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1.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966873

ABSTRACT

The early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was temporally associated with a reduction in many childhood infections, although the impact on bacterial colonization is unknown. We longitudinally assessed Staphylococcusaureus colonization prior to and through the first year of the pandemic. We observed a decline in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization associated with SARS-CoV-2 prevention mandates.

2.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(4):387-392, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965471

ABSTRACT

Aim:ToknowtheincidenceofnosocomialinfectionsintheCOVID19patientsadmitted in the hospital that may help in the selection of the suitable antibiotics followsthebetter managementof theCOVID 19patients.Materials and methods: A total of 1534 COVID 19 patients were includedin thestudy.Therespiratory,blood,urinaryandpusformsurgicalsitessampleswerecollected to find the incidence of the bacterial infection in hospitalized COVID 19patients. The samples were collected 48 hours after the admission of the patient in to thehospital.Results: The incidence of the nosocomial infections in the COVID 19 patients was30.24%. The Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Coagulase negativestaphylococci were more prevalent bacteria causing secondary infection in COVID 19patients.E.coliwas predominantly seeninUrinesamples.Conclusion: The rate of bacterial infections in the COVID 19 patients was observed ashighandneedtobeconsideredtotakeprecautionstominimisethespreadofnosocomial infections. The incidence of the bacteria reported in this study may be ofgreat value in the management of the COVID 19 patients and may also help to reducethemortality and morbidity.

3.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been a challenge for healthcare professionals since its appearance. Staphylococcus aureus has been described as one of the main pathogens causing bacterial infections in viral pandemics. However, co- infection with S. aureus causing bacteremia in patients with COVID-19 has yet to be well studied. METHODS: We performed a e study of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) at Hospital Miguel Servet (Zaragoza) from March 2020 to February 2021. The clinical characteristics, mortality and risk factors of adults hospitalized patients with BSA associated COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients with SAB were identified. 27.3% were positive for SARS-CoV-2. SAB represented 9.9% of bacteremia, being the second agent in frequency after E. coli. Nosocomial bacteremia was more frequent in the group of COVID-19 patients. The most frequent source of BSA in these patients was the respiratory source (26.9% vs 0%; P<0.001) followed by the skin (15.5% vs 15.9%; P=1). The development of sepsis was more frequent in COVID-19 patients (61,5% vs 7,8%; P=0,336) and among them, who received dexamethasone at doses > 6 mg/day (62.5% vs. 37.5%, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that BSA has a negative impact on the evolution of patients with COVID-19. However, further and preferably prospective studies are required to obtain solid data on the impact of BSA on coronavirus patients.

4.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e6084, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958714

ABSTRACT

An increased rate of hospitalizations due to right-sided infective endocarditis is currently witnessed due to the rapid rise of IV drug use. In this case report, we aim to discuss the long-term outcome and highlight the various diagnostic approaches and management difficulties that are encountered in these cases.

5.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(3):300-304, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957624

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is commonly detected in pneumonia patients who travel from the Middle East regions. Besides MERS-CoV, many other pathogenic agents cause pneumonia. Detection of such organisms must be done swiftly, especially in case of the negative MERS-CoV samples. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogenic agents that might account for bacterial pneumonia, from Hajj and Umrah pneumonia cases. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, 38 pneumonia clinical samples from suffering of Hajj and Umrah in 2017 with negative MERS-CoV were selected. The laboratory testing was done at National Reference Laboratory in Jakarta and performed by multiplex real-time PCR using a FTD respiratory pathogens. Results: Haemophilus influenzae (26.4%) was the most frequent bacteria detected. Other causative agents of bacterial pneumonia identified were Moraxella catarrhalis (20.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%). From 38 samples showed that 25 (65.79%) samples were positive with bacteria, in-cluding five samples with coinfection. The coinfection were combinations among S. aureus and S. pneumoniae (1/20), S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae (1/20), S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis (2/20), S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (2/20), K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (5/20), and M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae (5/20). Conclusion: Haemophilus influenzae is the most recurrent bacteria to be identified in samples of pneumonia of hajj and umrah cases.

