Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Med Chem Res ; 31(2): 244-273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619423

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, several viruses have resulted in large outbreaks with serious health, economic and social consequences. The current unprecedented outbreak of the new coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, necessitates intensive efforts for delivering effective therapies to eradicate such a deadly virus. Isatin is an opulent heterocycle that has been proven to provide tremendous opportunities in the area of drug discovery. Over the last fifty years, suitably functionalized isatin has shown remarkable and broad-spectrum antiviral properties. The review herein is an attempt to compile all of the reported information about the antiviral activity of isatin derivatives with an emphasis on their structure-activity relationships (SARs) along with mechanistic and molecular modeling studies. In this regard, we are confident that the review will afford the scientific community a valuable platform to generate more potent and cost-effective antiviral therapies based on isatin templates.

2.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2002497

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that manifests as dementia, disorientation, difficulty in speech, and progressive cognitive and behavioral impairment. The emerging therapeutic approach of AD management is the inhibition of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), known to be one of the two aspartyl proteases that cleave β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies confirmed the association of high BACE1 activity with the proficiency of formation of β-amyloid-containing neurotic plaques, the characteristics of AD. Only a few FDA-approved BACE1-inhibitors are available in the market, but their adverse off-target effects limit their usage. In this paper, we have used both ligand-based and target-based approaches for drug designing. The QSAR study entails creating a multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model using 552 molecules with acceptable statistical performance (R2 = 0.82, Q2loo = 0.81). According to the QSAR study, the activity has a strong link with various atoms such as aromatic carbons and ring Sulphur, acceptor atoms, sp2-hybridized oxygen etc. Following that, a database of 26,467 food compounds were primarily used for QSAR-based virtual screening accompanied through the application of Lipinski rule of five;the elimination of duplicates, salts, and metal derivatives resulted in a truncated dataset of 8453 molecules. The molecular descriptor was calculated and a well-validated 6-parametric version of QSAR model was used to predict the bioactivity of the 8453 food compounds. Following this, the food compounds whose predicted activity (pKi) was observed above 7.0 M were further dock into the BACE1 receptor which gave rise to Identification of 4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one (PubChem I.D: 4468;Food I.D: FDB017657) as a hit molecule (Binding Affinity= -8.9 kcal/mol, pKi=7.97 nM, Ki=10.715 M). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation for 150 ns and MMGBSA study aided in identifying structural motifs involved in interactions with the BACE1 enzyme. Molecular docking and QSAR yielded complementary and congruent results. The validated analyses can be used to improve a drug/lead candidate's inhibitory efficacy against the BACE1. Thus, our approach is expected to widen the field of study of repurposing of nutraceuticals into neuroprotective as well as anti-cancer and anti-viral therapeutic interventions.

3.
Applied Sciences ; 12(15):7500, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993920

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Essential oil from Vitex negundo is known to have repellent and insecticidal properties toward the Anopheles gambiae and this is linked to its monoterpene and sesquiterpene content. In this work, an effort is made to delineate the constitution of V. negundo essential oil (VNEO) and their interaction with odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) of A. gambiae and hence access its repellent efficiency as cost-effective and safer malaria vector control alternatives. (2) Methods: Anopheles species authentication was performed by genomic DNA analysis and was subjected to behavioral analysis. GC-MS profiling was used to identify individual components of VNEO. Anopheles OBPs were obtained from the RCSB protein data bank and used for docking studies. Determination of ligand efficiency metrics and QSAR studies were performed using Hyper Chem Professional 8.0.3, and molecular dynamics simulations were performed using the Desmond module. (3) Results: GC-MS analysis of VNEO showed 28 compounds (monoterpenes, 80.16%;sesquiterpenes, 7.63%;and unknown constituents, 10.88%). The ligand efficiency metrics of all four ligands against the OBP 7 were within acceptable ranges. β-selinene (−12.2 kcal/mol), β-caryophellene (−9.5 kcal/mol), sulcatone (−10.9 kcal/mol), and α-ylangene (−9.3 kcal/mol) showed the strongest binding affinities for the target proteins. The most stable hydrophobic interactions were observed between β-selinene (Phe111 and Phe120), Sulcatone (Phe54 and Phe120), and α-ylangene (Phe111), while only sulcatone (Tyr49) presented H-bond interactions in the simulated environment. (4) Conclusions: Sulcatone and β-caryophyllene presented the best log p values, 6.45 and 5.20, respectively. These lead phytocompounds can be used in their purest as repellent supplement or as a natural anti-mosquito agent in product formulations.

