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1.
Energies ; 15(19):7351, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065782

ABSTRACT

The production of municipal waste is increasing all over the world. Although a significant part of the waste is collected as commingled waste, much of it is recyclable if disposed of properly. Thus, separate deposition and collection plays an extremely important role today, more than ever, not only in terms of preventing pollution but also from the point of view of recycling as a driver of circular economy and of efficient use of resources. This work is focused on the development of compaction equipment to be applied to containers, which allows a more efficient approach to the process of collecting waste for recycling. As a management option, recycling depends on collective behavior which is based on individual acts. Therefore, individual use of plastic/metal compaction systems can help meet recycling targets, even as a complement to conventional bins. Thus, herein a proposal is presented for a plastic/metal collection station with a built-in compaction element that allows for the compacting of the separated waste, individually, in an easily accessible drawer. Sorting and compacting waste before collection will result in a reduction of the number of collection/transport stops, which will also translate into higher energy efficiency, cost savings, optimization of the transported tons/km ratio, and profitability.

2.
Economies ; 10(8):193, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023278

ABSTRACT

In the present paper, we show how uncertainty emanating from fluctuations in economic uncertainty, news-based uncertainty, and geopolitical risks affect the number of containers exported from Thailand via Penang Port, Malaysia. Our sample extends from January 2009 to May 2020 from three main entry points in the Northern Peninsular Malaysia–Thailand Border: Padang Besar, Surat Thani, and Bukit Kayu Hitam. Two modes of transportation of containers are mainly used for export purposes, namely, road and rai. This study examines the nonlinear effect of uncertainty on trade by employing a two-regime Markov regime-switching approach. The empirical results show that, overall, uncertainty significantly affects the movement of containers in the high-uncertainty regime. Therefore, small ports must continue to diversify their client base to cushion the impact of fluctuations in global trade due to uncertainty.

3.
Electronics ; 11(15):2302, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993950

ABSTRACT

There is an increasing demand for electricity on a global level. Thus, the utility companies are looking for the effective implementation of demand response management (DRM). For this, utility companies should know the energy demand and optimal household consumer classification (OHCC) of the end users. In this regard, data mining (DM) techniques can give better insights and support. This work proposes a DM-technique-based novel methodology for OHCC in the Indian context. This work uses the household electricity consumption (HEC) of 225 houses from three districts of Maharashtra, India. The data sets used are namely questionnaire survey (QS), monthly energy consumption (MEC), and tariff orders. This work addresses the challenges for OHCC in energy meter data sets of the conventional grid and smart grid (SG). This work uses expert classification and clustering-based classification methods for OHCC. The expert classification method provides four new classes for OHCC. The clustering method is employed to develop eight different classification models. The two-stage clustering model, using K-means (KM) and the self-organizing map (SOM), is the best fit among the eight models. The result shows that the two-stage clustering of the SOM with the KM model provides 88% of overlap-free samples and 0.532 of the silhouette score (SS) mean compared to the expert classification method. This study can be beneficial to the electricity distribution companies for OHCC and can offer better services to consumers.

4.
Journal of International Business Policy ; 4(4):506-522, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991746

ABSTRACT

The recent U.S.–China trade conflicts cast new light on the role of trade policies in global value chains (GVCs). Contrary to the expectation that trade restrictions lead to the shrinking or disruption of GVCs, our article posits that the unintended consequences of trade policies (both restrictions and trade agreements) are amplified by the prevalence and organizational complexity of GVCs. We anchor our argument in the historical evolution of three classic GVCs – apparel, automobiles, and electronics – from the 1970s to the present. Our framework highlights the dynamic interaction between GVC-oriented trade policies and firm strategies, which often has counterintuitive implications in terms of upgrading outcomes for the countries and companies involved in these GVCs. While trade policies often provide momentum for an adaptive reconfiguration of GVCs, firms’ strategic actions are crucial in modifying the geographic and organizational features of GVCs in ways that support their longevity. Firm strategies can mediate the effect of trade policies on GVC configurations in two ways: (1) firms can accommodate trade restrictions and trade agreements by altering supply and demand locations and by switching supply-chain partners;and (2) firms pursue diverse strategies to upgrade their value chain activities, leveraging the shifting geographies associated with new trade rules.

