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1.
Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny ; 73(4):453-462, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205912

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, office worker has spent more than 6-8 hours per day sitting for online working following social distancing policy. Considering the popularity of online ordering and home delivery services, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption have increased. However, the link between the types SSB consumption and their BMI was less well documented.

2.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:18, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2112036

ABSTRACT

The WHO European Regional Obesity Report 2022 warned of the major health effects of growing obesity on 3 May 2022. In the WHO European Region, over two thirds of adults and one-third of children are overweight or obese. Obesity causes 13 forms of cancer, is a leading cause of death and disability in the region, and requires multidisciplinary treatment. Obesity will replace smoking as the leading cause of avoidable cancer in various countries, according to the analysis. According to the research, obesity should be addressed as a disease, not only a risk factor. The European Region has the second-highest adult obesity rate in the WHO, after the Americas. Overweight and obesity kill more than 1.3 million people worldwide, but these statistics may be low. Overweight and obesity are epidemic in Europe, including males (63%), females (54%). High-income countries have higher rates. The Mediterranean and eastern European countries have the most overweight and obesity. Obese people are more likely to contract COVID-19 and die, and many have had trouble accessing obesity management therapies due to the pandemic. The epidemic has also increased obesity risk factors like sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy food habits, according to preliminary statistics. The WHO recommends prioritizing some immediate policies, such as prohibiting the promotion of unhealthy foods to children, taxing sugar-sweetened beverages, and enhancing the health system's response to obesity management, then creating a practical plan to adopt other interventions later.

3.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066298

ABSTRACT

In the modern diet, excessive fructose intake (>50 g/day) had been driven by the increase, in recent decades, of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. This phenomenon has dramatically increased within the Caribbean and Latin American regions. Epidemiological studies show that chronic high intake of fructose related to sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of developing several non-communicable diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and may also contribute to the exacerbation of lung diseases, such as COVID-19. Evidence supports several mechanisms-such as dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased uric acid production, induction of aldose reductase activity, production of advanced glycation end-products, and activation of the mTORC1 pathway-that can be implicated in lung damage. This review addresses how these pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms may explain the lung damage resulting from high intake of fructose.


Subject(s)
Fructose , Lung Diseases , Aldehyde Reductase , Fructose/adverse effects , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Uric Acid
4.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000828

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterise perceptions of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax among low-income parents. Design: We conducted semi-structured interviews and administered demographic questions via telephone. We based the interview guide and initial codebook on a conceptual model illustrating perceived fairness and effectiveness as essential for successfully adopting food policies. We performed thematic analysis using NVivo 12. Setting: We recruited from a primary care paediatrics clinic in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from July to August 2020. Participants: Philadelphia parents/caregivers of 2- to 11-year-old children with Medicaid insurance. Results: Participants were predominantly African American (97 %), female (100 %), and had annual household incomes <$50 000 (80 %). Participants were 26- to 72-years old, with an average aged child of 5 years (range 7 months to 20 years). Themes emerged regarding tax perceptions, revenue use and behaviour change due to the tax. Using revenue for highly valued programmes and accountability of city government to use revenue as promised were critical elements in perceptions of tax fairness. Some parents avoided the tax through cross-border shopping and buying drink powders or concentrates, influencing perceptions of tax effectiveness. The tax signalled the health dangers of sweetened beverage consumption to most parents. Conclusion: Our findings bring to light four key takeaways for policymakers designing sweetened beverage taxes. (1) Dedication of tax revenue to programmes highly valued by parents and (2) transparency in revenue spending may improve acceptability. (3) State or national taxes may be more effective at decreasing consumption due to cross-border shopping. (4) Pairing taxes with health promotion campaigns may enhance behaviour change.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Parents , Philadelphia , Poverty , Taxes , United States
5.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972473

