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1.
IJID Reg ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243526

ABSTRACT

Background: The reported infection rates, and the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in low- and middle-income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa, are relatively low compared to Europe and America, partly due to limited testing capabilities. Unlike many countries, in Tanzania, neither mass screening nor restrictive measures such as lockdowns have been implemented to date. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in rural mainland Tanzania is largely unknown. Methods: Between April and October 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among mother-child pairs (n=634 children, n=518 mothers) in a rural setting of north-eastern Tanzania. Findings: We found a very high prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres with seroprevalence rates ranging from 29% among mothers and 40% among children, with a dynamic peak in seropositivity incidence at the end of July/early in August being revealed. Significant differences in age, socioeconomic status and body composition were associated with seropositivity in mothers and children. No significant associations were observed between seropositivity and comorbidities, including anaemia, diabetes, malaria, and HIV. Interpretations: The SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a rural region of Tanzania during 2021 was high, indicating a much higher infection rate in rural Tanzania compared to that reported in the UK and USA during the same period. Ongoing immune surveillance may be vital to monitoring the burden of viral infection in rural settings without access to molecular genotyping where a load of communicable diseases may mask COVID-19. Surveillance could be implemented in tandem with the intensification of vaccination strategies.

2.
Disasters ; 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242582

ABSTRACT

Scientists and global commentators watched African countries closely in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, predicting an impending disaster: the virus was projected to overwhelm already weak health systems. These expectations were informed by imaginaries of Africa as an inevitable site of epidemic disaster. This paper draws on accounts from Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Democratic Republic of the Congo to contrast global catastrophe framings with everyday imaginations and experiences of crisis and crisis management. Utilising ethnographic research, the paper initially explores how COVID-19 was understood in relation to previous epidemics, from HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) to Ebola, as well as political conflict. It then considers how global crisis narratives both inform and are in tension with everyday collective and personal experiences. The paper brings these empirical reflections into a conversation with theoretical debates on the discursive construction of crisis and its effects, and argues that these tensions matter because crisis framings have consequences.

3.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 21(1): 15, 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241167

ABSTRACT

Essential Emergency and Critical Care (EECC) is a novel approach to the care of critically ill patients, focusing on first-tier, effective, low-cost, life-saving care and designed to be feasible even in low-resourced and low-staffed settings. This is distinct from advanced critical care, usually conducted in ICUs with specialised staff, facilities and technologies. This paper estimates the incremental cost of EECC and advanced critical care for the planning of care for critically ill patients in Tanzania and Kenya.The incremental costing took a health systems perspective. A normative approach based on the ingredients defined through the recently published global consensus on EECC was used. The setting was a district hospital in which the patient is provided with the definitive care typically provided at that level for their condition. Quantification of resource use was based on COVID-19 as a tracer condition using clinical expertise. Local prices were used where available, and all costs were converted to USD2020.The costs per patient day of EECC is estimated to be 1 USD, 11 USD and 33 USD in Tanzania and 2 USD, 14 USD and 37 USD in Kenya, for moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 patients respectively. The cost per patient day of advanced critical care is estimated to be 13 USD and 294 USD in Tanzania and USD 17 USD and 345 USD in Kenya for severe and critical COVID-19 patients, respectively.EECC is a novel approach for providing the essential care to all critically ill patients. The low costs and lower tech approach inherent in delivering EECC mean that EECC could be provided to many and suggests that prioritizing EECC over ACC may be a rational approach when resources are limited.

