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1.
Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi ; 34(2):160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964892

ABSTRACT

In this study, 650 tissue samples which were collected from 16 pig farms in Hubei Province, were used to detect porcine circovirus (PCV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results showed that the positive rates of PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PEDV single infection were 1.08%, 4.15%, 2.46% and 6.46%, respectively. In the double infections, PEDV+PCV2 had the highest positive rate of 3.54%, followed by PCV2+PCV3, with a positive rate of 1.54%. In multiple infections, PEDV+PCV2+PCV3 had the highest positive rate of 2.00%. The results indicated that the positive rates of PEDV and PCV were decreased compared with the previous studies, but the prevalence of PEDV and PCV was still wide in Hubei Province, and most of which were co-infection.

2.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

3.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):14-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964618

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To identify the B-cell epitope peptide of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S2 gene by combinative use of bioinformatics software and monoclonal antibody technology. [Method] The B-cell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was screened using CLC Sequence viewer 6.8 software and IEDB online database, and the obtained epitope peptide was synthesized artificially. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with the conjugate of epitope peptide and keyhole hemocyanin (KLH) as antigen. Mice with higher antibody titers were identified by ELISA assay and then received an additional immunization. The spleen of the mice was taken 3 days post immunization to prepare the splenocyte suspension for cell fusion. The cells were grown on HAT selective medium to screen for effective hybridoma cells. The positive clones screened by ELISA assay were then used for expanding culture. Positive hybridoma cells were intraperitoneally injected to mice and ascites were collected. ELISA assay was used to determine the antibody titers in mice ascites and in the supernatants of monoclonal cell strains. The cells with the highest antibody titers was used as cell strain for subsequent use. [Result] The selected B-cell epitope peptide sequence was MQYVYTPTYYML Following immunization with the peptide antigen, the serum antibody titer before cell fusion reached 1:2 000. The ELISA assay of ascites from BALB/c mice and the supernatants from monoclonal cell strain cultures demostrated that the antibody liter reached 1:4 000. [Conclusion] The B-ell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was identified, which may be helpful for the vector construction of a epitope based peptide vaccine against PEDV.

4.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

5.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

6.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

7.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

8.
Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 38(2):422-428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893038

ABSTRACT

In this study, we detected the viral load and protein expression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) after overexpression and inhibition of integrin avbeta1 on the surface of Vero cells, and then cleared the role of integrin avbeta1 in the PEDV infection process. The results showed that the viral load and protein expression were significantly increased in the Vero cells which overexpressed integrin avbeta1, and the viral load and protein expression were significantly reduced in the Vero cells with silent integrin avbeta1 gene. Integrin avbeta1 promotes PEDV to infect Vero cells.

9.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

10.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):1-20, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876329

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.

11.
Ciencia Animal ; 31(4):134-153, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863944

ABSTRACT

This work aims to review about coronaviruses in swine, emblazoning there's differences. Transmissible gastroenteritis and epidemic diarrhea are imported diseases, as they generate a high mortality rate in lactating piglets and economic losses. These viruses reach enterocytes, causing villous atrophy;affected animals present watery diarrhea, vomiting, hypoxia and dehydration. Two other viruses have recently emerged, the swine deltacoronavirus and the swine acute diarrhea syndrome virus, which have pathogenicity and clinical signs similar to those described in previous diseases. In the other hand, the porcine respiratory coronavirus and the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus have distinct clinical signs. The first causes mild or subclinical respiratory manifestations and the second neurological signs, vomiting and emaciation, mostly affecting piglets younger than 4 weeks. As there is no specific treatment for these diseases, and vaccines do not provide full protection, a good biosecurity program is the main way to control and prevent them.