ABSTRACT

Marketing influences consumers' dietary purchases. However, little is known about marketing environments in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorised stores. The present study explored SNAP-authorised store marketing environments in Louisiana by rurality, store ownership and store type (n 42). Sampling methods were designed to include randomly selected stores in each geographic area of the state. The GroPromo was used to measure placement, promotion, and child-focused aspects of marketing strategies used for healthier (fruits and vegetables) and less healthy products (chips, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, child-focused cereal) in medium- and high-prominence marketing areas. In using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) (P < 0⋅05) for data analysis, variations in GroPromo scores were found among SNAP-authorised stores by rurality (P < 0⋅05) and store ownership (P < 0⋅001); no differences were found by store type (P > 0⋅05). Future research, practice and policy strategies are required to understand the influence of marketing environments on SNAP participants' dietary quality and to design responsive public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Beverages , Commerce , Food Supply , Humans , Marketing , Poverty
6.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To reduce children's sugar-sweetened beverage intake, California's Healthy-By-Default Beverage law (SB1192) mandates only unflavoured dairy/non-dairy milk or water be the default drinks with restaurant children's meals. The objective of this study is to examine consistency with this law for meals sold through online platforms from restaurants in low-income California neighbourhoods. DESIGN: This observational, cross-sectional study examines beverage availability, upcharges (additional cost) and presentation of beverage options consistent with SB1192 (using four increasingly restrictive criteria) within a random sample of quick-service restaurants (QSR) in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education eligible census tracts selling children's meals online from November 2020 to April 2021. SETTING: Low-income California neighbourhoods (n 226 census tracts). PARTICIPANTS: QSR that sold children's meals online via a restaurant-specific platform, DoorDash, GrubHub and/or UberEats (n 631 observations from 254 QSR). RESULTS: Seventy percent of observations offered water; 63 % offered unflavoured milk. Among all beverages, water was most likely to have an upcharge; among observations offering water (n 445), 41 % had an upcharge (average $0·51). Among observations offering unflavoured milk (n 396), 11 % had an upcharge (average $0·38). No observations upcharged for soda (regular or diet). Implementation consistency with SB1192 ranged from 40·5 % (using the least restrictive criteria) to 5·6 % (most restrictive) of observations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on observations from restaurant websites and three of the most popular online ordering platforms, most California QSR located in low-income neighbourhoods are not offering children's meal beverages consistent with the state's Healthy-By-Default Beverage law. As the popularity of online ordering increases, further work to ensure restaurants offering healthy default beverages with children's meals sold online is necessary.

7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 24, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation urges countries to levy specific excise taxes on SSBs. Currently, more than 50 countries have introduced some type of tax on SSBs. In March 2017, the Autonomous Region of Catalonia approved the introduction of a tiered excise tax on SSBs for public health reasons. To evaluate the effect of the Catalonian excise tax on the price and purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and their possible substitutes, i.e., non-sugar-sweetened beverages (NSSBs) and bottled water, three and half years after its introduction, and 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed purchase data on soft drinks, fruit drinks and water, sourced from the Ministry of Agriculture food-consumption panel, in a random sample of 12,500 households across Spain. We applied the synthetic control method to infer the causal impact of the intervention, based on a Bayesian structural time-series model which predicts the counterfactual response that would have occurred in Catalonia, had no intervention taken place. RESULTS: As compared to the predicted (counterfactual) response, per capita purchases of SSBs fell by 0.17 l three and a half years after implementing the SSB tax in Catalonia, a 16.7% decline (95% CI: - 23.18, - 8.74). The mean SSB price rose by 0.11 €/L, an 11% increase (95% CI: 9.0, 14.1). Although there were no changes in mean NSSB prices, NSSB consumption rose by 0.19 l per capita, a 21.7% increase (95% CI: 18.25, 25.54). There were no variations in the price or consumption of bottled water. The effects were progressively greater over time, with SSB purchases decreasing by 10.4% at 1 year, 12.3% at 2 years, 15.3% at 3 years, and 16.7% at three and a half years of the tax's introduction. CONCLUSIONS: The Catalonian SSB excise tax had a sustained and progressive impact over time, with a fall in consumption of as much as 16.7% three and half years after its introduction. The observed NSSB substitution effect should be borne in mind when considering the application of this type of tax to the rest of Spain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Bayes Theorem , Beverages , Humans , Pandemics , Spain , Taxes
8.
MECAS Studies - International Sugar Organization|2021. ((21)06):ii + 51 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English, French, Spanish, Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1786961

ABSTRACT

The global obesity issue is often linked to the use of added sugars, but this relationship is unproven and there is no internationally recognised evidence that points to a direct link between the consumption of sugar and excess weight. However, in the sphere of public opinion, it is perceived as being beyond question. Furthermore, the objective of reducing added/free sugar from our basic diet has taken on a pathway of its own. This view is not supported by scientific research or published guidelines and should be challenged. Governments have largely chosen to target a reduction in the sugar content of soft drinks as a public health objective. This has been done through taxing sales or sugar content. Our analysis finds that there is a statistically significant impact on sugar consumption in some countries, mainly through the voluntary reformulations undertaken by beverage companies. But that this impact is small in terms of the volume of sugar eliminated. The study sees the application of similar taxes on food manufacturing as challenging, as sugar is used as a functional ingredient and food formulations are inherently more complex. From a public heath perspective, the study notes both a lack of historic evidence for a correlation between sugar consumption growth and obesity as well as a divergence between public health objectives and the current use of sugar. The study also considers behavioural aspects for consumers and food and beverage producers, surmising that the tax effect on consumers is partly short term while producers remain broadly focused on sales and marketing objectives, with public health changes seen as an industry-wide issue. More broadly, the study also notes that COVID-19 will skew results for many years to come. The report also considers the supply and demand dynamics of the sugar market in view of slowing demand, partly contributed to by sugar taxes. With low elasticity for both consumption and production, and with limited growth in the former, the implication is volatile world market prices. Sugar industries more than ever before will need to embrace diversification options such as bio energy and other bio products to ensure a sustainable future in a slowing sugar demand growth environment.

