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1.
Central European Management Journal ; JOUR(3):136-174, 30.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100321

ABSTRACT

One of the regulatory responses to the 2008 financial crisis was to internalize the costs related to banks' distress by introducing bank levies. More than 23 European banking sectors have been confronted with the new levy regime imposing the additional tax on banks' balance sheet. This study analyzes the effect of the levy introduction on banks' profitability, credit activity, and on their business models. More importantly, we confront two different levy regimes - one imposed on banks' assets and the other on liabilities - to assess their differential impact. A generalized least squares regression with a random effect is performed on a data sample of Hungarian and German credit institutions from 2005 to 2015. The results show that levy introduction weakened banking sectors in terms of their profitability as well as their lending activity. Even though banks try to compensate for the cost of the levies by passing some of the costs on to the customers and restructuring their operations to limit the tax burden, we find that these activities are not sufficient to offset the whole tax burden. We also note that while the asset levy has a more severe effect on banks' profits, the liability levy severely affects banks' lending due to lower interest margin resulting from higher cost of funding. Our research results provide important conclusions for regulators, especially during turbulent periods such as the COVID-19 pandemic to strengthen the banking sectors by considering the levy suspension.

2.
Australian Tax Review ; 51(1):81-93, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068073

ABSTRACT

At a moment when Australia - and the world - finds itself at a "critical juncture" as it reckons with a global pandemic as well as the inequalities that COVID-19 has laid bare, voicing - and listening to - critical tax perspectives has become more vital than ever. The economic impact of COVID-19 has precipitated talk of tax reform as nations consider how to pay for aid distributed during the pandemic and how to restart their economies. But more than just a time of crisis, the pandemic can be seen as an unexpected opportunity to break with a past plagued by social and economic inequalities, to rethink our relationships with each other, and to begin the work of building better and more just societies. If this opportunity is to be meaningfully seized, then tax law and policy rightfully belong at the heart of the discussion.

3.
Res Int Bus Finance ; 63: 101783, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061825

ABSTRACT

Investigating public sentiment regarding tax policy during the COVID-19 pandemic could be useful for understanding the experiences across societies. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count to investigate and quantitatively measure the pandemic's effect-from January 25 to April 9, 2020-on the sentiment regarding possible tax policies throughout the world, thereby determining that, overall, taxation sentiment is reduced as the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases grows. Further investigation reveals that, as COVID-19 spreads, the sentiment for raising taxes decreases and that for reducing taxes increases, and this effect is mitigated by countries' democracy. We further find that news sentiment in unofficial media and in countries with low social trust is more significantly affected by COVID-19. Robustness tests performed using different subsamples of developed and developing countries and different pandemic circumstances validate our findings. This research has crucial implications for policy evaluation and development.

4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344175

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the COVID pandemic, many governments around the world face serious fiscal difficulties. The deteriorating fiscal condition is a critical concern, as it suggests that governments will have limited resources to address important issues of our time. Greater fiscal transparency can help governments address these fiscal challenges by fostering a well-informed debate about policy reforms and holding public finance institutions accountable with timely and accurate information. We also believe comparative analysis of public finance can elicit practical insights into how governments can reform their systems. In this article, we introduce a tool, public finance analytics, which helps us analyze and visualize public finances in comparative perspective. We then present several examples of our comparative analyses, which may help readers understand how the tool can be utilized to produce meaningful insights.

5.
University of Queensland Law Journal ; 41(2):211-241, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057157

ABSTRACT

This article explores the relationship between two legal fields that represent the legal backbone of contemporary cross-border and internet commercial activity: conflict of laws and international taxation. Despite the growing significance of the two fields of law, legal scholarship has yet to explore their intriguing relationship. Which state can levy tax on a multi-billion-dollar Delaware (US) corporation with headquarters in London (UK) that sells $500,000,000 worth of products to Australian consumers each year? Which law should adjudicate an online contract between a NSW corporation and a German corporation, signed online and addressing the delayed delivery of goods in Brazil due to the coronavirus outbreak? Despite the paramount significance of both disciplines, their traditional underpinnings appear to be fundamentally challenged and pressed by the realities of COVID-19, dynamic commerce, and the digital environment. Our cross-disciplinary partnership aims to design a unifying conceptual framework that captures the essentials of both disciplines. Through reciprocal lessons, this framework will help address the uncertainty in both disciplines.