12.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 2:672-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841702

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To explore whether porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can infect and proliferate in different animal species-derived cell lines. [Methods] The Sichuan isolate CHN-SC2015of PDCoV was inoculated in twelve cell lines derived from hamster,poultry,monkey, human and swine. After at least five blindly passages in each cell line, the virus was identified by RT-PCR,RT-q PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and sequencing. [Results] PDCoV caused distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in Vero,PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells at the 1st passage (P1) and proliferated to various degrees in PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells, while the CPE gradually disappeared during subsequent passages in Vero and PAM cells. Except that in the three susceptible cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST), the viral copies of the infected cell lines gradually decreased with the increase in passages, and PDCoV could not be detected at P4 or P5 of DEF,Marc-145,HEK-293,ZYM-SIEC02, and PAM cells. PCR results showed that PDCoV could be detected only in CEF and Vero cells at P5. The IFA results showed that PDCoV could infect other cell lines except BHK-21 and ZYM-SIEC02, and specific immunofluorescence was observed in PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST cells at P1,P3, and P9. Therefore, only three cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST) were suitable for serial passage, with the virus titers up to 107.11,107.00, and 107.37 TCID50/mL at P9,respectively. After passage in different cell lines,CHN-SC2015 accumulated 14 nucleotide mutations corresponding to 12 amino acid mutations. [Conclusion] This study indicates that PDCoV can infect a variety of cells in vitro, suggesting that it may have the potential of cross-species transmission.

13.
Journal of Veterinary Epidemiology ; 24(2):55-74, 2020.
Article in Japanese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1790957

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 10 papers on risk management policy of the ministry of health, labour and welfare for ensuring safe wild game meat, prospective of application of food safety risk assessment for game meat, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) for animal owners, shelter medicine and COVID-19, the characteristics of bats as natural reservoirs of the novel coronavirus, chalkbrood in honey bees and its control measures, the economic impact of classical swine fever in Japan, benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Japan, COVID-19 outbreak and epidemiological research in Japan and the amendment of the act on domestic animal infectious diseases control.

14.
Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ; 10(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787279

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) spilled over to humans via wild mammals, entering the host cell using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor through Spike (S) protein binding. While SARS-CoV-2 became fully adapted to humans and globally spread, some mammal species were infected back. The present study evaluated the potential risk of mammals becoming hosts for SARS-CoV-2 through bioinformatics prediction based on ACE2 receptors.

15.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 43(8):910-910, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1786968
16.
Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ; 34(1):159-176, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1771309

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri secreting bovine lactoferrin peptide (LFCA) on growth performance of newborn piglets and the protective effect on porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)infection which caused piglet diarrhea. Experiment 1:thirty-six one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group and control group, each group with 12 piglets. Piglets in each group were orally administered recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri expressing LFCA pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21, containing empty vector plasmid PPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume phosphate buffer (PBS);oral administration continued for 3 days, and the observation time after oral administration was 14 d. During the period, piglets were fed freely, and the changes of body weight and diarrhea were recorded. Experiment 2:thirty one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups and given TGEV with a half tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) of 10-7.50/mL by oral administration of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mL, respectively. The observation period of 7 d was set to analyze the conditions of half lethal dose. Experiment 3:another thirty-two newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 piglets in each group. The groups were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group, control group and TGEV infect group. There were 8 replicates in each group and 1 piglet in each replicate. Each head of the experimental group was orally fed ppG-LFCA/LR-CO21, pPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume of PBS at a dose of 2..1010 CFU per day for 1 consecutive week. At 8 days of age, TGEV was infected by oral administration at half lethal dose, and samples were collected after 7 days of infection. The weight change and diarrhea of each group of piglets were recorded;hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to detect the length of intestinal villi and the depth of crypts;enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine total serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibody contents. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA relative expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-P (IFN-P), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The flora structure of the contents of the piglet's cecum was analyzed. After oral recombinant porcine Lactobacillusreuteri, compared with the control group, the average daily gain of newborn piglets in the pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was significantly increased (P < 0.01), while the diarrhea rate was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with TGEV infection group, the average daily gain of piglets in pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was increased and diarrhea rate was decreased, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The contents of total IgG and intestinal mucosal total sIgA antibody in serum of piglets were significantly increased (P < 0.05);the mRNA relative expression levels of tight junction protein-related genes Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 in intestinal mucosal tissue were extremely significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the serum TNF-a content was extremely significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Serum IFN-P, IL-6, IL-8 and TLR2 contents were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the survival rate of piglets was improved. The analysis of the bacterial diversity in the contents of the piglets' cecum showed that the proportion of normal intestinal flora of piglets decreased after TGEV infection. Compared with the TGEV infect group, the proportion of pathogenic bacteria Bacteroides in piglet's intestinal flora decreased by o