4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 10, 2023 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter antibiotic access is common in low-and-middle-income countries and this may accelerate antimicrobial resistance. Our study explores critical aspects of the drug seller-client interaction and antibiotic dispensing patterns for simulated COVID-19 symptoms during the pandemic in two study sites in Tanzania and Uganda, countries with different government responses to the pandemic. METHODS: Research assistants posing as clients approached different types of drug sellers such as pharmacies (Pharms), drug shops (DSs), and accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) in Mwanza, Tanzania (nPharms = 415, nADDOs = 116) and Mbarara, Uganda (nPharms = 440, nDSs = 67), from June 10 to July 30, 2021. The mystery clients held no prescription and sought advice for simulated COVID-19 symptoms from the drug sellers. They documented the quality of their interaction with sellers and the type of drugs dispensed. RESULTS: Adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and vigilance to COVID-19 symptoms was low in both sites but significantly higher in Uganda than in Tanzania. A higher percentage of drug sellers in Mbarara (Pharms = 36%, DSs = 35%, P-value = 0.947) compared to Mwanza (Pharms = 9%, ADDOs = 4%, P-value = 0.112) identified the client's symptoms as possibly COVID-19. More than three-quarters of drug sellers that sold prescription-only medicines in both Mbarara (Pharms = 86%, DSs = 89%) and Mwanza (Pharms = 93%, ADDOs = 97%) did not ask the MCs for a prescription. A relatively high percentage of drug sellers that sold prescription-only medicines in Mwanza (Pharms = 51%, ADDOs = 67%) compared to Mbarara (Pharms = 31%, DSs = 42%) sold a partial course without any hesitation. Of those who sold antibiotics, a higher proportion of drug sellers in Mbarara (Pharms = 73%, DSs = 78%, P-value = 0.580) compared to Mwanza (Pharms = 40% ADDOs = 46%, P-value = 0.537) sold antibiotics relevant for treating secondary bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights low vigilance towards COVID-19 symptoms, widespread propensity to dispense prescription-only antibiotics without a prescription, and to dispense partial doses of antibiotics. This implies that drug dispensing related to COVID-19 may further drive AMR. Our study also highlights the need for more efforts to improve antibiotic stewardship among drug sellers in response to COVID-19 and to prepare them for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Tanzania/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243528

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major public health threat associated with the increased global burden of infectious diseases, mortality, and enormous economic loss to countries and communities. Safe and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines are crucial in halting the pandemic. We assessed the COVID-19 vaccine uptake and associated factors among community members from eight regions in Tanzania. The interviewer-administered questionnaire collected data. Multiple logistic regression models determined the factors associated with vaccine uptake. The median age of 3470 respondents was 37 years (interquartile range of 29-50 years) and 66% of them were females. Only 18% of them had received the COVID-19 vaccine, ranging from 8% in Dar es Salaam to 37% in Simiyu regions. A third (34%) of those vaccinated people did not know which vaccine they were given. Significantly higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake were among the respondents aged 30+ years, males, and with a history of COVID-19 infection. Unfavorable perceptions about vaccine safety and efficacy lowered the rates of vaccine uptake. Setting-specific interventions and innovations are critical to improving vaccine uptake, given the observed differences between regions. Efforts are needed to increase vaccine uptake among women and younger people aged less than 30 years. Knowledge-based interventions should enhance the understanding of the available vaccines, benefits, target groups, and availability.

6.
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy ; 17(1):15-38, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2232940

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to investigate the continuance intention of using e-government services in Tanzania as well as moderating effects of system interactivity.Design/methodology/approachA research model based on expectancy confirmation model was developed and empirically tested using 213 data collected from e-government services users who were selected using the judgemental sampling technique. The variance-based structural equation modelling technique was used for data analysis using SmartPLS 3.0.FindingsThe results of this study suggest that system interactivity, computer self-efficacy, management support, confirmation, satisfaction and perceived usefulness have a positive and significant influence on continuance intention to use e-government services. Moreover, the findings of this study indicate that system interactivity moderates the influence of perceived usefulness and satisfaction on continuance intention.Originality/valueThis study extends the expectancy confirmation model with system interactivity, management support and computer self-efficacy which are considered as important factors in continuance usage of technology. Furthermore, this study examines the moderating effect of system interactivity on the effects of perceived usefulness and satisfaction on continuance intention.