4.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953751

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a global burden on human health and economy. The 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) becomes an attractive target for SARS-CoV-2 due to its important role in viral replication. We synthesized a series of 8H-indeno[1,2-d]thiazole derivatives and evaluated their biochemical activities against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Among them, the representative compound 7a displayed inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 1.28 ± 0.17 µM against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Molecular docking of 7a against 3CLpro was performed and the binding mode was rationalized. These preliminary results provide a unique prototype for the development of novel inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899232

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-Cov-2 is the essential enzyme for maturation of functional proteins implicated in viral replication and transcription. The peculiarity of its specific cleavage site joint with its high degree of conservation among all coronaviruses promote it as an attractive target to develop broad-spectrum inhibitors, with high selectivity and tolerable safety profile. Herein is reported a combination of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3-D QSAR) and comparative molecular binding energy (COMBINE) analysis to build robust and predictive ligand-based and structure-based statistical models, respectively. Models were trained on experimental binding poses of co-crystallized Mpro-inhibitors and validated on available literature data. By means of deep optimization both models' goodness and robustness reached final statistical values of r2/q2 values of 0.97/0.79 and 0.93/0.79 for the 3-D QSAR and COMBINE approaches respectively, and an overall predictiveness values of 0.68 and 0.57 for the SDEPPRED and AAEP metrics after application to a test set of 60 compounds covered by the training set applicability domain. Despite the different nature (ligand-based and structure-based) of the employed methods, their outcome fully converged. Furthermore, joint ligand- and structure-based structure-activity relationships were found in good agreement with nirmatrelvir chemical features properties, a novel oral Mpro-inhibitor that has recently received U.S. FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) for the oral treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infected patients. The obtained results will guide future rational design and/or virtual screening campaigns with the aim of discovering new potential anti-coronavirus lead candidates, minimizing both time and financial resources. Moreover, as most of calculation were performed through the well-established web portal 3d-qsar.com the results confirm the portal as a useful tool for drug design.

6.
Molecules ; 27(9):3021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843000

ABSTRACT

Humans are exposed to numerous compounds daily, some of which have adverse effects on health. Computational approaches for modeling toxicological data in conjunction with machine learning algorithms have gained popularity over the last few years. Machine learning approaches have been used to predict toxicity-related biological activities using chemical structure descriptors. However, toxicity-related proteomic features have not been fully investigated. In this study, we construct a computational pipeline using machine learning models for predicting the most important protein features responsible for the toxicity of compounds taken from the Tox21 dataset that is implemented within the multiscale Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) therapeutic discovery platform. Tox21 is a highly imbalanced dataset consisting of twelve in vitro assays, seven from the nuclear receptor (NR) signaling pathway and five from the stress response (SR) pathway, for more than 10,000 compounds. For the machine learning model, we employed a random forest with the combination of Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) and the Edited Nearest Neighbor (ENN) method (SMOTE+ENN), which is a resampling method to balance the activity class distribution. Within the NR and SR pathways, the activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (NR-AhR) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (SR-MMP) were two of the top-performing twelve toxicity endpoints with AUCROCs of 0.90 and 0.92, respectively. The top extracted features for evaluating compound toxicity were analyzed for enrichment to highlight the implicated biological pathways and proteins. We validated our enrichment results for the activity of the AhR using a thorough literature search. Our case study showed that the selected enriched pathways and proteins from our computational pipeline are not only correlated with AhR toxicity but also form a cascading upstream/downstream arrangement. Our work elucidates significant relationships between protein and compound interactions computed using CANDO and the associated biological pathways to which the proteins belong for twelve toxicity endpoints. This novel study uses machine learning not only to predict and understand toxicity but also elucidates therapeutic mechanisms at a proteomic level for a variety of toxicity endpoints.