17.
Tier..rztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere ; 49(3):229-235, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1744014

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 25 papers from the 64th Annual Meeting of the Pathology Section of the German Veterinary Medical Association. Topics include tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in mammary carcinomas in domestic rabbits;what decides good or bad? - global gene expression analysis of the adenoma of the hepatoid perianal glands and adenocarcinoma the canine apocrine anal sac glands;the canine cutaneous histiocytoma - boring or perspective in immuno-oncology?;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;characterization of murine satellite glial cells of the dorsal root ganglia - a unique cell population with potential regenerative capacities;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;primary diffuse leptomeningeals oligodendrogliomatosis in a cat;pathomorphological studies of fibroadnexal dysplasia in dogs;pyogranulomatous inflammation in multiple Organs of a dog with evidence of Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum;ovary tumors in cats - overview of the examination material from 2009-2020 and case report of a recurrent dysgerminoma;atherosclerosis in the dog;spinal neuroenteric cyst in one Saint Bernard;MENX - an endogenous model for pseudohypoxic pheochromocytomas;molecular Level Evolution II: similarities of CLCA2 in sauropsids and mammals;in vivo detection of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) as an early detection marker unclear viral infections using the example of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) in experimental infected hamsters;the role of different mast cell subtypes in the context of intestinal carcinogenesis - a species-comparative approach;an underestimated treasure in paraffin - establishment of a global transcriptome analysis canine tumors from FFPE material based on QuantSeq 3' technology;well researched? - an approximation of the role of CLCA1 in joints through usage molecular databases;integration of digitized historical and cytopathology into an open source DICOM database and viewer system;3R 3D: skin model for the study of viral infections;CARD9 signaling promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and cytokine balance in a mouse model of virus-induced encephalitis;neuropathological changes after intranasal infection with Rift Valley fever virus - a murine model for human encephalitis;a T-cell a day keeps Theiler away - the influence non-reactive T-cells on the course of a Theiler virus infection in mice with C57BL/6 background;digitization in pathology - new opportunities and their obstacles;and specific features of satellite glial cells of dog and pig.

18.
Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ; 48(4):213-226, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1562430

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel disease, which has affected several people across the globe and with a heavy toll on the economy. The impact is yet to be fully quantified in the agricultural sector. In this study, the perceptions of pig and poultry farmers on the effects of the pandemic and coping mechanism during the lockdown period were investigated. A total of 108 farmers participated in this study. Structured questionnaires were administered to pig and poultry farmers (South-West Nigeria) electronically between June and July 2020. Information about knowledge of COVID-19, the effects on livestock enterprise and coping mechanism were obtained. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis. Most of the respondents (98.1%) had adequate knowledge of the mode of transmission as well as prevention of COVID-19. Majority of the respondents (87.4%) reported a reduction in their income during the lockdown period probably due to drop in sales (84% respondents) and livestock production (69.5% respondents), moderate to high increase in prices of livestock feeds (66.4% respondents) and inability to take farm products to market due to movement restriction policy. Most of the farmers (96.2%) reported that the government did not render adequate assistance to farmers during the lockdown. However, a few of the farmers (12%) did not suffer loss of revenue. Some of the farmers (22.4 - 62.5% respondents) had mild to moderate negative impact of COVID-19 on their farm due to the coping strategies practised during this period. In conclusion, there is need for appropriate intervention of the government and professional bodies during any pandemic to ensure the sustainability of pig and poultry industries.

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