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1.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100341, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095929

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with cancer may be at an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and experience more severe outcomes. Low vaccine coverage in the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic meant that personal and social measures to reduce viral spread were the only methods of lowering the risk of infection among cancer patients. This study explored the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cancer patients and caregivers in a cancer hospital after the second COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 cancer patients and 200 household caregivers in a tertiary cancer care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The survey took place between 4 March and May 31, 2021 - a time period covering the end of the second COVID-19 wave and the early phase of the third wave in Thailand. Results: Rigorous personal and social measures to reduce viral spread among cancer patients and caregivers lead to an extremely low prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection (0% among cancer patients and 1% among household caregivers). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of social distancing and personal hygiene measures for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, even when vaccine coverage is low.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 357, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. Few studies have examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to pregnancy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic characteristics and KAP related to COVID-19 among pregnant women in an urban community in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed among pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand from July-August 2021. Binary logistic regression was conducted to test the association between socio-demographic characteristics and KAP related to COVID-19, and a Spearman's analysis tested correlations between KAP scores. RESULTS: A total of 150 pregnancy survey responses were received. Most participants were third trimester (27-40 weeks gestation; 68.0%). Pregnancy had never been risked contracting COVID-19 (84.7%). Most expressed concerns about being infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy and following birth (94.0 and 70.0%, respectively). The results of binary logistic regression analysis found associations between knowledge and marital status (OR = 4.983, 95%CI 1.894-13.107). In addition, having a bachelor's degree or higher was associated with higher attitude scores (OR = 2.733, 95%CI 1.045-7.149), as was being aged 26-30 (OR = 2.413 95%CI 0.882-6.602) and 31-35 years of age (OR = 2.518-2.664, 95%CI 0.841-8.442). Higher practice scores were associated with having a bachelor's degree or higher (OR = 2.285 95%CI 1.110-6.146), and income ≥15,001 bath (OR = 4.747 95%CI 1.588-14.192). Correlation analysis found a weak positive correlation between knowledge and practice scores (r = 0.210, p-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Participants overall had high KAP scores. This study can guide public health strategies regarding pregnant women and COVID-19. We recommend that interventions to improve and attitude and practice scores. Knowledge on pregnancy and COVID-19 should focus on reducing fear and improving attitudes toward the care of patients as well as the promotion of preventive practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
3.
Frontiers in Education ; JOUR, 7.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082817
4.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082519

ABSTRACT

Purpose The e-health services came up as an effective tool to mitigate effects of COVID-19 and following social distance norms. This study highlighted an issue of contentious usage intentions of e-health services among Thai older citizens. This study aims to examine the relationship of social influence (SI), information quality (IQ) and the digital literacy (DL) to contentious usage intentions. Design/methodology/approach This study follows quantitative techniques, and the sample size is 140 to analyze, that is collected from the older Thai citizens. The convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data and the items were measured by using a five-point Likert scale. Findings The findings of this study are having mixed results. The effect of DL and satisfaction (SAT) on continuous usage intention (CUI) is significant. The effect of IQ and SI on CUI is non-significant. The effect of IQ and SI on SAT is significant. Further, the mediating effect of SAT between IQ and CUI is non-significant. However, the mediating effect of SAT between SI and CUI is significant. Originality/value This study contributes to knowledge by empirical testing of DL and usage of the medicine. Furthermore, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the rare studies that incorporate technological intervention for drug usage intentions.

5.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 73, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months is recommended as one of the most important ways to support child health and survival, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, breastfeeding women encountered several obstacles during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey to document breastfeeding practices, EBF rates and associated factors with six month exclusive breastfeeding during the second wave of the coronavirus outbreak in Thailand. METHODS: A mixed-methods design that included a cross-sectional survey (n = 390) and semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 15) was carried out between August and November 2021. Participants were women aged ≥ 15 years who had given birth within 6-12 months before data collection and delivered in three public hospitals in the top three provinces with the most severe COVID-19 outbreaks. RESULTS: The median duration of EBF was four months (interquartile range, IQR: 1-6 months) and 37.4% of women exclusively breastfed for six months. From binary logistic regression models, several personal factors were associated with exclusive breastfeeding for six months including being a housewife (AOR 2.848; 95% CI 1.512, 5.367), perceived sufficiency of family income (AOR 2.502; 95% CI 1.362, 4.594), working from home/business (AOR 2.071; 95% CI 1.074, 3.995), breastfeeding intention (AOR 1.162; 95% CI 1.116, 1.210), and maternal age (AOR 0.932; 95% CI 0.882, 0.986). From qualitative interviews, women who were able to exclusively breastfed during the outbreak explained five themes that were a protective shield; I have to save money, I could spend all my time with my baby and breastfeed, spousal support is valuable, and opportunity to avoid the obstructed beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers with higher socioeconomic status and who were unemployed/worked from home and had support structures in place were able to successfully EBF during the COVID-19 outbreak. Healthcare providers can better support breastfeeding if they provide informational support and allow family members to participate in breastfeeding programs, especially spouses who provided key emotional and tangible support during pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology
6.
Innovative Marketing ; 18(3):13-25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072380

