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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1158905, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239264

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces B and T cell responses, contributing to virus neutralization. In a cohort of 2,911 young adults, we identified 65 individuals who had an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized their humoral and T cell responses to the Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N) and Membrane (M) proteins. We found that previous infection induced CD4 T cells that vigorously responded to pools of peptides derived from the S and N proteins. By using statistical and machine learning models, we observed that the T cell response highly correlated with a compound titer of antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), S and N. However, while serum antibodies decayed over time, the cellular phenotype of these individuals remained stable over four months. Our computational analysis demonstrates that in young adults, asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections can induce robust and long-lasting CD4 T cell responses that exhibit slower decays than antibody titers. These observations imply that next-generation COVID-19 vaccines should be designed to induce stronger cellular responses to sustain the generation of potent neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Machine Learning
2.
Pathogens ; 12(5)2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244465

ABSTRACT

In the past few years, the continuous pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has placed a huge burden on public health. In order to effectively deal with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, it becomes meaningful to further enhance the immune responses of individuals who have completed the first-generation vaccination. To understand whether sequential administration using different variant sequence-based inactivated vaccines could induce better immunity against the forthcoming variants, we tried five inactivated vaccine combinations in a mouse model and compared their immune responses. Our results showed that the sequential strategies have a significant advantage over homologous immunization by inducing robust antigen-specific T cell immune responses in the early stages of immunization. Furthermore, the three-dose vaccination strategies in our research elicited better neutralizing antibody responses against the BA.2 Omicron strain. These data provide scientific clues for finding the optimal strategy within the existing vaccine platform in generating cross-immunity against multiple variants including previously unexposed strains.

3.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244200

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 can result in a significant and irreversible impact on long-term recovery and subsequent immune protection. Understanding the complex immune reactions may be useful for establishing clinically relevant monitoring. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with SARS-CoV-2 between March/October 2020 (n = 64) were selected. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma samples were obtained at hospitalization (baseline) and 6 months after recovery. Immunological components' phenotyping and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response were studied in PBMCs by flow cytometry. Up to 25 plasma pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were assessed by LEGENDplex immunoassays. The SARS-CoV-2 group was compared to matched healthy donors. RESULTS: Biochemical altered parameters during infection were normalized at a follow-up time point in the SARS-CoV-2 group. Most of the cytokine/chemokine levels were increased at baseline in the SARS-CoV-2 group. This group showed increased Natural Killer cells (NK) activation and decreased CD16high NK subset, which normalized six months later. They also presented a higher intermediate and patrolling monocyte proportion at baseline. T cells showed an increased terminally differentiated (TemRA) and effector memory (EM) subsets distribution in the SARS-CoV-2 group at baseline and continued to increase six months later. Interestingly, T-cell activation (CD38) in this group decreased at the follow-up time point, contrary to exhaustion markers (TIM3/PD1). In addition, we observed the highest SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell magnitude response in TemRA CD4 T-cell and EM CD8 T-cell subsets at the six-months time point. CONCLUSIONS: The immunological activation in the SARS-CoV-2 group during hospitalization is reversed at the follow-up time point. However, the marked exhaustion pattern remains over time. This dysregulation could constitute a risk factor for reinfection and the development of other pathologies. Additionally, high SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells response levels appear to be associated with infection severity.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242199