7.
Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning ; 5(2):393-410, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057889

ABSTRACT

The study aims to understand the foremost challenges in the transition to online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study adopts the PRISMA approach to screening the selection of journal articles and review papers according to the research aims and the inclusion criteria. The journal articles and review papers were extracted and stored in Microsoft Excel and Google Scholar, Academic. Microsoft, Semantic Scholar, Elsevier, and Emerald Insight databases searched relevant documents using formulated keywords. A statistical technique was applied using the M.S. Excel analysis tool (PivotTable and an independent t-Test) to analyze data and determine the differences between teachers and students. The review revealed the evidence that the majority of the studies were primarily focused on the individual developing countries and results from other developing countries were not considered. In addition, the foremost challenges in the transition to online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic were inadequate skills and training, inadequate Internet/Infrastructure, lack of supporting resources and lack of online student engagement and feedback. Finally, the independent t-test reveals there is no statistically significant difference in challenges in the transition to online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both teachers and students encounter similar challenges. The systematic review raised concerns that higher learning needs to effectively implement long term strategies and support teachers and students in getting into online teaching and learning.

8.
Springer ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2059682

ABSTRACT

This book examines dominant discourses in social justice education globally. It presents cutting-edge research on the major global trends in education, social justice and policy research. Using diverse paradigms, ranging from critical theory to discourse analysis, the book examines major social justice and equity education reforms and policy issues in a global culture, with a focus on the ambivalent and problematic relationship between social justice education discourses, ideology and the state. The book discusses democracy, ideology and social justice, which are among the most critical and significant factors defining and contextualising the processes surrounding social justice education reforms globally. It critiques current social justice education practices and policy reforms, illustrating the shifts in the relationship between the state, ideology, and social justice education policy. Written by authors from diverse backgrounds and regions, this book examines current developments in research concerning social justice education. It enables readers to gain a more holistic understanding of the nexus between social justice education, and dominant ideologies, both locally and globally. It also provides an easily accessible, practical, yet scholarly insights into local and global trends in the field of social justice education. Discourses of Globalization, Ideology and Social Justice, with contributions from key scholars worldwide, should be required reading for a broad spectrum of users, including policy-makers, academics, graduate students, education policy researchers, administrators, and practitioners.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 205, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224151

ABSTRACT

Several stakeholders assumed different responsibilities for global health security and safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to highlight how the Tanzanian government, in collaboration with the international government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), donor agencies, and stakeholders responded to the pandemic to improve health security and community well-being. This article analyzed secondary data sources from the World Health Organization's (WHO) country report and published reports from Tanzania's government to evaluate vaccine availability and health security. Findings from the data gathered indicate that the initial response from the Tanzanian government concerning the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic was rather abysmal due to the posture of the late President John Pombe Magufuli who at first downplayed the severity and seriousness of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, with the swearing-in of the new President, Samia Suluhu, there was a new approach and strategy instituted to deal with the pandemic which has resulted in the country making headway in containing the pandemic. Data gathered thus, indicate that, as of 11th February 2022, the total number of fully vaccinated individuals in the country as of 12th April 2022 stood at 3,435,513 from the total number of 2,205,815 reported on 11th February 2022. This study thus, concludes that there is a need for a strong stakeholder engagement with high-level political, community, and religious leaders and increased access to COVID-19 vaccination as well as a mass campaign to scale up vaccination activities with adequate resource mobilization and plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tanzania/epidemiology
10.
Health Econ ; 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2208987

ABSTRACT

Policymakers in low and lower-middle income countries often face difficult trade-offs between saving lives and livelihoods, as exemplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, evidence regarding the preferences of the population is often lacking in such settings. In this paper, I estimate the value of an additional year of life expectancy in Tanzania using information on subjective well-being and population mortality. More specifically, I combine age-sex specific subnational estimates of remaining life expectancy with data from a representative household survey, which includes information on consumption expenditures and life satisfaction. This information is then carried forward into a life satisfaction regression to estimate the trade-off between consumption and an additional year of life expectancy. The results imply that a representative individual from the sample would be willing to trade off around 9% of their annual consumption expenditure to obtain an additional year of remaining life expectancy. The estimated values are close to those derived from calibrated models based on different elicitation methods, such as revealed preferences. This suggests that life satisfaction measures could be useful in deriving estimates of the value of longevity changes in environments where traditional methods, such as estimating compensating wage differentials, are difficult to apply.