ABSTRACT

Many apparel retailing brands use e-service marketing tools such as a chatbot (a system that is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) to increase their competitive advantage in today's world of digitalization. During the COVID-19 pandemic, chatbots gained more power to serve as a communication tool that provides information and maintains customer experience. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the influence of chatbot e-service agents' marketing efforts (involving interaction, entertainment, trendiness, and problem-solving) on Thai customers' perceived communication credibility and satisfaction in apparel retailing, as research in this area is limited. In order to test the hypotheses, the paper employed structural equation modeling using Amos. In addition, an online survey of 400 Thai consumers who had previously used chatbots in the apparel retailing industry was conducted. The results showed that chatbot e-service marketing efforts, including interaction, trendiness, and problem-solving, affected customer satisfaction without entertainment elements. Beyond this, a chatbot, viewing interaction and entertainment, was found to have an insignificant effect on communication credibility. Thus, the coefficient value proved that information regarding communication credibility is more dominant in customer satisfaction. Therefore, the chatbot e-service marketing effort is essential in motivating communication credibility in customer satisfaction. These findings delivered managerial implications for understanding consumers in the field of digitalization.

7.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(10)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071799

ABSTRACT

Quantifying the effects of control measures during the emergence and recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 poses a challenge to understanding the dynamic responses in terms of effectiveness and the population's reaction. This study aims to estimate and compare the non-pharmaceutical interventions applied in the first and second outbreaks of COVID-19 in Thailand. We formulated a dynamic model of transmission and control. For each outbreak, the time interval was divided into subintervals characterized by epidemic events. We used daily case report data to estimate the transmission rates, the quarantine rate, and its efficiency by the maximum likelihood method. The duration-specific control reproduction numbers were calculated. The model predicts that the reproduction number dropped by about 91% after the nationwide lockdown in the first wave. In the second wave, after a high number of cases had been reported, the reproduction number decreased to about 80% in the next phase, but the spread continued. The estimated value was below the threshold in the last phase. For both waves, successful control was mainly induced by decreased transmission rate, while the explicit quarantine measure showed less effectiveness. The relatively weak control measure estimated by the model may have implications for economic impact and the adaptation of people.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(10)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071796

ABSTRACT

Language and cultural barriers among migrant workers hamper access to health risk information. This study aims to explore health risk communication structure and processes and identify the communication network of migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. This study used a parallel mixed-methods design combined with in-depth interviews and questionnaires for social network analysis from November 2020 to June 2021 in the headquarter district of Samut Sakhon, Ranong, and Phuket provinces. We conducted purposive sampling of representatives from public and non-public organisations and local communities. Thirty-six key informants participated in in-depth interviews, and fifty-six respondents completed the questionnaire for social network analysis. Although health risk communication included various activities, there was no formal governing body responsible for health risk communication among migrants, and monitoring and evaluation of communication process were not well-implemented. The health risk communication network was centralised, especially in the rural area; however, migrant health volunteers (MHVs) and local media were key sources of information for most migrants in communities. Overall, a governing body led by the government with intersectional collaboration and a health risk communication process should be promoted while considering migrants' characteristics and concerns. The health risk communication network should identify key communicators such as MHVs and local media. This can be an effective strategy to fill the gap of information dependency.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071480

