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Oeconomia Copernicana ; 13(2):407-438, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934895


Research background: The global financial crisis from 2007 to 2012, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the current war in Ukraine have dramatically increased the risk of consumer bankruptcies worldwide. All three crises negatively impact the financial situation of households due to increased interest rates, inflation rates, volatile exchange rates, and other significant macroeconomic factors. Financial difficulties may arise when the private person is unable to maintain a habitual standard of living. This means that anyone can become financially vulnerable regardless of wealth or education level. Therefore, forecasting consumer bankruptcy risk has received increasing scientific and public attention. Purpose of the article: This study proposes artificial intelligence solutions to address the increased importance of the personal bankruptcy phenomenon and the growing need for reliable forecasting models. The objective of this paper is to develop six models for forecasting personal bankruptcies in Poland and Taiwan with the use of three soft-computing techniques. Methods: Six models were developed to forecast the risk of insolvency: three for Polish households and three for Taiwanese consumers, using fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, and artificial neural networks. This research relied on four samples. Two were learning samples (one for each country), and two were testing samples, also one for each country separately. Both testing samples contain 500 bankrupt and 500 nonbankrupt households, while each learning sample consists of 100 insolvent and 100 solvent natural persons. Findings & value added: This study presents a solution for effective bankruptcy risk forecasting by implementing both highly effective and usable methods and proposes a new type of ratios that combine the evaluated consumers' financial and demographic characteristics. The usage of such ratios also improves the versatility of the presented models, as they are not denominated in monetary value or strictly in demographic units. This would be limited to use in only one country but can be widely used in other regions of the world.

P.A. Persona e Amministrazione ; 9(2):605-622, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835979


As a result of the economic crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian Competition Authority, following other countries, has increased the use of moral suasion. In the context of antitrust law, this observation allows, on the one hand, to assess the impact of alternative instruments to the classic method that is usually applied in antitrust law: legislation, violation, formal warning, sanction. On the other hand, it suggests shifting attention from rules to behaviour, based on the belief that behavioural dynamics between the logical and mandatory contents of the rules and the actual consequences are underestimated. © 2022, University of Urbino. All rights reserved.