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1.
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals ; 13(1):4-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820630

ABSTRACT

Excipients are critically important in converting active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) into drug products that have optimal stability, bioavailability, manufacturability, duration of action, and therapeutic benefits. They will play even greater roles in the future to enable drug targeting, delivery of biotech products and vaccines, gene therapy, continuous manufacturing, 3D printing, and so forth. This commentary describes the author’s experience in teaching a graduate course on excipients at St. John’s University to train students on optimal selection and appropriate use of excipients in formulating dosage forms and development of drug delivery systems. The course is offered in 15 two-hour sessions over a semester, and the course materials are divided into 13 modules on chemistry of different classes of polymeric and non-polymeric excipients and their application in dosage form development, including the use as solubilizing agents, lyophilizing agents, cryoprotectants, buffers, biodegradable materials, and carriers for amorphous solid dispersions and 3D printing. The development of coprocessed excipients, the need for new excipients, and the regulatory aspects of excipients are also covered. The course includes presentations by guest speakers from the industry, and the students also watch virtual presentations from experts that are publicly available from the internet. It is a popular course at St. John’s University taken by all graduate students in the pharmaceutics program. It is recommended that such courses are introduced in other pharmacy schools and academic institutions. The course may be adapted to meet specific needs of different academic programs. Professional associations, such as AAPS and CRS, industry groups like IPEC, and the pharmaceutical industry may be able to help in introducing such courses by providing lecture materials and guest lecturers.

2.
Polymers ; 14(8):1603, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810091

ABSTRACT

A broad-spectrum antimicrobial respiration apparatus designed to fight bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other biological agents is critical in halting the current pandemic’s trajectory and containing future outbreaks. We applied a simple and effective electrodeposition method for metal (copper, silver, and zinc) coating the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). These nanoparticles are known to possess potent antiviral and antimicrobial properties. Metal-coated HNTs (mHNTs) were then added to polylactic acid (PLA) and extruded to form an mHNT/PLA 3D composite printer filament. Our composite 3D printer filament was then used to fabricate an N95-style mask with an interchangeable/replaceable filter with surfaces designed to inactivate a virus and kill bacteria on contact, thus reducing deadly infections. The filter, made of a multilayered antimicrobial/mHNT blow spun polymer and fabric, is disposable, while the mask can be sanitized and reused. We used several in vitro means of assessing critical clinical features and assessed the bacterial growth inhibition against commonly encountered bacterial strains. These tests demonstrated the capability of our antimicrobial filament to fabricate N95 masks and filters that possessed antibacterial capabilities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

3.
Micromachines ; 13(4):499, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810026

ABSTRACT

Plastic pollution has emerged as a growing concern worldwide. In particular, the most abundant plastic debris, microplastics, has necessitated the development of rapid and effective identification methods to track down the stages and evidence of the pollution. In this paper, we combine low-cost plastic staining technologies using Nile Red with the continuous feature offered by microfluidics to propose a low-cost 3D printed device for the identification of microplastics. It is observed that the microfluidic devices indicate comparable staining and identification performance compared to conventional Nile Red staining processes while offering the advantages of continuous recognition for long-term environmental monitoring. The results also show that concentration, temperature, and residency time possess strong effects on the identification performance. Finally, various microplastics have been applied to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed devices. It is found that, among different types of microplastics, non-spherical microplastics show the maximal fluorescence level. Meanwhile, natural fibers indicate better staining quality when compared to synthetic ones.

4.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1825, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768632

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronary angiography (CAG) is a fundamental component of cardiology fellowship. As the impact of COVID-19 fueled the need for self-directed and remote learning, we sought to develop a resource that would address this need and improve angiogram interpretation skills among fellows. To this aim we developed a teaching tool correlating fluoroscopic projections with a 3D-printed physical and digital model of coronary anatomy derived from coronary CT. We hypothesized that fellows exposed to this resource would benefit from improved comprehension of spatial concepts in CAG compared to usual resources. Methods: Twenty-two cardiology fellows were randomly assigned to exposure of the teaching tool versus usual resources. An exam assessing comprehension of the spatial orientation of coronary anatomy, aortic cusps, and catheter tip position in relation to fluoroscopic views was administered before and after a six-week exposure period. Scores were compared, and qualitative feedback was obtained using the Likert scale. Results: Fellows exposed to the content achieved a greater improvement on their exam score and were more likely to improve (Figure). All fellows felt the content was superior to existing resources and will improve their comprehension of CAG. Conclusion: Educational platforms leveraging 3D printing can enhance comprehension of CAG among cardiology fellows, and may serve as valuable resources to promote self-directed and remote learning. [Formula presented]