5.
European Research Studies ; 25(2B):225-234, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1990095

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The article presents an analysis of the weaknesses of the current approach used in risk management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Referring to the previous (pre-pandemic) theoretical considerations, an assessment of the activities applied in companies is presented. Design/Methodology/Approach: The first part of the article presents the theoretical aspects of risk management. The next part is discussing the survey results. The final part presents the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the details of changing attitudes towards the sphere of risk management. Findings: Despite numerous literature studies, problems related to risk management have been marginalized for decades. This is confirmed by, for example, surveys. COVID-19 has forced a radical change in attitude to issues related to risk management. Practical Implications: The directions of changes in the area of economic policy at the EU and US level as well as changes in the attitude of managers were indicated. Originality/Value: The paper shows the scale, direction and intensity of changes under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
International Conference on Business and Technology , ICBT 2021 ; 495 LNNS:1417-1422, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971497

ABSTRACT

This study examines the impact of macroeconomic variables in addition to the COVID-19 pandemic on tariffs in Jordan for the period 2003–2020, by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, in order to reveal the long-run relationship between macroeconomic variables and tariffs. However, it became clear that all these macroeconomic variables contributed to tariffs in Jordan, and it was proven that there is a long-term relationship between them and tariffs. On one hand, GDP negatively affected tariffs in Jordan, on the other hand, imports and COVID-19 pandemic positively affected tariffs. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Webology ; 19(1):7175-7185, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958380

ABSTRACT

China and the U.S. have the biggest markets in the world. They both established diplomatic links in 1979 and the bilateral trade was developed swiftly just after China joined the United Nations Organization (UNO) in 1971. America is the Chinese top one export market and the most significant source of foreign investment. However, the main worldwide economic event in 2018 was the Sino-U.S. trade war. In March 2018, the U.S. threatened to levy high duties on Chinese imports. The equivocal shift of import and export of the Sino-US trade relations were distinctively caught in China's trade surplus with the United States, which brought divergence to the trade relations. Consequently, the Sino-U.S. trade imbalance was the main reason behind why Trump incited the trade war. This paper actually analytically discusses the phenomenon of Sino-U.S. trade war as it is considered as a test case for the new American President Joe Biden.

8.
Sustainability ; 14(13):7648, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934220

ABSTRACT

Under the goal of a “new development pattern”, it is of great practical significance to accurately identify the economic growth effect of fiscal and tax policies. This paper constructs a TVP-FAVAR model to measure the economic effects of China’s fiscal and tax policies at the aggregate and structural levels. The results show that the reduction in total tax has a positive effect on real variables such as output and consumption;especially at the present stage, the promotion effect of total tax reduction on economic growth is relatively strong, but the stimulation effect on price is relatively weak. Further, the tax structure in which the ratio of direct tax to total tax increases and the ratio of indirect tax to total tax decreases is more conducive to the increase in output and consumption, and will not strongly stimulate the rise of price level. Therefore, at this stage, China should continue to vigorously implement the tax reduction policy and ensure the continuity of the tax reduction policy. At the same time, we should continue to optimize the tax structure and give better play to the regulatory role of fiscal and tax policies in income redistribution, so as to achieve the goal that fiscal and tax policies help build a “new development pattern” and promote high-quality economic development.

9.
World Trade Review ; 21(3):312-329, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908057

ABSTRACT

Unhappy with the rulings of the WTO dispute settlement system, which disproportionately targeted US use of trade remedies, the United States ended the entire system in 2019. There are multiple hurdles to agreeing to new terms of trade remedy use and thus potentially restoring some form of binding dispute settlement. First, a change would affect access to policy flexibility by the now large number of users of trade remedies. Second, although China's exports are the overwhelming target of trade remedies, exporters in other countries increasingly find themselves caught up in trade remedy actions linked to China. Third, critical differences posed by China's economic model may call for new rules for trade remedies, but no consensus on those rules has emerged. Even some of the most promising reforms have practical limitations, create additional challenges, or may be politically unviable.

10.
Independent Journal of Management & Production ; 13(4):S526-S535, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1903965