6.
"Studia Universitatis ""Vasile Goldis"" Arad. Seria stiinte economice." ; 32(4):81-108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2054861

ABSTRACT

[...]this study focuses on the relationship between revenue generation and economic growth in Nigeria. [...]the study recommends economic diversification through strategic programs aimed at enhancing growth rather than remaining a mono-economy. According to Nzotta (2007), the tax system constitutes one of the very effective and efficient ways of generating internal revenue for the government. According to Alade (2017), government revenue sources comprise privatization proceeds, taxes, interest received, sale proceeds of goods, the commission received, and rent received among others.

7.
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2022, ICTD 2022 ; 6:134-142, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2050653

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a reduction in business and routine activity and resulted in less motor fuel consumption. Thus, the gas tax revenue is reduced, which is the major funding resource supporting the rehabilitation and maintenance of transportation infrastructure systems. The focus of this study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on transportation infrastructure funds in the United States through analyzing the motor fuel consumption data. Machine learning models were developed by integrating COVID-19 scenarios, fuel consumptions, and demographic data. The best model achieves an R2-score of more than 95% and captures the fluctuations of fuel consumption during the pandemic. Using the developed model, we project future motor gas consumption for each state. For some states, the gas tax revenues are going to be 10%-15% lower than the pre-pandemic level for at least one or two years. © 2022 International Conference on Transportation and Development

8.
Montenegrin Journal of Economics ; 18(4):61-70, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040445

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to assess the European tax havens in terms of corporate financial misconduct risks. The study relies on an index method developed by a group of economists belonging to the international non-governmental organization - the Tax Justice Network. The method allowed the authors to calculate the Corporate Tax Harbor Index (CTHI) and determine the role of a particular jurisdiction in global corporate financial misconduct risks. The study established a ranking of European tax havens and jurisdictions with features of tax havens and classified these tax havens based on corporate financial misconduct risks. The study found that European tax havens and tax haven jurisdictions accounted for nearly 40% of global corporate financial misuse risks in 2020. The classification of European tax havens according to corporate financial misconduct risks demonstrated that the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK, Ireland, and Luxembourg accounted for more than half of the risks. The shares of Liechtenstein (1%), Monaco (1%), Andorra, and San Marino (less than 1%) did not exceed 3% of the European share of the global risk. The results show the need for adjustments to the regulatory policy of international organizations currently focused on fighting classic tax havens. Their real share of global misuse risks is very small compared to the share of 'gray cardinals' of the offshore market.

9.
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy ; 38(2):153-164, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036713

ABSTRACT

Many south-east European states made the transition from socialist to market economies. All described here had to reform their pension systems to match the new context in which these operated. The experiences of 10 countries are reviewed – seven of which were once part of Yugoslavia. Some countries’ reforms were more radical than others. Five of them merely adapted the Bismarckian systems they had inherited;four others adopted the “three pillar” model that the World Bank had been propagating. One went further than that. The four who followed World Bank model were often forced to backtrack. Whatever the longer-term benefits, they generated their own shorter-term fiscal problems. Nonetheless, the most radical reformer gives some indications of possible ways forward. The south-eastern European states do not have financial markets that can support capitalised/funded pension systems. Nor do they have the resources to pay proportional pensions that, at the same time, keep retired people out of poverty. The article suggests that their governments should concentrate upon improving economic performance to satisfy longer term aspirations and on ensuring that pensioners are able to live properly if not luxuriously by using tax-financed transfer measures. Provision above this level can be secured through savings plans, but it must be accepted that the investments to secure those savings will have to be made abroad.

10.
Quaestus ; - (21):7-12, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034195

ABSTRACT

The paper aims to make an analysis of the taxation system for authorized persons in Romania in the current context. The last 5 years have seriously marked the entire economy because of the pandemic situation caused by COVID 19 and more now, because of the war in Ukraine and the energy crisis, a period in which small producers, traders and all the entrepreneurs of the liberal professions (especially those in tourism) tried to resist and maintain their businesses. The measures taken by them in the first part were to reduce their direct and then indirect expenses and to pay lower taxes to the state. In this paper we will focus on the taxation of individuals, and we will present the taxation system in the real system and the taxation at the income norm.