6.
Pakistan Paediatric Journal ; 46(2):229-232, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955740

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcal aureus infection in children is a major public health problem globally. It causes a varied spectrum of clinical disease including bacteremia, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infection, pleuro-pulmaonry and osteo-articular infection. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a known complication of staphylococcal infection. We report a case series which included, 10-year old boy developed DVT, septic pulmonary emboli and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) bacteremia following a furuculosis and 13 year old girl with thrombosis of internal and external jugular vein, cavernous sinus with pulmonary emboli and MRA bacteremia. Both patients are previously healthy showed complete recovery after aggressive appropriate antibiotics, anticoagulants and supportive care. The high index of suspicion of DVT in MRSA infection is needed, prompt diagnosis and aggressive appropriate therapies improve the outcomes and minimize the complications.

7.
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal ; 28(6):396-461, 2022.
Article in English, French | WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-1955678

ABSTRACT

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is the official health journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new policies and initiatives in health services;and for the exchange of ideas concepts epidemiological data research findings and other information with special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. It addresses all members of the health profession medical and other health educational institutes interested NGOs WHO Collaborating Centres and individuals within and outside the Region. المجلة الصحية لشرق المتوسط هى المجلة الرسمية التى تصدرعن المكتب الاقليمى لشرق المتوسط بمنظمة الصحة العالمية. وهى منبر لتقديم السياسات والمبادرات الجديدة فى الصحة العامة والخدمات الصحية والترويج لها، و لتبادل الاراء و المفاهيم والمعطيات الوبائية ونتائج الابحاث وغير ذلك من المعلومات، و خاصة ما يتعلق منها باقليم شرق المتوسط. وهى موجهة الى كل اعضاء المهن الصحية، والكليات الطبية وسائر المعاهد التعليمية، و كذا المنظمات غير الحكومية المعنية، والمراكز المتعاونة مع منظمة الصحة العالمية والافراد المهتمين بالصحة فى الاقليم و خارجه La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale est une revue de santé officielle publiée par le Bureau régional de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour la Méditerranée orientale. Elle offre une tribune pour la présentation et la promotion de nouvelles politiques et initiatives dans le domaine de la santé publique et des services de santé ainsi qu’à l’échange d’idées de concepts de données épidémiologiques de résultats de recherches et d’autres informations se rapportant plus particulièrement à la Région de la Méditerranée orientale. Elle s’adresse à tous les professionnels de la santé aux membres des instituts médicaux et autres instituts de formation médico-sanitaire aux ONG Centres collaborateurs de l’OMS et personnes concernés au sein et hors de la Région.

8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 67, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause severe diseases. MRSA is associated with other antibiotic resistance. COVID-19 pandemic increased antimicrobial resistance in adult patients. Only a few data report the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus in the Italian pediatric population, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We included all the S. aureus positive samples with an available antibiogram isolated from pediatric patients (< 18 years old) in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy, from January 2017 to December 2021. We collected data on demographics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical history. We compared methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains. We calculated the frequency of isolation by year. The incidence of isolates during 2020 was compared with the average year isolation frequency using the univariate Poisson test. We compared the proportion of MRSA isolates during 2020 to the average proportion of other years with the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our dataset included a total of 255 S. aureus isolated from 226 patients, 120 (53%) males, and 106 (47%) females, with a median age of 3.4 years (IQR 0.8 - 10.5). The mean isolation frequency per year was 51. We observed a significant decrease of isolations during 2020 (p = 0.02), but after adjusting for the total number of hospitalization per year there was no evidence that the incidence changed. Seventy-six (30%) S. aureus were MRSA. Twenty (26%) MRSA vs 23 (13%) MSSA (p = 0.02) were hospital-acquired. MRSA strains showed higher resistance to cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, macrolides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, and tetracyclin than MSSA strains. None of MRSA were resistant to linezolid and vancomycin, one was resistant to daptomycin. The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall clindamycin resistance was high (17%). Recent antibiotic therapy was related to MRSA infection. CONCLUSION: The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic and remained high. Clindamycin should not be used as an empirical MRSA treatment due to its high resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Healthcare
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 631, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is one of the most frequent bloodstream infections. High mortality of SAB can be significantly reduced by regular infectious disease (ID) consultations and appropriate clinical management. Because the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a negative impact on hospital ID service, it can be assumed that it has also led to decreased quality of care for SAB patients. METHODS: This study enrolled all (n = 68) patients with proven SAB who were hospitalized in Military University Hospital, Prague, in 2019 and 2020 and the quality of care indicators for SAB patients were compared. RESULTS: A total of 33 and 35 patients with SAB were hospitalized in our hospital in 2019 and 2020, respectively. The significant difference between the pandemic year 2020 and year 2019 was in ID consultations performed (74% vs. 100%; p = 0.002) and fulfilment of all quality of care indicators (66% vs. 93%; p = 0.012). Next, higher in-hospital mortality was observed in 2020 than in 2019 (6% vs. 23%; p = 0.085). There was no significant difference in the percentages of patients with performed echocardiographic examinations (66% vs. 83%; p = 0.156) and collected follow-up blood cultures (85% vs. 94%; p = 0.428). In addition, there was no difference between the two years in the adequate antibiotic therapy, sources, and bacterial origin of SAB. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of care of SAB patients significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic in our institution.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Treatment Outcome
10.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938913