9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 860259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775730

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused striking alterations to daily life, with important impacts on children's health. Spending more time at home and out of school due to COVID-19 related closures may exacerbate obesogenic behaviors among children, including consumption of sugary drinks (SDs). This qualitative study aimed to investigate effects of the pandemic on children's SD consumption and related dietary behaviors. Children 8-14 years old and their parent (n = 19 dyads) participated in an in-depth qualitative interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and independently coded by two coders, after which, emergent themes and subthemes were identified and representative quotations selected. Although increases in children's SD and snack intake were almost unanimously reported by both children and their parents, increased frequency of cooking at home and preparation of healthier meals were also described. Key reasons for children's higher SD and snack intake were having unlimited access to SDs and snacks and experiencing boredom while at home. Parents also explained that the pandemic impacted their oversight of the child's SD intake, as many parents described loosening prior restrictions on their child's SD intake and/or allowing their child more autonomy to make their own dietary choices during the pandemic. These results call attention to concerning increases in children's SD and snack intake during the COVID-19 pandemic. Intervention strategies to improve the home food environment, including reducing the availability of SDs and energy-dense snacks and providing education on non-food related coping strategies are needed.

10.
Prev Med Rep ; 26: 101759, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730032

ABSTRACT

Some reports suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in shifts to unhealthier diets. These unhealthier diets may include sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which strongly contribute to diabetes and other chronic diseases. Using cross-sectional surveys in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA we sought to assess self-reported SSB consumption during the pandemic's shelter-in-place and self-reported changes in SSB purchasing from before to during the pandemic's shelter-in-place, stratifying by indices of pandemic-related financial hardship. Nearly 60% of our diverse sample (N = 943) reported that it was harder to pay for basics (like food and utilities) during shelter-in-place. Among those who found it harder to pay for basics and received financial assistance during shelter-in-place, we found a ten-fold higher frequency of daily SSB consumption compared to those not facing new financial hardship (2.76 [95% CI: 1.78, 3.74] versus 0.30 [95% CI: 0.23, 0.37] times/day). There were no statistically significant increases in reported purchasing of any SSB, but those with new financial hardship during shelter-in-place reported greater purchasing of regular soda relative to those with no new hardship (0.20 on a 3-point scale [95% CI: 0.03, 0.37]). Our findings suggest that new hardship may increase unhealthy behaviors and worsen existing disparities in SSB consumption. Such disparities are a reminder of the urgent need to reduce economic inequity and improve the quality of our emergency food system in order to mitigate the impact of public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Salud P..blica de M..xico ; 63(3):325-458, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716676

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 23 articles that discusses the topic of diseases, nutrition, and malnutrition, especially in Mexico. Topics include the nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and anaemia in Mexican children, vitamin D status in Mexican women at reproductive age, prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia during 2006-2018 in Mexican women 20-49 years of age, the increasing incidence of SARS-CoV- 2 in older adolescents and younger adults during the epidemic in Mexico, stakeholder analysis of the deliberation of an increase to the excise tax on sweetened beverages in Mexico, among others.

12.
Hawai'i journal of health & social welfare ; 80(10):64-68, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1573340

ABSTRACT

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. SSB consumption is also a health equity issue, as rates of consumption and related chronic diseases vary by race, ethnicity, and income in Hawai'i. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for greater investment in public health and the well-being of communities experiencing health disparities because individuals with chronic diseases are more likely to develop complications from the virus. It has also created economic hardships for the people of Hawai'i, especially the state's most vulnerable populations. Amid this health and economic crisis, an opportunity exists to implement an SSB fee in Hawai'i. An SSB fee would impose a fee on SSB distributors that would be passed on to consumers in the form of price increases that influence purchasing behavior. Jurisdictions with SSB taxes or fees have seen reductions in SSB purchases and consumption and have generated millions of dollars in revenues to support health initiatives and reduce socioeconomic disparities. Models predict that a $0.02 SSB fee in Hawai'i could generate $60.5 million and significantly reduce healthcare costs and chronic diseases. This commentary will present an SSB fee policy as a viable model for Hawai'i to reduce SSB consumption, lower chronic disease risks, and generate needed revenues to support health, reduce inequities, and rebuild the state's economy. ©Copyright 2021 by University Health Partners of Hawai‘i (UHP Hawai‘i).