ABSTRACT

In the prevailing era, the most relevant issues seem to be the development of an adaptive policy of an energy sales company to ensure financial stability and sustainable development in the course of energy sales activities. This study continues the cycle of the author's general research devoted to the methodological issues of an adaptive policy development in relation to the key business processes of energy sales activities implemented by an energy sales company, the specifics of its work as a guaranteed energy (capacity) supplier, etc. The article examines the conditions and factors that determine the need to develop an adaptive system for an energy sales company to organize payment acceptance. When it comes to the business process organization for payment acceptance, energy retail companies need to take into account the conditions and factors that set the long-term trend in this area: changes in legislation, the strength of market competition and the trends of the payment acceptance market infrastructure, the ongoing coronavirus infection pandemic, and the ongoing technological change. Management decision-making should be based on the principles of economic feasibility and efficiency in conjunction with legal requirement compliance. Power supply companies need to use the conditions and factors highlighted in the study to build up competitive advantages in the field of payment acceptance organization, to maintain and develop their market position, which can only be done through an adaptation policy in this area. For the purpose of economic efficiency increase concerning organization payment acceptance business process, energy sales companies need to plan the indicators of the payment acceptance system, implement measures for their implementation (achieve target values), carry out the analysis of the achieved results and their reflection, which will ensure timely and reasonable acceptance of management decisions.

11.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank|2022. (9939):43 pp. 18 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1848597

ABSTRACT

This paper applies a top-down, macro-micro modeling framework that links a computable general equilibrium model with the survey-based global income distribution dynamics model to assess the economic and distributional effects of the implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Reductions of tariffs and non-tariff measures, implementation of a rule of origin, together with productivity gains stemming from trade cost reductions can strengthen regional trade and value chains among Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership members. The results of the analysis indicate that in an already deeply integrated region, tariff liberalization alone brings little benefit, with estimated real income gains of 0.21 percent relative to the baseline (without the RCEP) in 2035. With liberal rules of origin, the gains in real income could double to 0.49 percent. The biggest benefits accrue when the productivity gains are considered, increasing real income by as much as 2.5 percent for the trade bloc. In this scenario, trade among RCEP members increases by 12.3 percent in 2035 relative to the baseline. The RCEP also has the potential to lift 27 million additional people to middle-class status by 2035. It will also boost wages, with faster gains in sectors that employ larger shares of women. The aggregate effects mask large variety of outcomes across countries, with Vietnam expected to register the highest trade and income gains. Implementation of the RCEP help partially mitigate the negative economic impacts of COVID-19 in the East Asia and the Pacific region.

12.
Agribusiness & Applied Economics Report - Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University|2020. (801):x + 88 pp. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841780

ABSTRACT

This report presents organized and structured information on soybean trade indicators across geographical space and through time. The indicators considered are exports, imports and prices. These also are presented at the by-product level. The levels of aggregation are global, U.S. and North Dakota. The information of each indicator is presented in the form of trends and descriptive statistics. The former reveals the direction of the growth, while the latter reveals the magnitude of expectations. The descriptive statistics are represented by the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and share contribution to the total. The report is presented in six sections: (I) global temporal soybean trade, (II) global spatial soybean export, (III) global spatial soybean import, (IV) U.S. temporal soybean export, (V) U.S. spatial soybean export and (VI) U.S. state level soybean export. At the global level, the trends of the indicators are presented in addition to the descriptive statistics of the top 15 exporting and importing countries. The trends and descriptive statistics for the top 15 exporting states also are provided at the U.S. level. This report is important because it serves as an informational guide on exports, our competitors for exports and potential markets for soybeans to our producers. In the current environment, the success (productivity and net farm income stability) of agricultural business depends on accurate prediction of potential demand for soybeans and their products to help producers in making decisions for domestic or foreign markets. Hence, having a comprehensive and accurate database on exports and imports at the global, national and state levels will enable producers in decisionmaking with confidence. To formulate trade policies related to the international market, the trends and the descriptive statistics are useful to producers in identifying variations in demand for soybeans and their products. For decision makers, this information is helpful in the development of risk management tools for potential export losses due to risky events such as politically driven tariffs and uncertain events such as COVID-19. Finally, in the years of decline, identifying sources of variation or risk in changing consumer preferences, genetically modified restrictive index, trade facilitation and prosperity indexes is important. The study reveals that: Global Trade * The soybean market has shifted to processed products. * Soybean grain, residue and crude oil are primary with an increase in flour. * Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Canada are the major competitors with the U.S. for soybean grains. * China, Japan, Netherlands, Spain and Germany are the major destinations for soybean grain. * Soybean grain prices have been on the decline in recent years. U.S. Trade vii * China, Mexico, Japan, Indonesia and Netherlands are the major destinations for U.S. soybean grains. * Turkey, Russia, Argentina and Italy are among the top 15 importers of soybean grains but not part of the top 15 U.S. export destinations. U.S. State Trade * Our state-level estimates of trade are consistent with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) exports. In contrast, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) under- and overestimates state exports because they are based on the location of the port. * Our production-adjusted state export estimates suggest the major exporters of soybeans are Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, South Dakota, North Dakota and Kansas. North Dakota Trade * North Dakota soybean exports are underestimated by the USDA FAS. * For instance, the production adjusted export value predicts a value of $885,365,842 in 2018, while the ERS method predicted $887,896,380 for North Dakota. On the other hand, the FAS method presents a value of $62,543,314.