ABSTRACT

Success in eradicating COVID-19 will rely on the rate of vaccination adoption worldwide. Vaccine acceptance among vulnerable groups is critical for preventing the spread of COVID-19 and decreasing unnecessary deaths. The purpose of this study was to report on the willingness to obtain COVID-19 immunization and the factors related to its acceptance among Myanmar migrant workers in southern Thailand. This cross-sectional study consisted of 301 samples collected between October and November 2021 and analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Thirty-nine percent of workers intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine within a year. The following factors were associated with obtaining the COVID-19 vaccine: a high level of perception of COVID-19 (AOR = 5.43), income less than or equal to 10,000 baht/month (AOR = 6.98), financial status at a sufficient level (AOR = 7.79), wearing a face mask in the previous month almost all the time (AOR =4.26), maintaining 1-2 m of distance from anyone in the last month (AOR =2.51), and measuring temperature in the previous month (AOR = 5.24). High reluctance to accept the COVID-19 vaccine among Myanmar migrant workers can influence efforts to eliminate COVID-19. Collaboration with all stakeholders is critical to helping Myanmar workers understand COVID-19, social measures, and preventive beliefs to increase vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thailand/epidemiology , Myanmar
10.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:1272-1275, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical chest compression devices play an important role in assisting patients undergoing cardiac arrest. However, this equipment induces an aerosol-generating procedure that could contaminate hospital staff. The development of a remote control system for mechanical chest compression devices may solve the problem;however, there are currently no studies regarding the efficacy of this system. AIM: This study aims to analyze efficacy of remote control systems for mechanical chest compression devices and compare it with non-remote control systems. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study at Srinagarind Hospital, Thailand. Data were collected in two periods of the study. The first period was between January and December 2021 using a non-remote control system to operate the mechanical chest compression device. The second period was from January to April 2022 and collected data on the use of a remote control system. RESULTS: Sixty-four participants were examined over the 16-month period of the study. A total of 53.1% (n = 34) of participants were male and the mean age of the patients was 52.4 ± 5.1 years old. The number of emergency medical service members (EMS) needed for resuscitation in the remote control group was less than the non-remote control group (3 vs. 5;p = 0.040). The number of emergency department (ED) members needed for resuscitation in the remote control group was four compared with eight in the non-remote control group. CONCLUSIONS: The remote controlled mechanical chest compression device can effectively reduce the number of staff working both in the EMS and in the ED of the hospital, thus reducing exposure and contamination from aerosol-generating procedure. It was also proven accurate in terms of rate and depth of chest compression according to resuscitation guidelines.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12926, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066483

ABSTRACT

To improve financial sustainability and promote economic stability, it is important to understand the intricate relationship between finance and macroeconomy. Thus, focusing on financial stress and macroeconomic sectors, this paper investigates macro-financial spillovers in China. First, we develop a high-frequency financial stress index based on eight daily financial indicators to measure the stability of China’s financial markets. Through event identification, we find that China’s Financial Stress Index can effectively reflect the stress situation of China’s financial market. Then, given that the traditional co-frequency method fails to deal with financial stress index and macroeconomic data with different frequencies, we employ the mixed-frequency spillover method to evaluate macro-financial spillovers to examine the connectedness between China’s financial market and the real side of the economy. We find that financial stress is the leading net risk output and primarily affects the loan sector;deterioration of economic conditions can lead to more apparent fluctuations in spillover effects, with spillovers from financial stress to others being the most susceptible;within the sample, the 2015 stock crash, U.S.–China trade friction, and COVID-19 have the most impact on macro-financial spillover effects. In addition, we track the results of different risk events on spillover effects across sectors.

12.
Energies ; 15(19):7374, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065784

ABSTRACT

With rising electricity demand, heavy reliance on imports, and recent economic downturns due to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain bottlenecks, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Thailand is suffering severely from energy resilience risks. The government has therefore set a goal of decentralizing energy production through small-scale distributed renewable energy systems. To support their design and the planning process, we simulate multiple scenarios with wind turbines, photovoltaic systems, and battery storage for a model community in rural Nakhon Phanom, Thailand. Using the software NESSI4D, we evaluate and discuss their impact on energy resilience by considering environmental sustainability, economic attractiveness, and independence from the central power grid. To fill the gap of missing data on energy demand, we synthesize high-resolution load profiles from the Thailand Vietnam Socio-Economic Panel. We conclude that distributed photovoltaic systems with additional battery storage are only suitable to promote energy resilience if the government provides appropriate financial incentives. Considering temporal variations and local conditions, as well as a participatory decision-making process, are crucial for the long-term success of energy projects. Our advice to decision-makers is to design policies and regulatory support that are aligned with the preferences and needs of target communities.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2214-2225, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065412