ABSTRACT

This study characterizes antibody and T-cell immune responses over time until the booster dose of COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) undergoing different disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). We prospectively enrolled 134 PwMS and 99 health care workers (HCWs) having completed the two-dose schedule of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine within the last 2-4 weeks (T0) and followed them 24 weeks after the first dose (T1) and 4-6 weeks after the booster (T2). PwMS presented a significant reduction in the seroconversion rate and anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-Immunoglobulin (IgG) titers from T0 to T1 (p < 0.0001) and a significant increase from T1 to T2 (p < 0.0001). The booster dose in PwMS showed a good improvement in the serologic response, even greater than HCWs, as it promoted a significant five-fold increase of anti-RBD-IgG titers compared with T0 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the T-cell response showed a significant 1.5- and 3.8-fold increase in PwMS at T2 compared with T0 (p = 0.013) and T1 (p < 0.0001), respectively, without significant modulation in the number of responders. Regardless of the time elapsed since vaccination, most ocrelizumab- (77.3%) and fingolimod-treated patients (93.3%) showed only a T-cell-specific or humoral-specific response, respectively. The booster dose reinforces humoral- and cell-mediated-specific immune responses and highlights specific DMT-induced immune frailties, suggesting the need for specifically tailored strategies for immune-compromised patients to provide primary prophylaxis, early SARS-CoV-2 detection and the timely management of COVID-19 antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Messenger , Immunity , mRNA Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective long-term protection against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in these patients, but little is known about the decay of the immune response after primary vaccination. We studied the immune responses 6 months after two mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines in 473 IEI patients and subsequently the response to a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 50 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, 473 IEI patients (including X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) (N = 18), combined immunodeficiency (CID) (N = 22), CVID (N = 203), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies (N = 204), and phagocyte defects (N = 16)), and 179 controls were included and followed up to 6 months after two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, samples were collected from 50 CVID patients who received a third vaccine 6 months after primary vaccination through the national vaccination program. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG titers, neutralizing antibodies, and T cell responses were assessed. RESULTS: At 6 months after vaccination, the geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) declined in both IEI patients and healthy controls, when compared to GMT 28 days after vaccination. The trajectory of this decline did not differ between controls and most IEI cohorts; however, antibody titers in CID, CVID, and isolated antibody deficiency patients more often dropped to below the responder cut-off compared to controls. Specific T cell responses were still detectable in 77% of controls and 68% of IEI patients at 6 months post vaccination. A third mRNA vaccine resulted in an antibody response in only two out of 30 CVID patients that did not seroconvert after two mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: A similar decline in IgG titers and T cell responses was observed in patients with IEI when compared to healthy controls 6 months after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination. The limited beneficial benefit of a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in previous non-responder CVID patients implicates that other protective strategies are needed for these vulnerable patients.

6.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(6): 101084, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327715

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and heterologous immunization approaches implemented worldwide for booster doses call for diversified vaccine portfolios. GRAd-COV2 is a gorilla adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate encoding prefusion-stabilized spike. The safety and immunogenicity of GRAd-COV2 is evaluated in a dose- and regimen-finding phase 2 trial (COVITAR study, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04791423) whereby 917 eligible participants are randomized to receive a single intramuscular GRAd-COV2 administration followed by placebo, or two vaccine injections, or two doses of placebo, spaced over 3 weeks. Here, we report that GRAd-COV2 is well tolerated and induces robust immune responses after a single immunization; a second administration increases binding and neutralizing antibody titers. Potent, variant of concern (VOC) cross-reactive spike-specific T cell response peaks after the first dose and is characterized by high frequencies of CD8s. T cells maintain immediate effector functions and high proliferative potential over time. Thus, GRAd vector is a valuable platform for genetic vaccine development, especially when robust CD8 response is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular
7.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 is an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine comprising full-length 5-µg recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (rS) glycoprotein and Matrix-M™ adjuvant. Phase 2 of a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial in healthy adults (18-84 years) previously reported good safety/tolerability and robust humoral immunogenicity. METHODS: Participants were randomized to placebo or 1 or 2 doses of 5-µg or 25-µg rS with 50 µg Matrix-M adjuvant 21 days apart. CD4+ T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 intact S or pooled peptide stimulation (with ancestral or variant S sequences) were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICCS). RESULTS: A clearly discernable spike antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell response was induced after 1 dose, but markedly enhanced after 2 doses. Counts and fold-increases in cells producing Th1 cytokines exceeded those secreting Th2 cytokines, although both phenotypes were clearly present. Interferon-γ responses to rS were detected in 93.5% of 2-dose 5-µg recipients. A polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell response was cross-reactive and of equivalent magnitude to all tested variants, including Omicron BA.1/BA.5. CONCLUSIONS: NVX-CoV2373 elicits a moderately Th1-biased CD4+ T-cell response that is cross-reactive with ancestral and variant S proteins after 2 doses. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04368988.