ABSTRACT

Propolis has gained wide popularity over the last decades in several parts of the world. In parallel, the literature about propolis composition and biological properties increased markedly. A great number of papers have demonstrated that propolis from different parts of the world is composed mainly of phenolic substances, frequently flavonoids, derived from plant resins. Propolis has a relevant role in increasing the social immunity of bee hives. Experimental evidence indicates that propolis and its components have activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Mechanisms of action on bacteria, fungi, and viruses are known for several propolis components. Experiments have shown that propolis may act synergistically with antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirus drugs, permitting the administration of lower doses of drugs and higher antimicrobial effects. The current trend of growing resistance of microbial pathogens to the available drugs has encouraged the introduction of propolis in therapy against infectious diseases. Because propolis composition is widely variable, standardized propolis extracts have been produced. Successful clinical trials have included propolis extracts as medicine in dentistry and as an adjuvant in the treatment of patients against COVID-19. Present world health conditions encourage initiatives toward the spread of the niche of propolis, not only as traditional and alternative medicine but also as a relevant protagonist in anti-infectious therapy. Production of propolis and other apiary products is environmentally friendly and may contribute to alleviating the current crisis of the decline of bee populations. Propolis production has had social-economic relevance in Brazil, providing benefits to underprivileged people.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ascomycota , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Propolis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propolis/pharmacology , Propolis/therapeutic use
11.
Veterinary Integrative Sciences ; 20(2):419-430, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934647

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 outbreak, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) has been widely used for hand cleaning and removing pathogens including human pathogens and zoonosis pathogens. High concentration of alcohol induces dehydrated skin in the users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate moisturizing property and antimicrobial activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizer formulations using coconut oil as a moisturizing agent against pathogens including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including antimicrobial activity, stability of the ABHS, and satisfaction levels of the coconut oil with two existing formulations by WHO and the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand (MOPH) were determined. The formulation containing the coconut oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8.75% V/V as same as MOPH. However, the WHO-modified formulation has the highest antimicrobial activity with the MIC value of 2.19% V/V. The stability result of 3 ABHSs showed that the preserved had the same efficacy compared to that of the fresh formulations. Hand washing with coconut formulation produced an average score of 7.19+or-1.71 on color, 7.06+or-1.56 on appearance, 5.82+or-2.10 on odor, 6.77+or-1.68 on moisture, 6.88+or-1.42 on overall acceptance out of 9. However, the sensory analysis of these three formulations results showed no significant difference in all parameters. The data suggest that moisturizing agents tested in our study do not affect the efficacy of ethanol. The coconut oil formulation is another good option for people searching for an effective hand sanitizer for germs protection and moisturizing.

12.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1929175

ABSTRACT

On 5 July 2022, quarterly epidemiological data on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), Escherichia coli bacteraemia (ECB), Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), and surgical site infection (SSI) in Scotland, covering January to March (Q1) 2022, was published under the mandatory programmes for surveillance of CDI, ECB, SAB, and SSI in Scotland. Please note, data for SSI are not included due to the pausing of surveillance to support the COVID-19 response. This report provides data for the first quarter of 2022 in 14 NHS boards and one NHS special health board. In addition, an appendix can also be accessed which details all cases and denominator data for each NHS board, and for Scotland overall.