ABSTRACT

Prior immune responses to coronaviruses might affect human SARS-CoV-2 response. We screened 2,565 serum and plasma samples collected from 2013 through early 2020, before the COVID-19 pandemic began, from 2,250 persons in 4 countries in Africa (Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) and in Thailand, including persons living with HIV-1. We detected IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) subunit 2 protein in 1.8% of participants. Profiling against 23 coronavirus antigens revealed that responses to S, subunit 2, or subunit 1 proteins were significantly more frequent than responses to the receptor-binding domain, S-Trimer, or nucleocapsid proteins (p<0.0001). We observed similar responses in persons with or without HIV-1. Among all coronavirus antigens tested, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody responses were much higher in participants from Africa than in participants from Thailand (p<0.01). We noted less pronounced differences for endemic coronaviruses. Serosurveys could affect vaccine and monoclonal antibody distribution across global populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , Nigeria , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thailand/epidemiology , Africa
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065934

ABSTRACT

Globally, 67% of the population has received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose, but coverage varies across countries. This study aimed to compare people's willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination across Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam, where vaccination intention tends to be high, to determine factors associated with willingness, and to obtain suggestions for developing strategies. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Japan International Cooperation Agency survey "Building Resilience: COVID-19 Impact and Responses in Urban Areas-Case of Southeast Asia," including1842 unvaccinated participants from Thailand (n = 461), Indonesia (n = 246), the Philippines (n = 609), and Vietnam (n = 526). Vaccination willingness was high in all countries (69.6%), but the social and psychological factors motivating people to undergo vaccination differed among these countries. The highest vaccination willingness was in the Philippines, followed by Vietnam and Indonesia, whereas the lowest vaccination willingness was in Thailand. Vaccination willingness was affected by not only sociodemographic attributes, but also risk perception and beliefs, which, in turn, were shaped by social factors such as infection trends and vaccine policies. To achieve effective vaccination promotion programs, a system allowing the flexible modification of promotion methods in response to social conditions must be established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Humans , Indonesia , Philippines , Thailand , Vaccination , Vietnam
15.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):764-765, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063421

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the mortality risk factors of COVID-19 infection among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in Thailand due to data scarcity in Asian populations. Method(s): We analyzed the data from the Thai Transplant Registry which collected data from all transplant centers from March 2020 to November 2021. The outcomes were the mortality rate over time, ICU admission rate and mortality risk factors including patients' demographic data, comorbidities, vaccination, immunosuppression, and laboratory tests. Result(s): Seventy-two KTRs were infected with COVID-19. The mortality rate was 16.7% (12/72) which was highest (6/12) in July 2021 when the B.1.617.2 variant became most dominant strain. All dead patients were deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT, 100%). 33.3% (24/72) need to be admitted to the ICUs. The mean age of patients in non-survivor group was significantly higher than those in survivor group (53.4 +/- 10.3 vs 44.5 +/- 9.9 years, p=0.006). The underlying diseases including diabetes and hypertension did not increased mortality. However, hypertension significantly increased ICU admission risk (OR 6.8, 95%CI 1.8-30.6). The mean BMI among non-survivor group was similar to survivor group (25.0 +/- 3.9 vs 23.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m2, p=0.23). The transplantation vintage was not different among both groups (73.5 [12.5-180.5] in the non-survivor vs 52.0 [29.0-97.0] months in the survivors p=0.77). Baseline immunosuppressive regimens were not associated with mortality. The non-survivor group had significantly higher baseline serum creatinine (2.87 +/- 2.63 vs 1.68 +/- 0.82 mg/dL, p=0.006). The area under the ROC curve for mortality was 0.62 for neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The NLR of 3.3 showed highest sensitivity (71%) and specificity (53%) in predicting mortality. Higher IL-6 was associated with requiring ICU admission (23.2 [15.4-70.6] vs 10.4 [4.1-24.2], p=0.04). In non-survivor group, 9 (75%) KTRs were unvaccinated and 3 (25%) KTRs were incomplete vaccinated (1 dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in 2 KTRs, and 1 dose of CoronaVac vaccine in 1 KTRs). In non-survivor group, most common medical complications were bacterial pneumonia (58.3%) and lifethreatening bleeding (16.7%). Conclusion(s): In Thailand, the mortality rate of COVID-19 infected KTRs was comparable to worldwide reports which was 10-32%. Higher patients' age, DDKT as well as admission serum creatinine and IL-6 were associated with increasing disease severity. Both unvaccinated and not fully vaccinated KTRs were significantly at higher risk of death.