11.
4th Africa-Asia Dialogue Network (AADN) International Conference on Advances in Business Management and Electronic Commerce Research, AADNIC-ABMECR 2022 ; : 24-28, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2194154

ABSTRACT

National parks are protected areas that have provided various experiences for both domestic and international tourists. Countries around the world are re-opening tourism after the Corona virus (COVID-19) global pandemic and therefore, managing tourism is crucial particularly in the area concerning enjoyment of national parks. Tanzania is endowed with many national parks and this study was motivated to explore enjoyment of national parks. The main objective involved exploring experiences and enjoyment of national parks with a pilot study of tourists at Mikumi National Park and specifically, analysing indirect experiences and enjoyment of national parks. The study area is Mikumi National Park in Tanzania while the unit of analysis was domestic tourists. This cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach had a pilot study sample of 50 domestic tourists. Tools of analysis used are descriptive statistics and Partial Least Square Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings revealed a significant relationship between indirect experiences and enjoyment of national parks among domestic tourists (p=0.000). Hence, the implication of this study is for tourism stakeholders to consider these results as a guide on domestic tourists' experiences and enjoyment of national parks. Future research can use a larger sample size within Mikumi National Park as well as apply quantitative and qualitative methods to enrich the understanding of domestic tourists' experiences and enjoyment of national parks. © 2022 Owner/Author.

12.
Cureus ; 14(12): e32245, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES:  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in an increase in the number of patients necessitating prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data on patients with COVID-19 undergoing tracheostomy indicating timing and outcomes are very limited. Our study illustrates--- outcomes for surgical tracheotomies performed on COVID-19 patients in Tanzania. METHODS:  This was a retrospective observational study conducted at the Aga Khan Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. RESULTS:  Nineteen patients with COVID-19 underwent surgical tracheotomy between 16th March and 31st December 2021. All surgical tracheostomies were performed in the operating theatre. The average duration of intubation prior to tracheotomy and tracheostomy to ventilator liberation was 16 days and 27 days respectively. Only five patients were successfully liberated from the ventilator, decannulated, and discharged successfully. CONCLUSIONS:  This is the first and largest study describing tracheotomy outcomes in COVID-19 patients in Tanzania. Our results revealed a high mortality rate. Multicenter studies in the private and public sectors are needed in Tanzania to determine optimal timing, identification of patients, and risk factors predictive of improved outcomes.

13.
Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152324

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to assess the sources of COVID-19 information respondents relied for COVID-19 pandemic information access and use, forms of misinformation and their influence on COVID-19 vaccine uptake hesitancy among frontline workers. Design/methodology/approach: A Google Form developed questionnaire, distributed conveniently through link shared through WhatsApp groups was used to collect data from frontline workers from Dar es Salaam and Dodoma cities. Analysis was done using a binary regression analysis. Findings: It was found that it was not the source that mattered for one to be hesitancy or not on COVID-19 vaccination, but the extent to which the information the source channels was manipulated or false. Research limitations/implications: Relying only Google Form questionnaire sent through a link on WhatsApp may have compromised the quality of information gathered and the quality of conclusion. Another study may have conducted through researcher administered questionnaire to a bigger sample to increase conclusion reliability and validity. Practical implications: This study urges that to increase the COVID-19 vaccine uptake, it is important to ensure that the quality of information from the revealed dependable sources is checked to avoid possible consequential disquiet resulting from misinformation. Originality/value: As the world is striving toward combating the COVID-19 or at least lessening its effects, this paper is of its own kind, using the theory of informative fictions to guide the assessment of the sources of information and the extent to which they influence misinformation on COVID-19 vaccine uptake hesitancy. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S105-S113, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162914