8.
Transpl Immunol ; 79: 101858, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321478

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines exhibit high levels of immunogenicity in the overall population. Data on the effects of immunomodulators on the consequences of COVID-19 in patients with Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) remains scarce. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the immune responses to the COVID-19 vaccines in IMID patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) compared to healthy individuals. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Embase up to August 2022 to identify eligible RCTs evaluating the effect of MTX on immune responses in patients with COVID-19. The PRISMA checklist protocol was applied for the quality assessment of the selected trials. Our findings demonstrated that MTX lowered the responses of T cells and antibodies in IMID patients compared to healthy controls. We also discovered that young age (<60 years) was the main parameter influencing the antibody response after vaccination, while MTX had little effect. Following vaccination, MTX-hold and age were considered the main factors influencing the antibody response. In patients older than 60 years of age, the time point of 10 days of MTX discontinuation was critical to boosting the humoral response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Because many IMID patients did not have adequate humoral and cellular responses, our findings highlighted the importance of second or booster doses of vaccine and temporary MTX discontinuation. As a result, it implies that individuals with IMIDs should be subjected to more research, particularly humoral and cellular immunity efficiency trials after COVID-19 vaccination, until credible information is achieved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Immunomodulating Agents , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Immunity, Cellular
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325197

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the factors that have significant impact on the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination induced immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serological response was measured by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, while the cell-mediated response was measured by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ response to different SARS-CoV-2-specific domains. Results: We prospectively enrolled 109 RA patients and 43 healthy controls. The median time (IQR) between the confirmed infection or the last vaccination dose and the day when samples were taken ("sampling interval") was 3.67 (2.03, 5.50) months in the RA group. Anti-Spike (anti-S) specific antibodies were detected in 94% of RA patients. Among the investigated patient related variables, age (p<0.004), sampling interval (p<0.001), the brand of the vaccine (p<0.001) and targeted RA therapy (TNF-inhibitor, IL-6 inhibitor, anti-CD20 therapy) had significant effect on the anti-S levels. After covariate adjustment TNF-inhibitor therapy decreased the anti-S antibody concentrations by 80% (p<0.001). The same figures for IL-6 inhibitor and anti-CD20 therapy were 74% (p=0.049) and 97% (p=0.002), respectively. Compared to subjects who were infected but were not vaccinated, the RNA COVID-19 vaccines increased the anti-S antibody levels to 71.1 (mRNA-1273) and 36.0 (BNT162b2) fold (p<0.001). The corresponding figure for the ChAdOx1s vaccine is 18.1(p=0.037). Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides) positive patients had 6.28 times (p= 0.00165) higher anti-S levels, than the anti-CCP negative patients. Positive T-cell response was observed in 87% of the healthy volunteer group and in 52% of the RA patient group. Following vaccination or infection it declined significantly (p= 0.044) but more slowly than that of anti-S titer (6%/month versus 25%). Specific T-cell responses were decreased by 65% in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy (p=0.055). Conclusion: Our study showed that the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were substantially reduced in RA patients treated with TNF-α-inhibitors (N=51) and IL-6-inhibitor (N=15). In addition, anti-CD20 therapy (N=4) inhibited both SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of humoral and cellular immune response was dependent on the age and decreased over time. The RNA vaccines and ChAdOx1s vaccine effectively increased the level of anti-S antibodies.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies , Interleukin-6 , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1012526, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324276