16.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S104, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062112

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. At the begin-ning of 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infection. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after the vaccination in adolescents and young adults have been reported, especially more often after the second dose. There are very few case reports in Asia. We aim to present a case of confirmed myocarditis after the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in Thailand and the remarkable dynamic change in an electrocardiogram (ECG). Method(s): Case report. We reported the case and reviewed serial electrocardiogram and echocardiographic findings, including car-diac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a case of confirmed myocarditis after the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Result(s): A previously healthy 13-year-old boy presented with chest pain and shortness of breath within 20 hours following the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed diffuse ST-segment elevation with significant improvement within 3 hours. The peak level of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T was 1,546 ng/L. No alternative etiology of myocarditis was identified. Echocardiogram revealed mildly depressed left ventricular septal wall motion. Cardiac MRI showed abnormal native T1, T2 mapping, and extracellular volume (ECV) that were compatible with myocarditis. His symp-toms were relieved with ibuprofen. He was discharged on the fifth day of admission. In a 1-week follow-up, the ECG showed an incomplete right bundle branch block. Conclusion(s): This case illustrates the potential of myocarditis follow-ing mRNA COVID-19 vaccination with striking dynamic change and transition of the ECG. The possible mechanism for myocar-ditis after vaccination is molecular mimicry between viral spike protein and cardiac protein. More data and long-term follow-up are needed to understand the association between the COVID-19 vaccine and myopericarditis.

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A394, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060582

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Global Case Reports in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Global Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Our world has been ravaged by SARS-COV2 over 2 years resulting in mortality in excess of six million lives. More insights have been known in lights of pathophysiology, natural history and modalities of therapy. Cytokine release syndrome, as one of the most dreadful consequences after acute COVID-19 infection, can lead to severe ARDS and deaths. Typically, CRS happens in the first 5-10 days after the initial date on infection. Multiple modes of treatments have been proposed and become standard of care for this life-threatening condition. CASE PRESENTATION: 86 -year-old female with CAD, HTN, SSS, dementia developed 3-day history of fever with dyspnea (SpO2 75% on ambient air). COVID vaccine history was AZ, AZ and Moderna 1 month ago. She was admitted to ICU and placed on oxygen high flow FiO2 50%. She was promptly started on IV Remdesivir, Dexamethasone and Tocilizumab. Then, SARS-COV2 Omicron strain had dominated Thailand reaching almost 99%. Thus, she was given IV Sotrovimab. She gradually improved and was able to wean off from oxygen high flow. As we anticipate transferring her out of ICU once the RT-PCR for COVID-19 reached the safety threshold, those subsequent PCR tests have been in the range of active replication of virus. On ICU day 24, her condition deteriorated with fever spike and more dyspnea needed the use of O2 NHF once again. Studies had revealed that more virus replication and cytokine storm had resumed as evidenced by rising CRP and IL-6 level. This moment, we suspected that she could have contracted a Delta strain. Therefore, we decided to give IV Casirivimab/Imdevimab along with Dexamethasone for this second CRS. NP swab had been sent to Thai genomics lab to identify the virus strain. This time, she gradually recovered over 7 days. Finally, the RT-PCR on day 31 had been in the safe zone and she was discharged home. Subsequent result from genomic study had confirmation of Omicron strain of the COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Typically, cytokine storm after COVID-19 pneumonia happens within 7-10 days after the onset of infection. Without appropriate treatments, this can result in severe pneumonia/ARDS and eventual death. To our knowledge, after the successful treatment of the first wave of CRS, the patient should either recover gradually or succumb to the severe systemic effects. This case has highlighted that there can be a second wave of cytokine storm especially if the virus continued to replicate even with appropriate therapies. Repeated dose of antiviral drugs and possible a different kind of monoclonal antibody might come into role and can potentially save life in this uncommon event. CONCLUSIONS: We report an interesting case of CRS resulting in severe ARDS with unusually prolonged active viral replication despite of treatments. More surprisingly, this patient also had developed a double resurgence of cytokine storm from this particularly sustained viral replication. Reference #1: 1. David C. Fajgenbaum, M.D., and Carl H. June, M.D. Cytokine Storm N Engl J Med 2020;383:2255-2273 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra2026131 Reference #2: 2. Yujun Tang, Jiajia Liu, […], and Chengping Wen Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: The Current Evidence and Treatment Strategies Front Immunol 2020;11:1708 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kasem Sirithanakul