7.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):9588-9597, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1837477

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease, which is called as COVID-19 and that is one of the infectious diseases which is infected by newly found coronavirus. Maching Learning has the major role in predicting the drugs of the particular disease. Lalmuanawma et al. 2020 has given the application of machine learning and artificial intelligence in COVID'19. It is used to develop the model design, Regression is one of the supervised Machine Learning Techniques. It is used to predict the values based on the data given. In this research work, Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) study has been developed for structurally similar to 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose as inhibitors for COVID-19 causing targets using regression. QSAR models for complexity was created with 40 training compounds, 20 test compounds, and 21 different descriptors. The structurally 95% similar compound of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose has been collected from pubchem[13] and molinspiration.com. Using 40 compounds, the linear regression model has been developed. The predictive capability of the QSAR models was evaluated by Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, Root mean squared error, Relative absolute error, Root relative squared error.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114030, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768048

ABSTRACT

The epidemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now spread worldwide and efficacious therapeutics are urgently needed. 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is an indispensable protein in viral replication and represents an attractive drug target for fighting COVID-19. Herein, we report the discovery of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives as non-peptidomimetic and non-covalent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The structure-activity relationships of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors have carefully been investigated and discussed in this study. Among all tested 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, C1 and C2 display the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 1.55 ± 0.21 µM and 1.81 ± 0.17 µM, respectively. Further enzyme kinetics assays show that these two compounds dose-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a mixed-inhibition manner. Molecular docking simulations reveal the binding modes of C1 in the dimer interface and substrate-binding pocket of the target. In addition, C1 shows outstanding metabolic stability in the gastrointestinal tract, human plasma, and human liver microsome, suggesting that this agent has the potential to be developed as an orally administrated SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery/methods , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715566

ABSTRACT

Betulinic acid (BA) and its derivatives exhibit a variety of biological activities, especially their anti-HIV-1 activity, but generally have only modest inhibitory potency against influenza virus. The entry of influenza virus into host cells can be competitively inhibited by multivalent derivatives targeting hemagglutinin. In this study, a series of hexa-, hepta- and octavalent BA derivatives based on α-, ß- and γ-cyclodextrin scaffolds, respectively, with varying lengths of flexible oligo(ethylene glycol) linkers was designed and synthesized using a microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The generated BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were tested for their in vitro activity against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus and cytotoxicity. Among the tested compounds, 58, 80 and 82 showed slight cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with viabilities ranging from 64 to 68% at a high concentration of 100 µM. Four conjugates 51 and 69-71 showed significant inhibitory effects on influenza infection with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 5.20, 9.82, 7.48 and 7.59 µM, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of multivalent BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were discussed, highlighting that multivalent BA derivatives may be potential antiviral agents against influenza infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Cyclodextrins/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dogs , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
ChemistryOpen ; 11(2): e202100260, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704277

ABSTRACT

Cationic conjugated oligoelectrolytes (COEs) are a class of compounds that can be tailored to achieve relevant in vitro antimicrobial properties with relatively low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Three distyrylbenzene-based COEs were designed containing amide functional groups on the side chains. Their properties were compared to two representative COEs with only quaternary ammonium groups. The optimal compound, COE2-3C-C3-Apropyl, has an antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli with an MIC=2 µg mL-1 , even in the presence of human serum albumin low cytotoxicity (IC50 =740 µg mL-1 ) and minimal hemolytic activity. Moreover, we find that amide groups increase interactions between COEs and a bacterial lipid mimic based on calcein leakage assay and allow COEs to readily permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli. These findings suggest that hydrogen bond forming moieties can be further applied in the molecular design of antimicrobial COEs to further improve their selectivity towards bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Escherichia coli , Amides/analysis , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteria , Cell Membrane , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Mammals
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114030, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654355

ABSTRACT

The epidemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now spread worldwide and efficacious therapeutics are urgently needed. 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is an indispensable protein in viral replication and represents an attractive drug target for fighting COVID-19. Herein, we report the discovery of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives as non-peptidomimetic and non-covalent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The structure-activity relationships of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors have carefully been investigated and discussed in this study. Among all tested 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, C1 and C2 display the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 1.55 ± 0.21 µM and 1.81 ± 0.17 µM, respectively. Further enzyme kinetics assays show that these two compounds dose-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a mixed-inhibition manner. Molecular docking simulations reveal the binding modes of C1 in the dimer interface and substrate-binding pocket of the target. In addition, C1 shows outstanding metabolic stability in the gastrointestinal tract, human plasma, and human liver microsome, suggesting that this agent has the potential to be developed as an orally administrated SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery/methods , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113862, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433178