13.
Advances in Management and Applied Economics ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1823833

ABSTRACT

Patent is an important outcome of technological innovation. Though patent claim always caught attention when considering patent quality, it had to be supported by the drawings according to the patent examination criteria. However, patent drawing was seldom discussed. Based on the company integrated database, more than 50% of China listed companies of RMB common stocks (A-shares) from 2017Q1 to 2021Q4 were selected as effective samples. The effect of China invention grant patent’s drawing count for differentiating A-share’s stock return rate was thoroughly discussed via analysis of variation (ANOVA). The average drawing count of invention grants significantly increased over previous years. However, the total drawing count of invention grants was found to be an appropriate patent indicator for differentiating A-share’s stock return rate whereas the average drawing count of invention grants was not. The A-shares in the highest total drawing count groups of invention grants showed significantly higher stock return rate means while the A-shares in the lower total drawing count groups of invention grants showed significantly lower stock return rate means in most quarters from 2017 to 2021. The finding also proved that the patent quantity still mattered in China stock market.

14.
Competitiveness Review ; 32(7):85-108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1806790

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study aims to propose a comprehensive greenfield foreign direct investment (FDI) attractiveness index using exploratory factor analysis and automated machine learning (AML). We offer offer a robust empirical measurement of location-choice factors identified in the FDI literature through a novel method and provide a tool for assessing the countries' investment potential.Design/methodology/approach>Based on five conceptual key sub-domains of FDI, We collected quantitative indicators in several databases with annual data ranging from 2006 to 2019. This study first run a factor analysis to identify the most important features. It then uses AML to assess the relative importance of each resultant factor and generate a calibrated index. AML computational algorithms minimize predictive errors, explore patterns in the data and make predictions in an empirically robust way.Findings>Openness conditions and economic growth are the most relevant factors to attract FDI identified in the study. Luxembourg, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malta and Ireland are the top five countries with the highest overall greenfield attractiveness index. This study also presents specific indices for the three sectors: energy, financial services, information and communication technology (ICT) and electronics.Originality/value>Existent indexes present deficiencies in conceptualization and measurement, lacking theoretical foundation, arbitrary selection of factors and use of limited linear models. This study’s index is developed in a robust three-stage process. The use of AML configures an advantage compared to traditional linear and additive models, as it selects the best model considering the predictive capacity of many models simultaneously.

15.
Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM ; 65(4):18, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1779419

ABSTRACT

Sako asserts that more and more people are keenly aware of the disruption in global supply chains in recent months, as their daily lives are affected by supply shortage and longer lead times for receiving deliveries of a wide range of products, including new phones, game consoles, and cars. We are also told supply chain disruptions are not about to end but will exist for some time to come. It is therefore worth understanding what has thrown global supply chains into disarray, in what ways the COVID-19 pandemic has played a part, and what will become of global supply chains in the future. In short, the pandemic accentuated preexisting strains in global supply chains and the need to become more resilient to future disruptions. By the 2010s, the geopolitical climate shifted to neo-nationalism and protectionism, causing disruptions in global supply chains. With respect to protectionism, the U.S. imposed 25% tariffs on semiconductor and capital equipment in June 2018, leading ironically to raising U.S. manufacturers' cost of production.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3599, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765906

ABSTRACT

International trade allows for wider access to goods and services in domestic markets. It contributes to socio-economic development, and it is an important factor in raising living standards. The aim of the study is to provide a duration analysis of trade relationships of Polish enterprises on the intra-community market and determine the influence of selected factors on the length of time the relationships last. We employ survival analysis methods to study the duration of Polish enterprises on the intra-community market (the case of 87 CN chapter—vehicles and parts and accessories thereof), separately for intra-community supplies (ICS) and intra-community acquisitions (ICA). Our research covers trade relationships at a level close to individual transactions—the data unit relates to a specific domestic company, a specific product group (combined nomenclature heading), a specific direction of the transaction (ICS/ICA) and exchange with a specific country. Differences in duration curves for ICS and ICA are statistically significant, and export (ICS) relationships are more durable over time than import relationships (ICA). The most durable relationships of Polish enterprises are with business partners from countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and the Czech Republic.