ABSTRACT

A gradual decay in humoral and cellular immune responses over time upon SAR1S-CoV-2 vaccination may cause a lack of protective immunity. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of antibodies, T cells, and monocytes in 25 participants vaccinated with mRNA or ChAdOx1-S up to 12 weeks after the 3rd (booster) dose with mRNA vaccine. We observed a substantial increase in antibodies and CD8 T cells specific for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination. Moreover, vaccination induced activated T cells expressing CD69, CD137 and producing IFN-γ and TNF-α. Virus-specific CD8 T cells showed predominantly memory phenotype. Although the level of antibodies and frequency of virus-specific T cells reduced 4-6 months after the 2nd dose, they were augmented after the 3rd dose followed by a decrease later. Importantly, T cells generated after the 3rd vaccination were also reactive against Omicron variant, indicated by a similar level of IFN-γ production after stimulation with Omicron peptides. Breakthrough infection in participants vaccinated with two doses induced more SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells than the booster vaccination. We found an upregulation of PD-L1 expression on monocytes but no accumulation of myeloid cells with MDSC-like immunosuppressive phenotype after the vaccination. Our results indicate that the 3rd vaccination fosters antibody and T cell immune response independently from vaccine type used for the first two injections. However, such immune response is attenuated over time, suggesting thereby the need for further vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control
11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1142918, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314497

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a variable percentage of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection failed to elicit humoral response. This study investigates whether patients with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG are able to generate SARS-CoV-2 memory T cells with proliferative capacity upon stimulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with convalescent COVID-19 patients, diagnosed with a positive real-time PCR (RT-PCR) from nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. COVID-19 patients were enrolled ≥3 months after the last PCR positive. Proliferative T-cell response after whole blood stimulation was assessed using the FASCIA assay. Results: A total of 119 participants (86 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 33 healthy controls) were randomly filtered from an initial cohort. Of these 86 patients, 59 had detectable (seropositive) and 27 had undetectable (seronegative) SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Seropositive patients were subclassified as asymptomatic/mild or severe according to the oxygen supplementation requirement. SARS-CoV-2 CD3+ and CD4+ T cells showed significantly lower proliferative response in seronegative than in seropositive patients. The ROC curve analysis indicated that ≥ 5 CD4+ blasts/µL of blood defined a "positive SARS-CoV-2 T cell response". According to this cut-off, 93.2% of seropositive patients had a positive T-cell response compared to 50% of seronegative patients and 20% of negative controls (chi-square; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This proliferative assay is useful not only to discriminate convalescent patients from negative controls, but also to distinguish seropositive patients from those with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Memory T cells in seronegative patients are able to respond to SARSCoV-2 peptides, although at a lower magnitude than seropositive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Memory T Cells , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1169666, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312883

ABSTRACT

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients must be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 as quickly as possible after transplantation. The difficulty in obtaining recommended SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for allo-HSCT recipients motivated us to utilize an accessible and affordable SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with a recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD)-tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated platform shortly after allo-HSCT in the developing country of Iran. Methods: This prospective, single-arm study aimed to investigate immunogenicity and its predictors following a three-dose SARS-CoV-2 RBD-TT-conjugated vaccine regimen administered at 4-week (± 1-week) intervals in patients within 3-12 months post allo-HSCT. An immune status ratio (ISR) was measured at baseline and 4 weeks (± 1 week) after each vaccine dose using a semiquantitative immunoassay. Using the median ISR as a cut-off point for immune response intensity, we performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the predictive impact of several baseline factors on the intensity of the serologic response following the third vaccination dose. Results: Thirty-six allo-HSCT recipients, with a mean age of 42.42 years and a median time of 133 days between hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and the start of vaccination, were analyzed. Our findings, using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model, indicated that, compared with the baseline ISR of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 2.17], the ISR increased significantly during the three-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regimen. The ISR reached 2.32 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.79; p = 0.010) after the second dose and 3.87 (95% CI 3.25 to 4.48; p = 0.001) after the third dose of vaccine, reflecting 69.44% and 91.66% seropositivity, respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the female sex of the donor [odds ratio (OR) 8.67; p = 0.028] and a higher level donor ISR at allo-HSCT (OR 3.56; p = 0.050) were the two positive predictors of strong immune response following the third vaccine dose. No serious adverse events (i.e., grades 3 and 4) were observed following the vaccination regimen. Conclusions: We concluded that early vaccination of allo-HSCT recipients with a three-dose RBD-TT-conjugated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is safe and could improve the early post-allo-HSCT immune response. We further believe that the pre-allo-HSCT SARS-CoV-2 immunization of donors may enhance post-allo-HSCT seroconversion in allo-HSCT recipients who receive the entire course of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during the first year after allo-HSCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetanus Toxoid
13.
Infektsiya I Immunitet ; 12(4):651-658, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309302