ABSTRACT

We report here the synthesis, purification, and characterization of mono- and di-fatty acyl conjugates of remdesivir (RDV) and their in vitro antiviral activity against SAR-CoV-2, an Ebola virus transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system, and infectious Ebola virus. The most potent monofatty acyl conjugate was 4b, containing a 4-oxatetradecanolyl at the 3' position. Monofatty acyl conjugates, 3'-O-tetradecanoyl (4a) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.3 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.24 µM), 3'-O-4-oxatetradodecanoyl (4b) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.0 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.18 µM), and 3'-O-(12-ethylthiododecanoyl) (4e) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.4 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.25 µM) derivatives exhibited less activity than RDV (IC50(VeroE6) = 0.85 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.06 µM) in both VeroE6 and Calu3 cells. Difatty acylation led to a significant reduction in the antiviral activity of RDV (as shown in conjugates 5a and 5b) against SARS-CoV-2 when compared with monofatty acylation (3a-e and 4a-e). About 77.9% of 4c remained intact after 4 h incubation with human plasma while only 47% of parent RDV was observed at the 2 h time point. The results clearly indicate the effectiveness of fatty acylation to improve the half-life of RDV. The antiviral activities of a number of monofatty acyl conjugates of RDV, such as 3b, 3e, and 4b, were comparable with RDV against the Ebola trVLP system. Meanwhile, the corresponding physical mixtures of RDV and fatty acids 6a and 6b showed 1.6 to 2.2 times less antiviral activity than the corresponding conjugates, 4a and 4c, respectively, against SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6 cells. A significant reduction in viral RNA synthesis was observed for selected compounds 3a and 4b consistent with the IC50 results. These studies indicate the potential of these compounds as long-acting antiviral agents or prodrugs of RDV.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 215: 113242, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086914

ABSTRACT

Currently, SARS-CoV-2 virus is an emerging pathogen that has posed a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, no agents have been approved to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections to date, underscoring the great need for effective and practical therapies for SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. We reported that a focused screen of OA saponins identified 3-O-ß-chacotriosyl OA benzyl ester 2 as a novel small molecule inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 virus entry, via binding to SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein (S). We performed structure-activity relationship profiling of 2 and discovered C-17-COOH of OA was an important modification site that improved both inhibitor potency toward SARS-CoV-2 and selectivity index. Then optimization from hit to lead resulted in a potent fusion inhibitor 12f displaying strong inhibition against infectious SARS-CoV-2 with an IC50 value of 0.97 µM in vitro. Mechanism studies confirmed that inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry of 12f was mediated by the direct interaction with SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit to block membrane fusion. These 3-O-ß-chacotriosyl OA amide saponins are suitable for further optimization as SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors with the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 virus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Saponins/chemical synthesis , Saponins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/chemical synthesis , Triterpenes/metabolism , Vero Cells
14.
ChemMedChem ; 16(2): 340-354, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044678

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of coronavirus (CoV)-encoded papain-like cysteine proteases (PLpro ) represents an attractive strategy to treat infections by these important human pathogens. Herein we report on structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the noncovalent active-site directed inhibitor (R)-5-amino-2-methyl-N-(1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethyl) benzamide (2 b), which is known to bind into the S3 and S4 pockets of the SARS-CoV PLpro . Moreover, we report the discovery of isoindolines as a new class of potent PLpro inhibitors. The studies also provide a deeper understanding of the binding modes of this inhibitor class. Importantly, the inhibitors were also confirmed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture suggesting that, due to the high structural similarities of the target proteases, inhibitors identified against SARS-CoV PLpro are valuable starting points for the development of new pan-coronaviral inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Isoindoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemical synthesis , Benzamides/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Isoindoles/chemical synthesis , Isoindoles/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Mar Drugs ; 18(10)2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983121