11.
Wirtschaftsdienst ; 102(8):642-647, 2022.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027535

ABSTRACT

ZusammenfassungDie kommunalen Finanzen stehen seit Beginn der Coronakrise unter besonderer Beobachtung. Die deutsche Politik hat zurecht erkannt, dass bei der Bekämpfung der Krise eine handlungsfähige Kommunalpolitik zwingend notwendig ist. Tatsächlich haben die kommunalen Haushalte sowohl 2020 als auch 2021 mit Überschüssen abgeschlossen. Wie dieser Beitrag zeigt, sind die Gründe dafür sehr unterschiedlich. Die auskömmliche Finanzierung der Kommunen ist Garant für die effiziente Bewältigung der Krise vor Ort und die Rekordzahlen bei den kommunalen Investitionen sind der richtige Impuls in der Wirtschaftskrise.Alternate :Federal and state policies have massively supported the German municipalities during the coronavirus crisis. As a result, municipal budgets in Germany have had a small surplus in 2020 and in 2021. The precise reasons for these surpluses are quite different in both years. In 2020, the additional expenditure as well as the enormous decrease in municipal tax revenue could only be overcome by large spending policies at federal and state level. In 2021, in contrast, the municipalities were back to collecting significant taxes themselves and were mostly self-sustaining. Still, municipal finances in 2021 profited from permanent policy changes regarding the trade tax levy (Gewerbesteuerumlage) and the federal government’s increased co-funding of accommodation costs.

12.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343160

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic and the rise of zooming has increased the ability of many people (primarily the rich) to work remotely. This in turn has led to more people moving to other countries to benefit from the ability to work remotely while enjoying other benefits such as lower housing prices, a more leisurely lifestyle, and in some cases greater political stability. Many Americans have used their newfound freedom to move overseas, e.g., to Italy. They and others like them are the new nomads. Such a move is not tax motivated because Italy has higher personal tax rates than the US. It does, however, raise interesting tax issues because the US (uniquely) imposes worldwide taxation on its citizens wherever they live, while Italy (like most countries) does not tax non-resident citizens but taxes its residents on worldwide income regardless of their citizenship status. The question is whether the US or the Italian regime is preferable in a world in which rich people can freely choose their residence jurisdiction regardless of their citizenship. Most of the literature (including my own) condemns the US approach as a historical anachronism and accepts the Italian approach as obvious. But this question requires reconsideration under changing conditions. The tax policy choice (whether a country should tax non-resident citizens or non-citizen residents on global income) raises issues that would have been very familiar to Erwin Seligman and his colleagues on the 1923 League of Nations report. A key issue in the US debate on adopting the Sixteenth Amendment (1913) to authorize an income tax was whether federal taxes should be based on the benefits provided to the taxpayer by the government (the benefits or exchange principle) or on the taxpayer’s ability to pay taxes (the ability to pay principle). Seligman was a major advocate of the ability to pay principle, and of the consequent insistence that Congress has the power to tax all income “from whatever source derived,” since all income contributes to ability to pay. The ability to pay principle was also behind the adoption of the foreign tax credit and the rejection of exemption for foreign source income in 1918. The 1923 report is based on the benefits principle (“economic allegiance”), but the insistence that the residence jurisdiction must have the right to tax the income of its residents on a worldwide basis while allowing for credits for source-based taxes is derived from the ability to pay principle. Which principle is better suited for taxing nomads? In my opinion, it is the ability to pay principle and not the benefits principle. A US citizen living permanently abroad does not derive sufficient benefits from their US passport (and may in some cases not even have one and not be aware of her US citizenship if that resulted from being born in the US). But if taxation is based on ability to pay, the relevant ability to pay is that of adult members of a political community, who get to vote and thereby determine the appropriate tax rates and the degree of progressivity of the tax rate schedule. And since US citizens abroad can vote in US elections, they should be subject to US taxes based on their ability to pay, i.e., on global income from whatever source derived. Taxation of non-citizen residents, on the other hand, should be based on the benefits principle since they do not get to vote and therefore are not members of the political community in which they reside. Therefore, Italy should only tax US citizens residing in Italy on Italian source income, which reflects the benefits conferred on them by Italy, and not on foreign source income, which does not reflect such benefits. The US should credit those Italian benefits (source) based taxes in accordance with the priority of benefits (source) over ability to pay (residence) established by the 1923 report (the “first bite at the apple” rule). The problem with this proposal, of course, is that it encourages taxpayers to obtain passports in tax havens and live permanently in other countries, and if those residence countries will only tax them on domestic source income, the result is massive under-taxation of the rich. Such “non-dom” regimes are a serious problem under current rules because countries like the UK (and many others) have adopted them to attract the rich. But there are ways to address this issue since non-dom regimes are politically unpopular and therefore ripe for legislative change in democratic countries. First, a residence country should be able to impose tax on its residents on worldwide income if the country of citizenship does not do so at all. Second, while the country of citizenship should be able to impose any non-zero tax rate it wants on its citizens (that is the point of taxation based on voting in a democratic political community), that choice should be respected by the country of residence only if the citizenship is meaningful, i.e., if the resident non-citizen has real links to their country of citizenship and not just a nominal passport (under the well-established Nottebohm test adopted by the ICJ). Finally, the country of residence should respect the primacy of the country of citizenship only if its citizens (including non-resident citizens) are given a meaningful right to vote in free and democratic elections in the country of citizenship (as determined by outside observers). Hannah Arendt defined citizenship as “the right to have rights”. In today’s deglobalizing world, citizenship has become more important than ever because an increasing number of people (refugees) are effectively stateless and do not have either diplomatic protection or the right of abode in their country of citizenship. In addition, the ability to work remotely has significantly increased the ability of the rich to move permanently to other countries without obtaining citizenship rights and obligations. In this context, I believe the US approach of taxing its citizens on global income regardless of where they live is justified by the ability to pay principle (but not by the benefits principle), and that the current practice of the US and most countries to tax non-citizen residents on global income is not justified (within the limits of the anti-avoidance rules outlined above). This may not be a drastic change from current rules for resident non-citizens because most of them do not have foreign source income. But for those that do (like the rich nomads of the pandemic), ability to pay (citizenship) is a better basis for taxation than benefits (residence). Seligman, I believe, would have approved.