13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927781

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was better recognized to be a nosocomial pathogen found mainly in intensive care units and occurring especially in elderly persons. However, rare but potentially fatal cases of community-acquired MRSA infection have emerged. Risk factors such as infection of the skin or soft tissues, influenza virus infection, history of recent hospital admissions, or immunocompromised status were identified. The prevalence of MRSA in children especially those without risk factors is extremely low. Case: This is a case of a previously healthy 12-year-old male who presented with acute onset of high-grade fever and exertional dyspnea. Upon admission, the patient was in respiratory distress and hypotensive. The patient was managed as a case of severe sepsis with the following considerations: COVID-19 infection, severe pneumonia, tuberculosis, and malignancy. Although the clinical presentation and imaging findings were suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis infection, sputum and blood culture were positive for MRSA. The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and underwent close tube thoracotomy insertion and tube pericardiostomy due to the rapid spread of infection. The patient was also treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, anti-tuberculosis medications were added to Vancomycin, with noted improvement thereafter. Discussion: This case highlights the importance of prompt and accurate diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia leading to optimal patient outcome. With this, the rapid institution of appropriate antibiotics is crucial. However, clinical diagnosis is frequently difficult resulting in to delay of diagnosis.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927752

ABSTRACT

Rationale. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous clinical disease. ARDS immunopathology due to lung infection involves an array of immune cells and the importance of granulocytes, and in particular neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular trap production (NETosis), has recently come to light. Despite over 20 well run, randomized, controlled trials, no specific therapies for ARDS are available and mortality remains high. Current treatments for ARDS are primarily limited to supportive therapies, including lung protective ventilation, and in certain situations, systemic steroid administration. Recently, clinical studies adding intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), an FDA approved drug, to standard ARDS therapy have shown faster recovery with less severe symptoms, suggesting a complementary beneficial effect, but the mechanism(s) remain unknown. Interestingly, previous in vitro studies found that IVIG can impair some inflammatory pathways in neutrophils. Our study assessed effects of IVIG with and without dexamethasone (a key glucocorticoid used in COVID-19 ARDS) in neutrophils ex vivo and in vivo in COVID-19 patients. Methods. Ex vivo treatment of neutrophils with IVIG or dexamethasone was conducted, followed by assessment of NETosis, oxidative burst and phagocytosis. Additionally, cell-free DNA was quantified in the blood of COVID-19 patients before and after treatment with IVIG. Ex vivo NETosis and plasma cell-free DNA was quantified using the QuantiT ™ PicoGreen™ dsDNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen). Oxidative burst was assessed by OxyBURST™ Green H2DCFDA, SE (Invitrogen) and phagocytosis of pHrodo™ Red S. aureus Bioparticles™ (Invitrogen) was quantified. Results. IVIG inhibits crucial neutrophil inflammatory pathways such as NETosis and oxidative burst while concomitantly enhancing phagocytic activity (Figure panels A-C). Notably, dexamethasone does not impact any of these critical pathways. Moreover, COVID-19 patients undergoing standard treatment plus IVIG had decreased cell-free DNA in the circulation 5 days after initiation of a 4 day treatment course, suggesting decreased NETs in circulation (Figure panel D) which possibly reverted at a later timepoint. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate potential targeted beneficial effects of IVIG in the context of neutrophil-mediated immunopathology. We demonstrate an ex vivo inhibitory effect of IVIG on pro-inflammatory pathways in neutrophils, which may lead to diminished immunopathology in disease states worsened by neutrophil-driven destruction. Based on the compelling evidence of the contribution of neutrophils to development and severity in ARDS, our evidence of IVIG impairing key pro-inflammatory functions in neutrophils (where dexamethasone does not) suggests a theoretical potential complementary beneficial effect of adding IVIG to standard treatment for infection induced ARDS although further research is needed.

