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1.
Heliyon ; 8(6): e09592, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882049

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the area of supply chain resilience has received heightened attention as a plethora of new risks, ranging from climate change to cybersecurity and infectious diseases, have emerged as serious threats to operational performance. The COVID-19 pandemic, in particular, has exposed the fragility of global supply chains in many sectors. Given these concerns, supply chain networks, including those designed based on the principles of lean philosophies, are increasingly being re-examined as firms grapple with the challenge of strengthening the capacity to withstand, absorb, and rebound from unexpected shocks. Addressing the urgency of this imperative, this study presents a novel framework-based on theories and concepts in the systems engineering (SE) and supply chain resilience domains to enhance the resilience implementation capabilities that are lacking in many of today's firms. By applying a Grounded Theory methodology, this study develops and validates a conceptual model that identifies six core attributes fundamental to developing resilience capabilities in complex supply chains. The study concludes by providing examples of, and insights into, the role of these attributes in building supply chain resilience.

2.
Sage Open ; 12(2):15, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883492

ABSTRACT

The problem motivating this study is the fact that almost 19.70 million university students in China have been required to engage in e-learning under the government's initiative of "Classes are Suspended, yet Learning is still Ongoing" during the COVID-19 epidemic, coupled with varied responses, uneven adoption of e-learning platforms and varying degrees of satisfaction toward them. Using the online database adoption and satisfaction (ODAS) model, this study examines the determinants which impact university students' adoption of and satisfaction with e-learning platforms at this particular time in China. The ODAS model was also cross-validated using gender as a moderating variable. A purposive sampling procedure was used to survey a total of 1,136 students from six universities in five provinces or municipalities of China. The data for this survey were estimated using the Rasch model and structural equation modeling. Results exhibit that students' adoption of and satisfaction with e-learning platforms were significantly measured by their computer self-efficacy, their intention to use e-learning platforms, and their perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of these platforms, while the relationships among these components were moderated by gender differences. This empirically-based cross-validation of the ODAS provides recommendations for future studies, including practical implications for e-learning. This current study contributes to the body of knowledge in evaluating e-learning platforms during the COVID-19 epidemic.

3.
Siam Journal on Control and Optimization ; 60(2):S196-S220, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883310

ABSTRACT

Motivated by the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, this paper aims to apply Gunter Stein's cautionary message of respecting the unstable to the problem of controlling the spread of an infectious disease. With this goal, we study the effect that delays and capacity constraints have in the test, trace, and isolate (TeTrIs) process, and how they impact its ability to prevent exponential disease spread. Our analysis highlights the critical importance of speed and scale in the TeTrIs process. Precisely, ensuring that the delay in the TeTrIs process is much smaller than the doubling time of the disease spread is necessary for achieving acceptable performance. Similarly, limited TeTrIs capacity introduces a threshold on the size of an outbreak beyond which the disease spreads almost like the uncontrolled case. Along the way, we provide numerical illustrations to highlight these points.

4.
Siam Journal on Control and Optimization ; 60(2):S145-S169, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883309

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we provide insights on how much testing and social distancing is re-quired to control COVID-19. To this end, we develop a compartmental model that accounts for key aspects of the disease: incubation time, age-dependent symptom severity, and testing and hospital-ization delays;the model's parameters are chosen based on medical evidence, and, for concreteness, adapted to the German situation. Then, optimal mass-testing and age-dependent social distancing policies are determined by solving optimal control problems both in open loop and within a model predictive control framework. We aim to minimize testing and/or social distancing until herd im-munity sets in under a constraint on the number of available intensive care units. We find that an early and short lockdown is inevitable but can be slowly relaxed over the following months.

5.
Siam Journal on Control and Optimization ; 60(2):S119-S144, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883308

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first country to be affected by the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe. In the past months, predictive mathematical models have been used to understand the proportion of this epidemic and identify effective policies to control it, but few have considered the impact of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic infections in a structured setting. A critical problem that hinders the accuracy of these models is indeed given by the presence of a large number of asymptomatic individuals in the population. This number is estimated to be large, sometimes between 3 and 10 times the diagnosed patients. We focus on this aspect through the formulation of a model that captures two types of interactions onewith asymptomatic individuals and another with symptomatic infected. We also extend the original model to capture the interactions in the population via complex networks, and, in particular, the Watts-Strogatz model, which is the most suitable for social networks. The contributions of this paper include (i) the formulation of an epidemic model, which we call SAIR, that discriminates between asymptomatic and symptomatic infected through different measures of interactions and the corresponding stability analysis of the system in feedback form through the calculation of the R-0 as H-infinity gain;(ii) the analysis of the corresponding structured model involving the Watts and Strogatz interaction topology, to study the case of heterogeneous connectivity in the population;(iii) a case study on the Italian case, where we take into account the Istat seroprevalence study in the homogeneous case first, and then we analyze the impact of summer tourism and of the start of school in September in the heterogeneous case.