13.
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation ; 3(1):1-10, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026740

ABSTRACT

In recent years monetary narrowing impact more on Turkey and developing countries. Therefore, the importance of industrial policy and technology management in developing countries has widely increased. Production and design strategies have to be planned carefully. Thus, evidently monetary narrowing and undesired exchange rate fluctuation affected investment and the cash flow in numerous sectors such as finances, funding, industry, service industry, agribusiness, livestock, building trade, research, and development, etc. In this context, this situation broadly hit the research, prototyping, manufacturing, and testing phase of the microstrip patch antennas. Today, patch antennas have widely utilized in telecommunication systems. Hence, this growth has increased interest in studies. As it is in every project, cost and efficiency are an essential part of the project design. Therefore, the ratio of cost is more important for Turkey and developing countries due to undesired exchange rate fluctuation, tax, financial obligations, and unexpected world events (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic). Commonly, the microstrip patch antenna comprises particular parts such as a radiating patch on top of the double-sided laminate and ground plane and feeding point located below the double-sided laminate. Therefore, microstrip patch antenna components play a significant role in patch antenna radiation characteristics. Moreover, specifications of the double-sided laminate, such as relative permittivity (or dielectric constant) and real physical thickness are essential elements of the patch antenna's radiation characteristics. Generally, high-quality dielectric substrates are developed and manufactured by western originated companies. Thus, the dielectric substrate with high-grade characteristics is hard to find for Turkey and developing countries. Importing is the only option and quite costly. Choosing a domestic dielectric substrate is inevitable, however insufficient for many cases. In this study, difficulties in microstrip patch antenna production and prototyping in Turkey are analyzed.