15.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927750

ABSTRACT

Rationale: An increase in endothelial permeability resulting from the disruption of endothelial barrier and aggravated inflammatory responses are two major pathological hallmarks of various lung disorders including the current global pandemic COVID-19. Drugs that enable the preservation and restoration of endothelial function represent attractive therapeutic targets to treat endothelial dysfunction-derived cardiopulmonary diseases. A role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), especially a sub-family of proton-sensing GPCRs including GPR4 and GPR68, has been suggested in modulation of endothelial function. In this study, we analyzed the barrier protective and anti-inflammatory effects of two recently developed novel class of GPR68 inhibitors: ogremorphins OGM8345 and OGM-1.Methods: Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) was monitored in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs) to evaluate endothelial barrier function. Quantitative real time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression of endothelial inflammation markers, respectively. Acidic pH (6.5) medium was used to induce acidosis, and luciferase-based Tango assay was employed to evaluate GPR68 activation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Escherichia coli) or heatkilled Staphylococcus aureus (HKSA), and vascular leak/inflammation was assessed by determining the extravasation of intravenously injected Evans blue tracer into lungs and total cells/protein count in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Results: A robust dose-dependent increase in basal EC barrier function was observed with OGM8345 (1-5 μM) and OGM-1 (0.3-1.5 μM) evident by an 150-200% increase in TER values. Both inhibitors also effectively rescued LPS- and HKSA-induced EC hyperpermeability. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that LPS or HKSA-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines genes TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL- 1β, and CXCL5 was significantly attenuated by OGMs. Consistently, both OGMs suppressed LPSand HKSA-induced protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In contrast, pharmacologic inhibition of GPR4 by NE 52-QQ57 failed to alleviate LPS or HKSA-induced EC barrier dysfunction and inflammation. Importantly, LPS, HKSA or acidosis stimulation resulted in increased GPR68 mRNA expression and GPR68 activity that was inhibited by OGMs. Intratracheal injection of LPS or HKSA in C57BL/6 mice caused vascular leak and lung inflammation that was attenuated by both OGMs as illustrated by reduced Evans blue accumulation in the lungs and significant inhibition of accumulation of inflammatory cells and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Conclusion: These results establish a critical role of GPR68 in endothelial dysfunction and strongly suggest a therapeutic potential of GPR68-selective inhibitors in improving endothelial dysfunction caused by bacterial infections and acidosis associated with acute and chronic lung injury.

16.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(6):2646-2654, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928913

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has a high rate of severe infection and mortality, which is thought to be due in part to a lack of natural immunity and viral replication in the lower respiratory tract, as well as superinfections. COVID-19 patients suffer to infect with secondary bacterial infection and the ability of these pathogens to infect the host and causing disease is referred to as virulence factors. Methodology: 200 samples from patients with COVID-19 were collected from blood, pharyngeal swabs, sputum, and nasal swab. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was used to confirm the disease. Biochemical tests, culture media and a Vitek-2 compact system were used to identify the isolates. AST, Biofilm formation, hemolysin and lipase were done on all isolates. Results: Forty-five (23%) isolates were obtained from a total of 200 samples while 77% showed negative growth. All isolates were distributed between gram positive as Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. High resistance to antibiotics was detected which the isolates classified to MDR and XDR as showed S. aureus (40%,60%), A. baumannii (30%, 70%), P. aeruginosa (20%, 80%) and K. pneumonia (45%, 55%) respectively. Virulence factors of the SBIs associated with Antibiotics resistance (MDR and XDR) in COVID-19 patients showed 100% of both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa hemolysin positive while all the isolates of A. baumannii and K. pneumonia were negative. The results showed that 25% of MDR S. aureus and (75%) XDR, A. baumannii MDR (20%) and (80%) XDR, P. aeruginosa (20%) MDR and (80%) XDR and K. pneumonia (25%) MDR and (75%) XDR. Biofilm formation showed S. aureus (20%) MDR and (80%) XDR were produced biofilms, A. baumannii (15%) MDR and (85%) XDR, P. aeruginosa (10%) MDR and (90%) XDR and K. pneumonia (25%) MDR and (75%) XDR. Conclusions: Biofilm formation, hemolysin and lipase are virulence factors that confirmed secondary bacterial infection with high antibiotic resistance in COVID-19 patients which due to sever infection and elongated the period of healing as well as the side effects and complication during the infection period which were noticed in the most cases under the study.

17.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(6):DC01-DC05, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928868