6.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883006

ABSTRACT

Standing at a crossroads, where ongoing 'slowbalisation' coincides with new forces such as the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, heightened geopolitical tensions, the emergence of disruptive technologies and the increasing urgency of addressing environmental challenges, many important questions remain unsolved regarding the nature and impact of the current economic globalisation. This special issue on 'Globalisation in Reverse? Reconfiguring the Geographies of Value Chains and Production Networks' aims at showcasing recent work that seeks to contribute to, and advance, the debates on economic globalisation and the reconfiguration of global value chains and production networks. This introductory article has three objectives: first, based on a broad literature review, we aim to identify four key forces, as well as the fundamental relatively stable capitalist logics contributing to the complex reconfiguration of global economic activities. Second, we will position the papers included in this special issue against the four main forces identified and discuss the contributions of each article to capture some emerging cross-paper patterns among them. Finally, we outline the contours of a research agenda that suggests promising avenues for further investigation of the phenomenon of value chain and production network reconfigurations in times of uncertainty.

7.
DOLOR ; 36(2):89-93, 2021.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880816

ABSTRACT

Long COVID is a term that describes a group of multiorganic symptoms that affect patients who have suffered from COVID-19 and who remain symptomatic for a sustained period of time after the acute phase of the disease. Amongst those symptoms, pain is one of the most frequently reported, shaping into different specific syndromes such as persistent thoracic pain, generalized pain, arthralgia, myalgia and cephalalgia. Multiple mechanisms can explain the onset and perpetuation of chronic pain in these patients. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 is a neurotropic virus that can alter the somatosensory nervous system and which can also cause an intense autoimmune response with effects on multiple organs and systems. We present three clinical cases of long COVID where pain was the main symptom altogether with anxiety, depression, insomnia, catastrophic thoughts related to pain, cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress disorder. These all show the existing complexity in the management of this new-found entity. Given the extensive number of SARS-CoV-2 infections reported globally, chronic pain in relation to long COVID can become a public health issue. Therefore, it is necessary to make it visible and to establish strategies to prevent it and confront it.

8.
Espiral-Cuadernos Del Profesorado ; 15(31):1-+, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880692

ABSTRACT

The education system requires egalitarian practices of transparency and quality. Formative and Shared Assessment (F&SA) is an educational model that allows students to participate in their learning. Training in F&SA can be provided through In-Service Teacher Education (ISTE) and Action-Research (A-R) cycles. The research objectives are: (a) to analyse the participation of students in all educational stages through F&SA, before and during the COVID-19 confinement;(b) to define the advantages of belonging to a group of ISTE in which A-R is carried out and the proposals for improvement proposed by the participants of the same. A case study was carried out with 24 teachers from an inter-level seminar on ISTE about F&SA. Two questionnaires, a focus group and the minutes of the seminar meetings were used. The results show that the teachers of the seminar value positively the participation of the student in their own assessment, understand the individuality of the students and avoid exclusion with egalitarian practices, especially during the confinement situation, where they used various strategies to ensure that the distance process was followed safely. In terms of the advantages of belonging to the seminar, the collaborative learning between teachers from different stages and the usefulness of A-R systems stand out.

12.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 30(3): 371-376, 2022 May.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879818

ABSTRACT

The article presents analysis of the Arkhangelsk City Clinical Hospital № 7 capacity and medical personnel staffing. The new coronavirus infection incidence, cases of temporary disability due to disease and quarantine of COVID-19 were analyzed in the Solombalsky district of Arkhangelsk. The issues of primary health care support and readiness of medical personnel to work with medical information systems in in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic were studied. The management decision-makings improving quality and accessibility of medical services using information technologies are demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Information Technology , Primary Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Quarantine
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 1136-1137, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879445

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a pandemic forced the entire world to adapt to a new scenario. The objective of this study was to know how Health Information Systems were adapted driven by the pandemic of COVID. 12 CIOS of healthcare organizations were interviewed and the interviews were classified according to the dimensions of a sociotechnical model: Infrastructure, Clinical Content, Human Computer Interface, People, Workflow and Communication, Organizational Characteristics and Internal Policies, Regulations, and Measurement and Monitoring. Adaptation to the Pandemic involved social, organizational and cultural rather than merely technical aspects in private organizations with mature and stable Health Information Systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Information Systems , Humans , Pandemics , User-Computer Interface , Workflow
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 377-379, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879408