14.
Eurasian Journal of Business and Management ; 10(2):137-152, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025814

ABSTRACT

Transfer pricing manipulation by multinational enterprises is a big problem in developing countries, considering the increased levels of tax avoidance and evasion in these countries. The revenue lost through evasion and avoidance schemes as well as through aggressive tax planning robs developing countries of the much-needed domestic revenues to fund public expenditure. The repercussions of revenue inadequacies are evident in developing countries' governments to adequately invest in education, tax administration, health and security, infrastructural development, and economic development. Most developing countries having enacted transfer pricing regulation, with the arm's length principle are at the core of these regulations. This principle has been criticized in literature for its inefficiency and ineffectiveness in regulating transfer pricing in evolving economic times, while some researchers continue to maintain its relevance. In view of the conflicting views on the cogency of the arm's length principle in developing countries, this paper sought to unpack this debate through an evaluative review to show the areas of disagreement and agreement among scholars. The review was motivated by the continued concern and discussions of tax evasion and avoidance by multinational enterprises through aggressive transfer pricing in developing countries. Through a critical literature review, this article assesses the applicability and relevance of the principle in developing countries. Findings reveal controversies in the availability of comparable data, continued abuse of transfer pricing as well as the difficulty in applying the principle in digital transactions and intangibles.

15.
Independent Journal of Management and Production ; 13(3):s310-s328, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025736

ABSTRACT

The article reveals the importance of state financial regulation as one of the most important tools for economic growth and ensuring the competitiveness of industries and the economy of Ukraine. The studies of domestic and foreign scientists on the subject of research are analyzed in detail. The state of enterprises of the agricultural sector of Ukraine for the period 2013- 2020 has been determined. The study was carried out on the factors of providing agricultural producers with financial resources in terms of the size of the forms of management. The share of unprofitable enterprises in the industry for the same period is also analyzed. The achievements of the agricultural sector are described according to the statistical analysis of the state of socio-economic development of the regions in the period 2020-2021. The methodology for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the state regional policy in accordance with legislative regulations is described. This made it possible to establish that at the present stage, the financial regulation of the agricultural sector of Ukraine is carried out without proper scientific justification and, as a rule, responds slowly to the requirements of economic practice, especially in the context of deepening the penetration of global processes into the national economy. Approaches to the assessment of the competitive environment of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and the direction of its state regulation are proposed. Theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of assessing the competitiveness of the sector are disclosed. The necessity and possibility of forming a competitive environment by fiscal policy measures, primarily budgetary regulation, is proved. The problems of forming a competitive environment in the context of the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the place of Ukraine in the world competitiveness ranking are identified, and methodological approaches to the development strategy are proposed. It is proved that the competitive strategy is based on the existing resources of the industry (material, financial and intellectual), the level of development of various forms of management, the structure of production, marketing, processing, the formation of value chains and a bilateral state-market regulator. The directions for improving the quality of the competitive environment, arising from the paradigm of innovative development of the agricultural sector, are summarized and provide for the stimulation of small business in niche and organic production and large-scale industrial production in terms of the main indicators of food security, as well as the development of land, financial, credit and resource markets and the formation of equal access to them all agricultural producers.

16.
Front Res Metr Anal ; 7: 976798, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023018

ABSTRACT

We are not yet in the post-scarcity world that John Maynard Keynes famously envisioned, and vaccines have only recently allowed us to hope that a post-COVID-19 future may arrive soon. However, it is not too early to consider the impact of both on the traditional office, and on attempts to bring it back for reasons that may be socially harmful. One lesson of the pandemic is that many workers can be as-or even more-productive working from home, thanks chiefly to software such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Slack, among others, which enable better collaboration across distances than was previously possible. At the turn of the century, we moved toward an economy in which important products were increasingly characterized by low marginal costs of production, such as pharmaceuticals and software. Over the past decade, we have seen fixed costs reduced in some situations-consider how Uber greatly eliminates the need for a central taxi dispatcher, and makes use of idle capital invested in personal vehicles. The traditional office represents a massive fixed cost for many industries; tech-driven work-from-home greatly reduces the need for this fixed cost. While software, Internet connectivity and the cloud are not free, preliminary estimates suggest that replacing traditional offices with work-from-home greatly lowers costs, creates economic efficiencies and, relatedly, reduces environmental harm. That said, the story of work-from-home is not one of unbridled optimism. Real estate firms and local governments are already trying to use law as a tool to return workers to the pre-pandemic traditional office. Various levels of government seek to return workers to physical offices, often motivated by declines in tax receipts. Attempts to bolster a return to the traditional office may raise fixed costs for firms and generate substantial avoidable environmental damage. This Chapter recommends competition advocacy to counterbalance state and local attempts to prevent the efficient disruption of the traditional office's fixed costs. Work-from-home represents an important step toward the post-scarcity world; but without a focus on what amounts to state-and-local protectionism in this sphere, we could wind up taking another step backwards.