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spread between neighboring countries through land, water, and air travel. Since May 2020, ministries of health for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Uganda have sought to clarify population movement patterns to improve their disease surveillance and pandemic response efforts. Ministry of Health-led teams completed focus group discussions with participatory mapping using country-adapted Population Connectivity Across Borders toolkits. They analyzed the qualitative and spatial data to prioritize locations for enhanced COVID-19 surveillance, community outreach, and cross-border collaboration. Each country employed varying toolkit strategies, but all countries applied the results to adapt their national and binational communicable disease response strategies during the pandemic, although the Democratic Republic of the Congo used only the raw data rather than generating datasets and digitized products. This 3-country comparison highlights how governments create preparedness and response strategies adapted to their unique sociocultural and cross-border dynamics to strengthen global health security.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S255-S261, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162890

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic has highlighted the need to establish and maintain strong infection prevention and control (IPC) practices, not only to prevent healthcare-associated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers and patients but also to prevent disruptions of essential healthcare services. In East Africa, where basic IPC capacity in healthcare facilities is limited, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported rapid IPC capacity building in healthcare facilities in 4 target countries: Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda. CDC supported IPC capacity-building initiatives at the healthcare facility and national levels according to each country's specific needs, priorities, available resources, and existing IPC capacity and systems. In addition, CDC established a multicountry learning network to strengthen hospital level IPC, with an emphasis on peer-to-peer learning. We present an overview of the key strategies used to strengthen IPC in these countries and lessons learned from implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Infection Control
16.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology ; 37(7):1628-1632, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2125375

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic has increased personal protective equipment (PPE) use in medical settings. The current study examined the effect of PPE on a nonverbal measure of neurocognitive functioning. Methods: The Leiter International Performance Scale, Third Edition (Leiter-3) was administered to 125 children between the ages of three and eight. Fifty-nine children were assessed twice without any PPE and 66 were assessed once without and once with PPE. Group differences on composite scores were evaluated using a repeated measures design, accounting for sex, school attendance, socioeconomic status, and HIV status. Results: Nonverbal IQ scores increased significantly between test administrations for both groups, but no significant interaction between PPE group and scores on Leiter-3 composites was found. Conclusions: No main effect of PPE on Leiter-3 outcomes was found. These results suggest clinical and research work using a nonverbal neurocognitive assessment can be completed when PPE is required. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited ; 26:107-128, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2119079

ABSTRACT

This chapter focuses on a pathway for the creation of a just and equitable food system in South Africa that contributes to achieving the right to food and livelihoods for all. It is based on years of ongoing research on food systems in South Africa and Tanzania as well as a current research project on the impact of COVID-19 regulations on food systems in South Africa, Ghana and Tanzania. The chapter starts with looking at the challenges of the food system in South Africa, the problematic approaches to addressing these challenges and how the situation has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 crisis. Then it explores a different way of looking at and transforming the food system that moves away from the focus on corporate driven solutions and applies a different lens to analysing who the stakeholders are. The argument is for the advancement of economic actors identified by where they sit on the intersecting continuums from more marketised to more socially embedded, from more elite to the subaltern, and from larger to smaller scale. This lens makes it clear which type of enterprises and economic actors need to be supported and the alliances that need to be built to create a pathway to a better food future in the urbanising South African society and perhaps elsewhere as well.