17.
Social Alternatives ; 40(1):3-8, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1738434

ABSTRACT

Most recently when the Paris-based Secretariat of UNESCO proposed to place the Great Barrier Reef on the World Heritage in Danger list based largely on the reports of Australian scientists, the first response of the Government was to blame the Chinese chair of the World Heritage Committee. High prices for iron ore have masked a decline of 40% in exports of wine, coal, barley and crustations, as China refuses entry to or imposes high tariffs on these goods (Doran 2021). Trump, seeking to stem the decline in US manufacturing and to undermine China's 'technology driven ambitions,' placed tariffs on Chinese imports (Bartholomeusz 2021) and introduced measures to stem alleged Chinese industrial espionage. Chinese officials responded strongly accusing the US of using its military power and financial hegemony to exert extraterritorial power and suppress other countries, of using 'national security' as an excuse to obstruct trade and hoping the US would improve its human rights given the US history of discrimination against Black Americans (Haigh 2021).

18.
Aussenwirtschaft ; 71(1):73-125, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1738262

ABSTRACT

Whether one focuses on the rise of protectionism since the financial crisis of 2008, the active tariff policy introduced by the Trump administration, or China's recent trade restrictions on Australia for pushing for an independent investigation over the Covid-19 outbreak, trade measures have increasingly become an instrument of foreign and industrial policy rather than a multilateral effort to facilitate trade on a level playing field. [...]when the United States introduced punitive tariffs on China in 2018, U.S. Customs and Border Protection saw a nearly 50% rise in customs rulings related to the misclassification of goods, as firms tried to exploit the fact that early tariff rounds spared products similar to theirs.2 Similarly, when Russia introduced counter-sanctions on Western agricultural products in the wake of the Ukraine crisis, Russian newspapers reported on Belarusian seafood and tropical fruits appearing in local supermarkets, in clear cases of country-oforigin certificates being mislabeled to evade the import sanctions imposed on products from the European Union (Yeliseyeu, 2017). The incentives to evade trade barriers are particularly high for political sanctions, as they aim - in the form of goods sanctions - to economically impact the target economy and key decision makers by minimizing trade flows (Eaton and Engers, 1992;Kaempfer and Lowenberg, 1988), as opposed to import tariffs, which are mainly intended to extract rent and to support the implementing jurisdiction's industry. [...]a large string of the sanction literature addresses their effectiveness in the context of their (lack of) enforceability (Caruso, 2003;McLean and Whang, 2010;van Bergeijk and Biersteker, 2015). [...]I identify five different channels of sanction evasion and empirically analyze four of them, thus consolidating the various concepts of smuggling and evasion recorded in the literature.

19.
Mathematics ; 10(5):770, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736979

ABSTRACT

Countries’ economic policies, such as tariff barriers, have a profound impact on the global economy and international trade. The imposition of tariffs seriously disturbs the global trade and supply chain operations. This paper studies a supply chain composed of an overseas manufacturer, a domestic supplier and a third-party integrated international logistics service provider. A three-level decentralized leader-follower decision-making model and its variant--leader-follower alliance decision-making models are established, and the influences of revenue sharing and cost sharing on the three-level decentralized decision-making are analyzed. The results show that it is difficult for the supply chain to achieve coordination when the transportation and insurance costs are considered in the tariff cost. The increase of tariff rates will reduce the profits of all parties and the overall profit of the supply chain, and weaken the dominant position of the supplier in the supply chain. Revenue sharing can improve the supply chain performance;the performance of the whole supply chain cannot be improved or may even deteriorate by sharing the transportation cost alone. The study can provide practitioners with implications for how to carry effective cooperation and coordination in the supply chain and how to effectively reduce the influence of tariffs in the global trade system.

20.
Managerial and Decision Economics ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1718429

ABSTRACT

This study considers a differentiated duopoly, including domestic and foreign enterprises, in trade, analyzes the impacts of product differentiation and productivity variance on equilibrium results, and explores the optimal trade policy in different competition modes. We find that differentiated products can boost the supply of foreign enterprises in a Cournot competition. In a home-leading Stackelberg duopoly, increasing tariffs decreases consumer surplus but improves the home country's social welfare. The optimum-welfare tariff of a home-leading Stackelberg duopoly cannot exceed that of the foreign-leading Stackelberg duopoly. An easy or tight tariff policy can be optimal, depending on the parameters and duopoly modes.

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