18.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 22(12):23-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058481

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the Covid-19 epidemic the realization that online teaching and learning management became a high priority with many education institutions worldwide. In Thailand, government mandated online learning and coaching solutions became the 'New Normal' imperative across all levels of the educational system. Therefore, the researchers undertook a systematic literature review (SLR) of both Thai and international literature to establish which factors played a key role. From the SLR, a determination was made that the proposed model should contain project-based learning management (PBLM) and online coaching through information communication technology (ICT) systems. The results revealed that the proposed model should contain six main steps which the authors labeled the DSPDPE Model (define, select, plan, do, present, evaluate). The six steps of learning activities included Step 1's planning to enter a project, Step 2's choosing a project topic, Step 3's planning and analysis of work, Step 4's project implementation, Step 5's presentation of study results, and Step 6's project evaluation.

19.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 105(9):799-805, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057095

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital capacity management has been one of the main public health problems in many countries during the COVID-19 outbreak. Field hospitals were developed as a means of taking care of patients with limited resource utilization. Objective: To demonstrate clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of patients infected with COVID-19 treated at a field hospital. Additionally, cost and utilization were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study. Data from the medical records of the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted and discharged from a field hospital between April 2021 and June 2021 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, treatment outcomes, cost, and utilization were analyzed, classified by disease severity. Results: Seventy-two patients with a mean age (SD) of 30.2 (8.4) years were enrolled in the present study. Thirty-six patients (50.0%) were asymptomatic. Nasal congestion was the most common symptom of COVID-19 (30.6%). Patients with mild pneumonia had higher body mass index (BMI) and older age than asymptomatic cases, and symptomatic COVID-19 cases without pneumonia (p=0.014, 0.028, respectively). The two common final diagnoses were acute pharyngitis (27.8%) and pneumonia (26.4%). Asymptomatic pneumonia was found in 5.6%. The mortality rate was 0% in the field hospital. The average length of stay was 12 days, and the mean total cost of treatment was 48,396 THB per patient. The patients with mild pneumonia had significant higher total cost of treatment than asymptomatic cases and symptomatic COVID-19 cases without pneumonia. Conclusion: Field hospitals could be the most efficient option for taking care of COVID-19 patients when healthcare resources in hospital are limited. COVID-19 patients’ triage was important to determine the outcomes. Asymptomatic cases, symptomatic cases without pneumonia, and cases with mild pneumonia could be treated in a field hospital with cost-effective outcomes. © 2022 JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF THAILAND.

20.
Frontiers in Built Environment ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2054965

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19 has had a tremendous negative impact on healthcare facilities, especially public hospitals. Thai community hospitals serve as primary care for COVID-19 patients. However, many hospital buildings were constructed in the 1990s and are now becoming outdated. Community hospitals faced many difficulties during the Thailand COVID-19 outbreak. To identify these difficulties this study focused on the physical settings of the community hospital’s outpatient departments (OPD) between 2020 and 2021. Furthermore, the study provided design suggestions for preventing the spread of respiratory infectious diseases. The study used a three-step process of data collection. The first was to observe the physical settings of the OPD buildings of the three hospitals. Secondly, interviews were conducted with thirty healthcare employees: 11 from the first hospital, 11 from the second hospital and 8 from the third hospital. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Subsequently, the architectural design was produced based on observation and interview analysis. In the third step, the same thirty participants evaluated the architectural design through a focus group. Findings from the interviews led to four themes: 1) factors leading to the accumulation of pathogens, 2) measures for preventing the spread of respiratory diseases, 3) the effect of patient numbers on virus transmission, and 4) suggestions for improving the physical setting of OPDs. The analysis of the four themes led to the preliminary design recommendation, which was evaluated through a focus group, leading to suggestions for the improvement of thirteen areas. The analysis results showed that the participants were satisfied with the architectural design with additional minor recommendations. This study provided originality for the implementation and future development of hospital layout designs that can prevent the spread of COVID-19 throughout Thai community hospitals. Copyright © 2022 Waroonkun and Prugsiganont.

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