ABSTRACT

Labdane diterpenes are widespread classes of natural compounds present in variety of marine and terrestrial organisms and plants. Many of them represents "natural libraries" of compounds with interesting biological activities due to differently functionalized drimane nucleus exploitable for potential pharmacological applications. The transient receptor potential channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channel has recently emerged as a pharmacological target for several respiratory diseases, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Inspired by the labdane-like bicyclic core, a series of homodrimane-derived esters and amides was designed and synthesized by modifying the flexible tail in position 1 of (+)-sclareolide, an oxidized derivative of the bioactive labdane-type diterpene sclareol. The potency and selectivity towards rTRPV4 and hTRPV1 receptors were assessed by calcium influx cellular assays. Molecular determinants critical for eliciting TRPV4 antagonism were identified by structure-activity relationships. Among the selective TRPV4 antagonists identified, compound 6 was the most active with an IC50 of 5.3 µM. This study represents the first report of semisynthetic homodrimane TRPV4 antagonists, selective over TRPV1, and potentially useful as pharmacological tools for the development of novel TRPV4 channel modulators.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes/chemical synthesis , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Drug Design , TRPV Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Structure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
ChemMedChem ; 16(2): 340-354, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878190

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of coronavirus (CoV)-encoded papain-like cysteine proteases (PLpro ) represents an attractive strategy to treat infections by these important human pathogens. Herein we report on structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the noncovalent active-site directed inhibitor (R)-5-amino-2-methyl-N-(1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethyl) benzamide (2 b), which is known to bind into the S3 and S4 pockets of the SARS-CoV PLpro . Moreover, we report the discovery of isoindolines as a new class of potent PLpro inhibitors. The studies also provide a deeper understanding of the binding modes of this inhibitor class. Importantly, the inhibitors were also confirmed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture suggesting that, due to the high structural similarities of the target proteases, inhibitors identified against SARS-CoV PLpro are valuable starting points for the development of new pan-coronaviral inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Isoindoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemical synthesis , Benzamides/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Isoindoles/chemical synthesis , Isoindoles/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Phytochem Rev ; 20(4): 845-868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801732

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring phenanthroindolizidine and phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (PIAs and PQAs) are two small groups of herbal metabolites sharing a similar pentacyclic structure with a highly oxygenated phenanthrene moiety fused with a saturated or an unsaturated N-heterocycle (indolizidine/quinolizidine moieties). Natural PIAs and PQAs only could be obtained from finite plant families (such as Asclepiadaceae, Lauraceae and Urticaceae families, etc.). Up to date, more than one hundred natural PIAs, while only nine natural PQAs had been described. PIA and PQA analogues have been applied to the development of potent anticancer agents all along because of their excellent cytotoxic activity. However, in the last two decades, other great biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities were revealed successively by different pharmacological assays. Especially because of their potent antiviral activity against coronavirus (TGEV, SARS CoV and MHV) and tobacco mosaic virus, PIA and PQA analogues have attracted much pharmaceutical attention again, some of them have been used to present interesting targets for total or semi synthesis, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for the development of antiviral agents. In this review, natural PIA and PQA analogues obtained in the last two decades with their herbal origins, key spectroscopic characteristics for structural identification, biological activity with possible SARs and application prospects were systematically summarized. We hope this paper can stimulate further investigations on PIA and PQA analogues as an important source for potential drug discovery.

18.
Mol Inform ; 39(12): e2000080, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165203

ABSTRACT

Discovery of drugs against newly emerged pathogenic agents like the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (CoV) must be based on previous research against related species. Scientists need to get acquainted with and develop a global oversight over so-far tested molecules. Chemography (herein used Generative Topographic Mapping, in particular) places structures on a human-readable 2D map (obtained by dimensionality reduction of the chemical space of molecular descriptors) and is thus well suited for such an audit. The goal is to map medicinal chemistry efforts so far targeted against CoVs. This includes comparing libraries tested against various virus species/genera, predicting their polypharmacological profiles and highlighting often encountered chemotypes. Maps are challenged to provide predictive activity landscapes against viral proteins. Definition of "anti-CoV" map zones led to selection of therein residing 380 potential anti-CoV agents, out of a vast pool of 800 M organic compounds.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL