for molecular-differentiation, resistance, patient demographics, and disease patterns from January–April 2021. According to definitions for acquired resistance, Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent with multidrug resistant (65.4%), where MRSA was 60% (n = 72 out of 121). In age-identified patients, 43% were seniors ≥50 years, 38% 21–49 years, and 19% 0–20 years. In gender-identified patients, 63% were males, and 37% were females. While 25% of specimens were from the ICU, the majority (60%) of specimens were from surgical infection in other wards. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the second (15.4%) species of infection identified with 81% from bloodstream infections at the ICU and other wards. The majority of S. epidermidis patients (69%) were seniors ≥50 years, while other age groups 0–20 and 21–49 each had 14% isolates. Although S. epidermidis was multidrug-resistant, it was susceptible to many drugs. Enterococcus faecalis (13%) ranked third with two major infections;bloodstream (64%) and urinary-tract infections (36%) in mainly seniors (86%). Its isolates were fully resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, and cefotaxime but nearly 100% susceptible to seven others. Other Gram-positive bacteria (6%) were susceptible to many antibiotics. The use of combinations of objective criteria is a well thought out approach in infection control. While the low-frequency of Gram-positives is an impressive achievement, future large-scale investigations should include all private hospitals, clinics and other cities over a longer sampling time to gain more insights. Although geriatric susceptibility can be justified by age and comorbidities, the staphylococcal infections in young adults and children is a global concern and warrants more vertical studies.

5.
Internal Medicine Alert ; 44(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812810

ABSTRACT

Researchers at the Imperial College Hospital and School of Public Health in London examined patterns of bloodstream infection (BSI), hospital stay, and mortality before and during two waves of COVID-19 between January 2020 and February 2021. Despite a decrease in the number of total hospital admissions by 65% during the surges, mostly because of the suspension of elective activities, blood cultures were obtained at a rate nearly double that of pre-COVID, up from 86.8/1,000 patient days pre-COVID to 150.7/1,000 patient days during both COVID surges. The authors believe both the higher rate of contaminated cultures and the increase in hospital-acquired BSI can be directly traced to the effect of both COVID surges on the hospital system, with disruptions in care and breakdown of usual infection prevention practices.

6.
Contemporary Pediatrics ; 38(12):20-27, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1695671

ABSTRACT

There have been major advancements in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. [...]far, only remdesivir1 (Veklury) has received FDA approval for treatment of COVID-19 in adults and children 12 years and older, but its use in younger children is permitted only under an emergency use authorization (EUA). Morphine oral solution (2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL) is now indicated for pediatric patients aged 2 to 17 years with acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic when alternative treatments are inadequate.8 Safety and efficacy in this age group are supported by extrapolation from clinical evidence in adults and supportive data from an open-label safety and pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients aged 2 to 17 years with postoperative acute pain. The labeling has been expanded to include safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years, offering this population an alternative nonopioid pain medication.10,11 This indication was based on extrapolation of efficacy from studies in adult patients combined with pharmacokinetic and safety data from 2 open-label studies with a combined 49 patients aged 12 to 17 years and an activecontrolled study in 76 pediatric patients aged 12 to 16 years. Dalbavancin (Dalvance) is a unique glycopeptide antibiotic that is approved in all pediatric patients from birth.14 It is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

7.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(2):176, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1683788

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 evades antibodies Cell-culture experiments have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can hide from the immune system and spread through cell-to-cell transmission by limiting the release of viral particles that can be inactivated by antibodies. Zika pathogenesis Pyruvic acid, a compound in the glucose metabolism pathway and a readily available supplement, may protect babies from neurological disorders and other birth defects caused by the Zika virus if taken by pregnant women. Scientists have discovered a critical gene change that turns the Zika virus from its weakened form into a mildly pathologenic form called M-F37L.

8.
AORN Journal ; 114(6), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1624360
9.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 27(12), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1613538

ABSTRACT

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the animals known to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 include otters, mink, white-tailed deer, dogs, ferrets, and felids, including domestic cats, lions, pumas, and tigers. Diagnostic samples taken from one tiger confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, and public health officials postulated that the source was exposure to a zoo employee positive for the virus. A 2014 literature review in PLoS One documents myriad cases in which humans transmitted influenza A virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and other pathogens to animals and stated that “transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat.” November 21, 2021 The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions.

10.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; - (3):1030, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1589831

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of multidrug resistant bacteria causing secondary infections in COVID-19 patients in ICU's of a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from Apr to Jul 2020. Methodology: This study included blood samples and endotracheal aspirates from 114 critically ill COVID-19 patients. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from the patients with secondary bacterial blood stream infections and endotracheal aspirates were collected from patients with ventilator associated pneumonia for culture and sensitivity. The results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) 2020. Results: A total of 114 COVID-19 patients were admitted in ICU during that time period. Fourteen (12.28%) were female and 100 (87.71%) were male, age distribution was between 36-82 years. Sixty six paired blood samples were sent to the microbiology lab out of which 51 (77.2%) showed bacterial growth while 15 (22.7%) samples were negative. Out of 50 endotracheal aspirates, 42 showed bacterial growth (84%) and 8 samples did not show any significant bacterial growth (16%). Most of the endotracheal aspirates showed growth of >1 bacterial isolates. The most common gram-negative organisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (n=54) and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (n=26) and most common gram-positive organism isolated was Enterococcus faecium (n=9). All isolated organisms were multidrug resistant. Conclusion: Poor antimicrobial stewardship particularly in critical care units resulted in secondary bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients. The pathogens isolated were multidrug resistant including Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecium.

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