ABSTRACT

Since Argentina's government declared a national emergency to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with a lockdown status, it has produced consequences on the healthcare system. We aimed to quantify the effect on the Emergency Department (ED) visits at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Our electronic health data showed that ED in-person visits declined 46% during the COVID-19 pandemic, from an overall of 176,370 visits during 2019 to 95,421 visits during 2020. Simultaneously, there was a telehealth visits boom when mandatory quarantine began (March 20, 2020): from a median of 12 daily in February 2020 to a median of 338 daily in April 2020; reaching a maximum daily peak of 1,132 on March 26 2020. For a while, teleconsultations replaced ED visits. Then, when face-to-face visits began to increase, teleconsultations began to decrease slowly, as the phenomenon reversed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 369-372, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879407

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, changes and improvements regarding the organization have been made to adapt quickly at the Emergency Department (ED) of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina. This article describes the design, implementation, and use of an electronic dashboard which provided monitoring of patients discharged home, during follow-up with telehealth. It was useful to access essential information to organize and coordinate professional work and patients' surveillance, providing highly relevant data in real-time as proxy variables for quality and safety during home isolation. The implemented tool innovated in the integration of technologies within a real context. The information management was crucial to optimize services and decision-making, as well to guarantee safety for healthcare workers and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 743, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has acutely affected Rohingya refugees living in camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. Reported increases in sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) were attributed in part to pandemic-related public health measures. In addition, the Government of Bangladesh's restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19 have impacted the provision of comprehensive care for survivors of sexual violence. This study sought to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected SGBV and the provision of services for Rohingya survivors in Bangladesh. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 13 professionals who provided or managed health care or related services for Rohingya refugees after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: At the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations observed an increase in the incidences of SGBV. However, health care workers noted that the overall number of survivors formally reporting or accessing services decreased. The pandemic produced multiple challenges that affected health workers' ability to provide essential care and services to Rohingya survivors, including access to the camps, initial designation of SGBV-related services as non-essential, communications and telehealth, difficulty maintaining confidentiality, and donor pressure. Some emerging best practices were also reported, including engaging Rohingya volunteers to continue services and adapting programming modalities and content to the COVID-19 context. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive SGBV services being deemed non-essential by the Government of Bangladesh was a key barrier to providing services to Rohingya survivors. Government restrictions adversely affected the ability of service providers to ensure that comprehensive SGBV care and services were available and accessible. The Government of Bangladesh has not been alone in struggling to balance the needs of displaced populations with the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and its response can provide lessons to others overseeing the provision of services during epidemics and pandemics in other humanitarian settings. The designation of comprehensive services for survivors of SGBV as essential is vital and should be done early in establishing disease prevention and mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender-Based Violence , Refugees , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the continuation of essential health services in sub-Saharan Africa. Through the Countdown to 2030 for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health country collaborations, analysts from country and global public health institutions and ministries of health assessed the trends in selected services for maternal, newborn and child health, general service utilisation. METHODS: Monthly routine health facility data by district for the period 2017-2020 were compiled by 12 country teams and adjusted after extensive quality assessments. Mixed effects linear regressions were used to estimate the size of any change in service utilisation for each month from March to December 2020 and for the whole COVID-19 period in 2020. RESULTS: The completeness of reporting of health facilities was high in 2020 (median of 12 countries, 96% national and 91% of districts ≥90%), higher than in the preceding years and extreme outliers were few. The country median reduction in utilisation of nine health services for the whole period March-December 2020 was 3.9% (range: -8.2 to 2.4). The greatest reductions were observed for inpatient admissions (median=-17.0%) and outpatient admissions (median=-7.1%), while antenatal, delivery care and immunisation services generally had smaller reductions (median from -2% to -6%). Eastern African countries had greater reductions than those in West Africa, and rural districts were slightly more affected than urban districts. The greatest drop in services was observed for March-June 2020 for general services, when the response was strongest as measured by a stringency index. CONCLUSION: The district health facility reports provide a solid basis for trend assessment after extensive data quality assessment and adjustment. Even the modest negative impact on service utilisation observed in most countries will require major efforts, supported by the international partners, to maintain progress towards the SDG health targets by 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, COVID-19 dominates the public