ABSTRACT

Here, we review thematic publications in available literature sources of the databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, eLibrary, 49 of which were dated of the years 1997-2022. Analysis of such reports is aimed at assessing features of cytokine storm-induced hyperinflammatory reaction with signs of immunosuppression accompanied by pronounced lymphopenia and lowered count of CD4(+)T helpers during severe COVID-19. The prognostic factor for unfavorable prognosis was based on the marker of systemic inflammatory reaction correlating with the disease severity - the soluble IL-2 receptor as well as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the lymphocyte subset imbalance. An immunosuppressive therapy of severe forms of COVID-19, aimed at weakening the inflammatory response, exacerbates immune dysfunction by suppressing the T cell function, mainly due to Th1 lymphocytes involved in recognizing and eliminating intracellular pathogens particularly viruses. Upon that, cell-mediated immunity becomes compromised that relies on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages. Timely and targeted immunocorrection is required to prevent or reduce the immunosuppression that accompanies a severe disease course and leads to serious and prolonged complications, as well as to association of secondary infections. In fight against the cytokine storm, it is important not to miss a time point of developing immunosuppressive condition that transitions into immunoparalysis as follows from recent publications covering the tactics of treating immune-mediated complications of coronavirus infection. The review discusses opportunities for immunosuppressive therapy along with glucocorticosteroids and monoclonal antibodies blocking IL-6 or cognate receptors. Studies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to reduce systemic inflammatory response at COVID-19 are outlined in the review. The use of antigen-specific Treg and their combinations with antagonists of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) as well as low-dose IL-2 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were analyzed. The prognostic perspectives for CAR-T cells and CAR-NK cells technology have been considered as novel therapeutic approaches aimed at "training" effector cells to recognize the surface SARS-CoV-2 virus spike-like (S) protein. The feasibility of a therapeutic approach is also emphasized by comparatively analyzed of efficacy of using IL-7 or IL-15 during lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Here, side effects complicating immunocorrection come to the fore. Critical evaluation of corrected immunosuppressive conditions in patients with COVID-19 in the post-COVID-19 period by using low-dose IL-2 therapy revealed its ability to repair cellular immune response. As a result, a low-dose IL-2 therapy is recommended as a cytokine replacement therapy in such patients with COVID-19 during hyper-to-hypo-inflammatory phase transition in immune response.

14.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 9(2): 20552173231165196, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293623

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited knowledge about T cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) after 3 doses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine. Objectives: Assess the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody and T cell responses in MS patients and healthy controls (HCs) after 2 doses (2-vax) and 3 doses (3-vax) of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Methods: We studied seroconversion rates and T cell responses by flow cytometry in HC and MS patients on fingolimod or ocrelizumab. Results: After 2-vax, 8/33 (24.2%) patients in ocrelizumab group, 5/7 (71.4%) in fingolimod group, and 29/29 (100%) in HC group (P = 5.7 × 10-11) seroconverted. After 3-vax, 9/22 (40.9%) patients in ocrelizumab group, 19/21 (90.5%) in fingolimod group, and 7/7 (100%) in HC group seroconverted (P = 0.0003). The percentage of SARS-CoV-2 peptide reactive total CD4+ T cells increased in HC and ocrelizumab group but not in fingolimod group after 2-vax and 3-vax (P < 0.0001). The percentage of IFNγ and TNFα producing total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased in fingolimod group as compared to HC and ocrelizumab group after 2-vax and 3-vax (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: MS patients on ocrelizumab and fingolimod had attenuated humoral responses, but preserved cytokine producing T cell responses compared to HCs after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT05060354.