13.
Soc Sci Med ; 292: 114537, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500265

ABSTRACT

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Not only is obesity a growing public health problem, but it is also most recently associated with increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Taxes on SSBs are a policy tool used to help curb SSB consumption and are currently implemented in 7 U.S. cities and more than 40 countries. On July 1, 2017, Oakland, California, implemented a 1-cent/ounce tax on SSBs with ≥25 kilocalories/12 ounces. This study estimated the impact of the Oakland tax on prices, volume sold, and cross-border shopping two-years post-tax relative to one-year pre-tax. Universal product code-level Nielsen retail scanner data on non-alcoholic beverage sales were analyzed using a difference-in-differences design with Sacramento, California, as the comparison site. Taxed beverage prices increased by 0.67 cents/ounce, on average, in Oakland relative to Sacramento, corresponding to 67% pass-through. Taxed beverage volume sold decreased by 18% in Oakland relative to Sacramento, with a larger decrease for family-size beverages (23%) relative to individual-size beverages (8%). There was a 9% increase in volume sold of taxed beverages in the two-mile border area surrounding Oakland relative to the Sacramento border area, driven by a 12% increase for family-size taxed beverages. After accounting for this cross-border shopping, there was a net decrease of 6% in taxed beverage volume sold in Oakland. There was no significant change in untaxed beverage volume sold in either Oakland or its border area relative to their respective comparison sites, suggesting there was no substitution to untaxed beverages and cross-border shopping may have been limited to taxed beverages. This two-year post-tax study of the Oakland SSB tax adds to the limited number of longer-term evaluations of local U.S. SSB taxes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Beverages , Commerce , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxes
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302309

ABSTRACT

Background: in the context of the ongoing obesity epidemic and increase in cases of metabolic disorders among the population, it is significant, from the health, nutritional, and economic point of view, to a look at the habits of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption of adults in Poland. This study aims to determine the sweetened beverages, which are the most popular and most frequently consumed by Polish consumers in correlation with sex, age, income, and education of the studied group of adults. Methods: The survey study was based on the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) and was conducted on a representative sample of 500 adult Poles, within the period from May to June 2020. The fundamental stage of the survey included the question, which asked the respondents to assess the frequency of consuming selected eleven sweetened or unsweetened beverages. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were considered when evaluating whether these factors aligned with the behaviors regarding the frequency of beverage consumption. Results: The consumption of SSBs tends to decrease along with consumer's age. A decrease, which could be associated with level of consumers' education level and correlation with income could not be verified. Adults drink sugar sweetened beverages less often than younger consumers, and women drink them less often than men. Conclusions: Identification of the frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage intake can indicate directions for further national or regional action against the spread of obesity. Moreover, attention should be drawn to young males who consume beverages abundant in high sugar most often.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adult , Beverages , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Sugars
15.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(1): 79-83, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043182

ABSTRACT

Shortly after a healthy default beverage (HDB) law took effect in Hawai'i, requiring restaurants that serve children's meals to offer healthy beverages with the meals, the COVID-19 pandemic struck. Efforts to contain the virus resulted in changes to restaurants' operations and disrupted HDB implementation efforts. Economic repercussions from containment efforts have exacerbated food insecurity, limited access to healthy foods, and created obstacles to chronic disease management. Promoting healthy default options is critical at a time when engaging in healthy behaviors is difficult, but important, to both prevent and manage chronic disease and decrease COVID-19 risk. This commentary discusses COVID-19's impact on restaurant operations and healthy eating, and the resulting challenges and opportunities for this promising health promotion intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion/methods , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Child , Hawaii , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2020 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006963

ABSTRACT

Population-based studies have revealed a high occurrence of self-reported psychological distress symptoms during the early phases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Stress and negative affect can lead to emotional eating, which in turn can have negative outcomes on health. In this population-based study, 24,968 Norwegian inhabitants participated in an electronic questionnaire including structured questions on dietary habits, emotional eating, psychological distress symptoms, and COVID-19-related worries. The study took place during April 2020 after around six weeks of interventions to tackle the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, emotional eating was reported in 54% of the population and was markedly more frequent in female participants. Worries related to consequences of the pandemic were associated with increased emotional eating, and the association was stronger for worries related to personal economy-odds ratios (OR) 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI95%) 1.5-1.9)-compared to worries related to health-OR 1.3 (CI95% 1.2-1.5). Psychological distress had a strong association with emotional eating-OR 4.2 (CI95% 3.9-4.4). Correspondingly, the intake of high-sugar foods and beverages was higher for those with substantial COVID-19-related worries and those with psychological distress compared to the overall population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Circulation ; 142(6): 535-537, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945075

Subject(s)
Beverages , Taxes , Humans , Policy
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