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission. In this infection the immunity of the patient is decreased;making them susceptible to various secondary infections. This leads to increased morbidity and mortality in these patients. Aim: To estimate the profile of secondary infections in hospitalised Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients and analyse their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of five months from June to October 2021, which included COVID-19 positive patients with secondary infection admitted in the dedicated COVID hospital, Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital (MKCG MCH), Berhampur, Odisha, India. Clinical samples like blood, urine, sputum, tissue biopsy and Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) were collected aseptically from patients with COVID-19 and were processed in microbiology laboratory as per standard operating procedures. All the necessary information like demographic features (age, gender), associated co-morbidities and oxygen saturation levels of COVID-19 positive patients at the time of admission were collected and entered in a Microsoft Excel sheet for further analysis. Results of continuous variables were described by mean and range while categorical variables were described by frequency. All the generated data was analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: A total of 438 patients suspected of COVID-19 were admitted during the study period, out of which 138 patients were positive for COVID-19 by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 138 COVID-19 positive patients, 105 patients were willing to give samples and their samples were processed for bacterial and fungal culture and sensitivity. Total 18/105 (17.1%) samples were positive for bacterial and fungal growth. Blood Stream Infection (BSI) were seen in 14/18 (77.8%) and was predominantly associated with Staphylococcus aureus 5/14 (35.7%), followed by Enterococcus spp. 3/14 (21.4%). Out of total culture positive cases, 2/18 (11.1%) showed Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Of the UTI cases Escherichia coli was isolated from 1/2 (50%) of cases. Out of total culture positive cases, 2/18 (11.1%) were identified having mucormycosis. All gram positive bacteria had shown maximum resistant to ampicillin and gram negative bacteria were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: In COVID-19 positive patients with secondary infection, early diagnosis and prompt treatment will lead to improved patient care and better outcome.

18.
Acta Microbiologica Hellenica ; 67(1):39-48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925142

ABSTRACT

Problems caused by increasing multidrug resistance and contamination sources around the world, as well as major infectious events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, affect the world on a global scale. For this reason, there is a need to investigate sterilization and disinfection methods and to develop new environmentally friendly methods with a wide range of implementation capacity. In this study, the effect of ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation on different microorganisms was investigated with different application times. In addition,observations were made about the presence of reactivation in microorganisms with dark and light applications. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected as test organisms for in vitro experimental studies. When all results were evaluated, it was found that E.coli was most affected by UVC among microorganisms. A direct ratio was determined between application duration and the lethal effect. These results provide information about time required for UVC application, which is an environmentally friendly method for killing these microorganisms responsible for major infections. In addition, the reactivation properties of microorganisms were also examined with varying results. It was determined that the number of reactivated microorganisms were high in the light application compared to the dark application, but for some microorganisms, the reactivation was high at dark application.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(6):37-39, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918387

ABSTRACT

Aim: The assessment of serum electrolytes at the time of initial presentation of the patient with respiratory tract infection possibly causing lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature damage and serial monitoring during the stay could be beneficial in order to determine when and how to take remedial action when necessary. Methodology: A non-probability sampling was done on 139 subjects with suspected respiratory tract infection. For confirmation, culture, MTB PCR, COVID-19 testing was done to diagnose the nature of infection. Serum electrolytes were tested on chemical analyses Alinity instrument. Results: Most common infections found were COVID-19 and bacterial (n=59) collectively in a co-morbid state. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and fungal infections were also found in (n=8) each. Electrolytes imbalance was markedly observed in high prevalence amongst Tuberculosis and COVID-19 patients but also showed significant association with other respiratory investigated infections. Conclusion: A robust association of electrolyte imbalance was found in all cases presented with upper or lower respiratory tract infections.

20.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 92(2):166-173, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913183

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a silent pandemic faced parallel to COVID-19 pandemic, owing to indiscriminate usage of antimicrobial agents by large mass of people as part of self-medication and unsupervised therapy protocols. This similar kind of situation does exist in livestock and poultry farming sector, which has led to AMR issues like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mastitis. AMR is really an alarming issue which needs to be addressed or else in near future it would be difficult to treat or control infections in both humans and animals. Reduction in indiscriminate antimicrobial usage and AMR issues in animal husbandry sector requires intervention in animal husbandry practices. In order to device such intervention practices, first we need to document the field level antibiotic usage and knowledge level on AMR. But unfortunately, data on AMR issues at field level were deficit and poorly documented in India. Hence this cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the knowledge and usage pattern of antibiotics among livestock and poultry farmers of Telangana state of India through direct interview method. Cent per cent of the farmers responded that antibiotics were used mainly for therapeutic purpose followed by prophylactic (32%), metaphylactic purpose (44.5%) and as growth promoters (8.33%). Farmers (78%) responded that they purchase the antimicrobial agents over-the-counter. Oxytetracyclines and Enrofloxacin were the two major antibiotics used abundantly by the livestock farmers. Large proportions of famers (80%) were neither following full dosage regime of antimicrobial used nor the withdrawal period, while antimicrobial usage on their animals owing to lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the AMR. Significant differences were found amongst the livestock and poultry farmers with respect to their knowledge level on antimicrobial usage and AMR in animals.

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