15.
Immunother Adv ; 3(1): ltad005, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292677

ABSTRACT

T cell recognition of SARS-CoV-2 antigens after vaccination and/or natural infection has played a central role in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infections and generating adaptive immune memory. However, the clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses is variable and the mechanisms underlying T cell interaction with target antigens are not fully understood. This is especially true given the virus' rapid evolution, which leads to new variants with immune escape capacity. In this study, we used the Omicron variant as a model organism and took a systems approach to evaluate the impact of mutations on CD8+ T cell immunogenicity. We computed an immunogenicity potential score for each SARS-CoV-2 peptide antigen from the ancestral strain and Omicron, capturing both antigen presentation and T cell recognition probabilities. By comparing ancestral vs. Omicron immunogenicity scores, we reveal a divergent and heterogeneous landscape of impact for CD8+ T cell recognition of mutated targets in Omicron variants. While T cell recognition of Omicron peptides is broadly preserved, we observed mutated peptides with deteriorated immunogenicity that may assist breakthrough infection in some individuals. We then combined our scoring scheme with an in silico mutagenesis, to characterise the position- and residue-specific theoretical mutational impact on immunogenicity. While we predict many escape trajectories from the theoretical landscape of substitutions, our study suggests that Omicron mutations in T cell epitopes did not develop under cell-mediated pressure. Our study provides a generalisable platform for fostering a deeper understanding of existing and novel variant impact on antigen-specific vaccine- and/or infection-induced T cell immunity.

16.
Clin Immunol ; 251: 109342, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the heterologous prime-boost COVID vaccination has been fully elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate both humoral, cellular immunity and cross-reactivity against variants after heterologous vaccination. METHODS: We recruited healthcare workers previously primed with Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccines and boosted with Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine boost to evaluate the immunological response. Assay used: anti-spike RBD antibody, surrogate virus neutralizing antibody and interferon-γ release assay. RESULTS: All participants exhibited higher humoral and cellular immune response after the booster regardless of prior antibody level, but those with higher antibody level demonstrated stronger booster response, especially against omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants. The pre-booster IFN-γ release by CD4+ T cells correlates with post-booster neutralizing antibody against BA.1 and BA.2 variant after adjustment with age and gender. CONCLUSIONS: A heterologous mRNA boost is highly immunogenic. The pre-existing neutralizing antibody level and CD4+ T cells response correlates with post-booster neutralization reactivity against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , T-Lymphocytes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1126392, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302131