health agenda and poses a permanent threat, leading to health systems' exhaustion and unprecedented service disruption. Primary healthcare services, including tuberculosis services, are at increased risk of facing severe disruptions, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Indeed, corroborating model-based forecasts, there is increasing evidence of the COVID-19 pandemic's negative impact on tuberculosis case detection. METHODS: Applying a segmented time-series analysis, we assessed the effects of COVID-19-related measures on tuberculosis diagnosis service across districts in Mozambique. Ministry health information system data were used from the first quarter of 2017 to the end of 2020. The model, performed under the Bayesian premises, was estimated as a negative binomial with random effects for districts and provinces. RESULTS: A total of 154 districts were followed for 16 consecutive quarters. Together, these districts reported 96 182 cases of all forms of tuberculosis in 2020. At baseline (first quarter of 2017), Mozambique had an estimated incidence rate of 283 (95% CI 200 to 406) tuberculosis cases per 100 000 people and this increased at a 5% annual rate through the end of 2019. We estimated that 17 147 new tuberculosis cases were potentially missed 9 months after COVID-19 onset, resulting in a 15.1% (95% CI 5.9 to 24.0) relative loss in 2020. The greatest impact was observed in the southern region at 40.0% (95% CI 30.1 to 49.0) and among men at 15% (95% CI 4.0 to 25.0). The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis increased at an average rate of 6.6% annually; however, an abrupt drop (15%) was also observed immediately after COVID-19 onset in March 2020. CONCLUSION: The most significant impact of the state of emergency was observed between April and June 2020, the quarter after COVID-19 onset. Encouragingly, by the end of 2020, clear signs of health system recovery were visible despite the initial shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1066, 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that the invasion by colonial powers of the Australian continent had profound and detrimental impacts on Aboriginal Communities, including food security. Policies of successive governments since European arrival have since further exacerbated the situation, with food insecurity now affecting 20-25% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Food insecurity contributes to long-term impacts on health, in particular diet-sensitive chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe Aboriginal community and stakeholder perspectives on food insecurity to get a better understanding of the key contributing factors and recommendations for potential strategies to address this issue in Aboriginal communities in urban and regional Australia. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 participants who were purposively selected. This included Aboriginal people in two communities and both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders from local food relief agencies, food suppliers, schools, and government in an urban and regional location in NSW. A conceptual framework was developed from literature on food security, and sensitizing concepts of availability, affordability, accessibility and acceptability or the lack thereof of healthy food were used to elicit responses from the participants. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. RESULTS: All participants felt strongly that food insecurity was a major problem experienced in their local Aboriginal communities. Five core areas impacting on food security were identified: trapped in financial disadvantage; gaps in the local food system; limitations of non-Aboriginal food relief services; on-going impacts of colonization; and maintaining family, cultural and community commitments and responsibilities. Participants suggested a number of actions that could help ease food insecurity and emphasized that Aboriginal values and culture must be strongly embedded in potential programs. CONCLUSIONS: This study found Aboriginal families in urban and regional Australia are experiencing food insecurity on a regular basis, which is impacted by a range of socio-economic, environmental, systemic and cultural factors, as reported by the participants. Study findings highlight the need to address system level changes in the food environment and acknowledge Aboriginal history, culture and food preferences when considering the development of programs to alleviate food insecurity among Aboriginal people.


Subject(s)
Food Supply , Australia , Food Insecurity , Humans , Indigenous Peoples
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 512, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facing a global epidemic of new infectious diseases such as COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), which reduce transmission rates without medical actions, are being implemented around the world to mitigate spreads. One of the problems in assessing the effects of NPIs is that different NPIs have been implemented at different times based on the situation of each country; therefore, few assumptions can be shared about how the introduction of policies affects the patient population. Mathematical models can contribute to further understanding these phenomena by obtaining analytical solutions as well as numerical simulations. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, an NPI was introduced into the SIR model for a conceptual study of infectious diseases under the condition that the transmission rate was reduced to a fixed value only once within a finite time duration, and its effect was analyzed numerically and theoretically. It was analytically shown that the maximum fraction of infected individuals and the final size could be larger if the intervention starts too early. The analytical results also suggested that more individuals may be infected at the peak of the second wave with a stronger intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides quantitative relationship between the strength of a one-shot intervention and the reduction in the number of patients with no approximation. This suggests the importance of the strength and time of NPIs, although detailed studies are necessary for the implementation of NPIs in complicated real-world environments as the model used in this study is based on various simplifications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical
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