17.
Laws ; 11(4):57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023858

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented expansion of the digital economy has increased the intricacy of mobilising tax revenues from both domestic and international transactions. Tax evasion and avoidance are perpetuated by the invisible nature of digital transactions. To minimise the untapped revenues, countries all over the world are mapping policy strategies on how to collect revenue from this sector. African countries are not an exception. They have constructed digital tax policies to levy both direct and indirect taxes on digital transactions. This paper focuses on direct digital service taxes (DSTs). Direct digital service taxes have been an issue of debate among governments, policy makers, academics, tax bodies, and development organisations. Disagreements coalesce around their structure, their adherence to the canons of taxation, opportunities, and challenges as well as consequences of implementing them. Through a literature review, this paper assesses the legislative structure and administration of digital service taxes in relation to the canons of taxation. The findings of the review were conflicting. While certain aspects, motives, and possible outcomes of the taxes upheld the principles of taxation, some of these were conflicting with the principles. This could possibly be linked to variations in the economic, political, and social contexts in African countries and between developed and developing countries. The study recommends that while digital service taxes are an irrefutable necessity to tap tax revenues from the digital economy, African countries should ensure that equity, neutrality, economy, and efficiency among other principles are considered and balanced with the fundamental roles of tax policy.

18.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering ; 10(8):1006, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023810

ABSTRACT

The recent inclusion of shipping in the Fit for 55 legislation package will have large knock-on effects on the industry and consequently on end consumers. The present paper presents an innovative top-down methodology, the MSF455 model, which estimates the new vessel Operational Expenditure (OPEX) as per the provisions of the Fit for 55 package and various scenarios based on carbon tax, penalty allowances, maritime fuel tax and effect. The methodology is presented and tested against six scenarios that are based on Det Norske Veritas’s (DNV) fuel maritime projections. The model illustrates that the distinction between intra-EU and extra-EU penalty allowance creates a large disparity and thus reduction in the competitiveness of goods (produced and transported).

19.
Energies ; 15(17):6454, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023315

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the profile of individuals who decide to purchase a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) in a medium-sized isolated island system such as Tenerife Island. To achieve this objective, we used a survey conducted in 2017 to identify the characteristics of the individuals most likely to choose an SUV or another type of vehicle or be undecided. Subsequently, a discrete choice model was estimated to assess the probability that an individual chooses one of the three options as a function of their socio-economic characteristics, mobility routines, vehicle attributes and psychosocial traits. The results show the need to adopt energy policy measures related to vehicle choice, as they put the fulfilment of the decarbonization objectives for the energy transition in the Canary Islands at risk. Firstly, the authorities should carry out campaigns to achieve a more environmentally conscious behaviour by highlighting the higher consumption and emission levels of this type of vehicle. Secondly, subsidies for more efficient new vehicles and taxation should promote the purchase of low-emission vehicles to compensate for the greater willingness to pay of SUV buyers. In particular, purchase taxation should be linked to emission levels rather than only considering power, engine characteristics or labelling.

20.
Economies ; 10(8):184, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023274

ABSTRACT

The digital economy has risen dramatically in the global environment, and many developing countries, including African countries, have seen a spike in digital activity over recent years. The digital economy’s growth has resulted in an increase in digital financial services (DFS) in Africa and other developing regions. Since many African countries are under pressure to raise domestic revenue, taxing the digital economy has become a viable option. As a result, this study attempted to respond to the following questions: first, what is the link between DFS growth and digital inclusion in African countries? Second, what justifies the imposition of DFS taxes in Africa? Third, what are the potential consequences of DFS taxes in African countries? Using secondary data from the literature review and document analysis, a systematic technique for assessing or evaluating printed and electronic documents, and computer-based and internet-transmitted material, the study discovered that digital financial inclusion is driving financial inclusion on the African continent. The study also found that, despite several negative consequences associated with the growth of the digital economy, most African economic activities are informal and are being aided by various digital financial services. Therefore, it is equally crucial that when adopting digital finance taxes, care is taken to avoid excluding low-income earners from the financial sector and to take note of the usage, affordability, and distortive implications of taxation.

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