ABSTRACT

Because of the rapid mutations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants is needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). T cells, in addition to neutralizing antibodies, are an important component of naturally acquired protective immunity, and a number of studies have shown that T cells induced by natural infection or vaccination contribute significantly to protection against several viral infections including SARS-CoV-2. However, it has never been tested whether a T cell-inducing vaccine can provide significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of preexisting antibodies. In this study, we designed and evaluated lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulated mRNA vaccines that induce only T cell responses or both T cell and neutralizing antibody responses by using two mRNAs. One mRNA encodes SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Spike protein in prefusion conformation for induction of neutralizing antibodies. The other mRNA encodes over one hundred T cell epitopes (multi-T cell epitope or MTE) derived from non-Spike but conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2. We show immunization with MTE mRNA alone protected mice from lethal challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant or a mouse-adapted virus MA30. Immunization with both mRNAs induced the best protection with the lowest viral titer in the lung. These results demonstrate that induction of T cell responses, in the absence of preexisting antibodies, is sufficient to confer protection against severe disease, and that a vaccine containing mRNAs encoding both the Spike and MTE could be further developed as a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , RNA, Messenger/genetics
18.
J Pers Med ; 13(4)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, making vaccination during pregnancy critical for mother-neonate dyads. Few data, often with an unrepresentative sample size, are available on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated response. Here, we evaluated anti-S antibody and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production elicited by SARS-CoV-2 immunization in maternal and neonatal plasma. Pregnant women (n = 230) were prospectively enrolled and classified as unvaccinated (n = 103) and vaccinated (n = 127); after serological screening for previous infections, assays were performed on 126 dyads, 15 mothers and 17 newborns. Positive anti-S antibodies were found in most of the vaccinated subjects, regardless of timespan between immunization and delivery (range: 7-391 days). A total of 89 of 92 vaccinated women showed a broad response to COVID-19 immunization and highly effective placental transfer, as attested by anti-S positive rates (maternal = 96.7%, cord = 96.6%). Most of our subjects had indeterminate results in an IGRA assay, preventing a conclusive evaluation of IFN-γ production. Indeed, pregnancy-related hormonal changes may influence T-cell response with an impact on IFN-γ production. Positive pregnancy and perinatal outcomes reinforce the evidence that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunization is effective and well-tolerated in pregnant women and also protective for the fetus/neonate, even though it was not possible to define the related IFN-γ production and role.

19.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 37(6): e24882, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are useful for the assessment of the T-cell response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to assess the performance of the newly developed IGRA ELISA test compared to the pre-existing assays and to validate the cutoff value in real-world conditions. METHODS: We enrolled 219 participants and assessed agreement between STANDARD-E Covi-FERON ELISA with Quanti-FERON SARS-CoV-2 (QFN SARS-CoV-2), as well as with T SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 based on Cohen's kappa-index. We further determined the optimal cutoff value for the Covi-FERON ELISA according to the immune response to vaccinations or infections. RESULTS: We found a moderate agreement between Covi-FERON ELISA and QFN SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination (kappa-index = 0.71), whereas a weak agreement after the first (kappa-index = 0.40) and second vaccinations (kappa-index = 0.46). However, the analysis between Covi-FERON ELISA and T SPOT assay demonstrated a strong agreement (kappa-index >0.7). The cut-off value of the OS (original spike) marker was 0.759 IU/mL with a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 78.7%, and that of the variant spike (VS) marker was 0.663 IU/mL with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 80.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The newly determined cut-off value may provide an optimum value to minimize and prevent the occurrence of false-negative or false-positive during the assessment of T-cell immune response using Covi-FERON ELISA under real-world conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 43(5): 869-881, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282518

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Humoral and cellular immune responses were described after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID). This study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody quality and memory function of B cell immunity as well as T cell responses after COVID-19 vaccination in seroresponding and non-responding CVID patients. METHODS: We evaluated antibody avidity and applied a memory B cell ELSPOT assay for functional B cell recall memory response to SARS-CoV-2 after COVID-19 vaccination in CVID seroresponders. We comparatively analyzed SARS-CoV-2 spike reactive polyfunctional T cell response and reactive peripheral follicular T helper cells (pTFH) by flow cytometry in seroresponding and non-seroresponding CVID patients. All CVID patients had previously failed to mount a humoral response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody avidity of seroresponding CVID patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls. Only 30% of seroresponding CVID patients showed a minimal memory B cell recall response in ELISPOT assay. One hundred percent of CVID seroresponders and 83% of non-seroresponders had a detectable polyfunctional T cell response. Induction of antigen-specific CD4+CD154+CD137+CXCR5+ pTFH cells by the COVID-19 vaccine was higher in CVID seroresponder than in non-seroresponder. Levels of pTFH did not correlate with antibody response or avidity. CONCLUSION: Reduced avidity and significantly impaired recall memory formation after COVID-19 vaccination in seroresponding CVID patients stress the importance of a more differentiated analysis of humoral immune response in CVID patients. Our observations challenge the clinical implications that follow the binary categorization into seroresponder and non-seroresponder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Humans , Memory B Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Affinity , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
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