18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 280, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bersama abyssinica is a common herb in Africa, with diverse medical uses in different areas. The plant is well-known in Tanzania for treating respiratory disorders such as TB, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and asthma, and it has lately been utilized to treat COVID-19 symptoms. Water extract of leaf and stem bark has been registered as an herbal medication known as 'Coviba Dawa' in Tanzania for the relief of bacterial respiratory infections. The extracts, however, have not been scientifically tested for their anti-viral activities. The aim of this work was to test for the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of bioactive ingredients from B. abyssinica extracts against the Delta variant of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. METHODS: B. abyssinica leaves and stem bark were dried under shade in room temperature and then pulverized to obtain small pieces before soaking into different solvents. One hundred grams of each, leaves and stem bark, were extracted in petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Water extract was obtained by decoction of stem bark and leaves into water. Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidants were confirmed as components of the extracts. Analysis of polar extracts of bark stem bark and leaves was done. Antiviral screening and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) Laboratory facility according to International Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). RESULTS: By the use of LC-MS/MS analysis, this study confirmed the existence of four phenolic compounds in B. abyssinica water extract; 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl propionate, 7,8-Dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and 2,3, 6-trimethoxyflavone with antioxidant activity. This study showed that, while the water extracts of B. abyssinica had significant antiviral activity against SARS Cov2 virus, it showed no cytotoxicity effect on Vero E6 cells. In particular, the water extract (Coviba dawa) showed 75% while ethylacetate fraction of B. abyssinica leaves showed a 50% in vitro viral inhibition, indicating that these substances may be useful for the development of future anti-viral agents. CONCLUSION: We therefore recommend isolation of compounds for further profiling and development with a broader concentration range. We further recommend studies that determine the antiviral activity of extracts of B.abyssinica on other viral pathogens of clinical concern.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Water , SARS-CoV-2 , Methylene Chloride/analysis , Methanol , Chromatography, Liquid , Propionates , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Phenols/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Tannins , Solvents/analysis , Tanzania
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055229

ABSTRACT

The transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, has been documented worldwide. However, the evidence of the extent to which transmission has occurred in different countries is still to be established. Understanding the magnitude and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 through seroprevalence studies is important in designing control and preventive strategies in communities. This study investigated the seropositivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus antibodies in the communities of three different districts in the Mwanza region, Tanzania. A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2021 using the modified African Centre for Disease and Prevention (ACDC) survey protocol. A blood sample was obtained from one member of each of the selected households who consented to take part in the survey. Immunochromatographic rapid test kits were used to detect IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, followed by descriptive data analysis. Overall, 805 participants were enrolled in the study with a median age of 35 (interquartile range (IQR):27-47) years. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was 50.4% (95%CI: 46.9-53.8%). The IgG and IgM seropositivity of the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 49.3% and 7.2%, respectively, with 6.1% being both IgG and IgM seropositive. A history of runny nose (aOR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.03-3.5, p = 0.036), loss of taste (aOR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.12-4.48, p = 0.023), and living in Ukerewe (aOR: 3.55, 95%CI: 1.68-7.47, p = 0.001) and Magu (aOR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.34-6.25, p= 0.007) were all independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 IgM seropositivity. Out of the studied factors, living in the Ukerewe district was independently associated with IgG seropositivity (aOR 1.29, CI 1.08-1.54, p = 0.004). Twenty months after the first case of COVID-19 in Tanzania, about half of the studied population in Mwanza was seropositive for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tanzania/epidemiology
20.
International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology ; 18(2):2-6, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033966

ABSTRACT

The authors report on findings that suggest students have positive perceptions of video-based feedback for value added to the online learning experience. Piloting a technology enhanced supervision model for assessment of teaching practice In this article the authors report on an electronic supervision model that was developed for the teaching practice component of the science teacher training program by a university in Zimbabwe. Assessing validity and reliability of a design rubric in an online course In an article that focuses on quality design of courses, authors Fatima Makda and Reuben Dlamini explore the gap between theoretical knowledge (theory) and practice (reality) in determining the effectiveness of the design of online courses for teaching and learning. The authors note the finding of a marginal positive impact on student learning when learning takes place offline and importantly, they note there are no gender-based performance differences among students in the online learning environment.

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