5.
Rapid Prototyping Journal ; 28(4):654-675, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1759008

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has a huge influence on the real world because of its ability to manufacture massively complicated geometrics. The purpose of this study is to use CiteSpace (CS) visual analysis to identify fused deposition modeling (FDM) research and development patterns to guide researchers to decide future research and provide a framework for corporations and organizations to prepare for the development in the rapid prototyping industry. Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is defined to budget minimize manufactured input and output for aviation and the medical product industrial sectors. 3DP has implemented its potential in the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) reaction.Design/methodology/approach>First, 396 original publications were extracted from the web of science (WOS) with the comprehensive list and did scientometrics analysis in CS software. The parameters are specified in CS including the span (from 2011 to 2019, one year slice for the co-authorship and the co-accordance analysis), visualization (show the merged networks), specific criteria for selection (top 20%), node form (author, organization, region, reference cited;cited author, journal and keywords) and pruning (pathfinder and slicing network). Finally, correlating data was studied and showed the results of the visualization study of FDM research were shown.Findings>The framework of FDM information is beginning to take shape. About hot research topics, there are “Morphology,” “Tensile Property by making Blends,” “Use of Carbon nanotube in 3DP” and “Topology optimization.” Regarding the latest research frontiers of FDM printing, there are “Fused Filament Fabrication,” “AM,” in FDM printing. Where “Post-processing” and “environmental impact” are the research hotspots in FDM printing. These research results can provide insight into FDM printing and useful information to consider the existing studies and developments in FDM researchers’ analysis.Research limitations/implications>Despite some important obtained results through FDM-related publications’ visualization, some deficiencies remain in this research. With >99% of articles written in English, the input data for CS was all downloaded from WOS databases, resulting in a language bias of papers in other languages and neglecting other data sources. Although, there are several challenges being faced by the FDM that limit its wide variety of applications. However, the significance of the current work concerning the technical and engineering prospects is discussed herein.Originality/value>First, the novelty of this work lies in describing the FDM approach in a Scientometric way. In Scientometric investigation, leading writers, organizations, keywords, hot research and emerging knowledge points were explained. Second, this research has thoroughly and comprehensively examined the useful sustainability effects, i.e. economic sustainability, energy-based sustainability, environmental sustainability, of 3DP in industrial development in qualitative and quantitative aspects by 2025 from a global viewpoint. Third, this work also described the practical significance of FDM based on 3DP since COVID-19. 3DP has stepped up as a vital technology to support improved healthcare and other general response to emergency situations.

6.
IOP Conference Series. Materials Science and Engineering ; 1224(1):012006, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730623

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic took the entire world by surprise, making us realize how far we had been lagging behind in the development of new technologies which makes the entire fabrication process more efficient and faster. During the pandemic, worldwide there was a shortage of basic medical equipments PPE kits, masks, syringes, ventilator pipes & masks, etc. All we needed at that time was a faster and more cost-efficient fabrication technology which would have kept pace with the growing demands of these basic equipments as the situation went from bad to worse. 3D-Printing, we believe is the future of the manufacturing and fabrication sector as it’s faster compared to our current technology and much more efficient when seen from an economic and an environmental point of view. In this paper, we have talked about how the COVID-19 pandemic wreaked havoc worldwide on their healthcare systems with thousands of people dying every day due to the lack of basic medical equipments. All these challenges could have been met head-on if the abilities of 3D Printing were exploited on a larger scale. We have tried to offer a brief insight into how 3D Printing can change our lives for the better and make it a lot easier once 3D Printing reaches its full potential.

7.
Remote Sensing ; 14(3):748, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686930

ABSTRACT

Building heritage contributes to the historical context and industrial history of a city. Brick warehouses, which comprise a systematic interface between components, demand an interactive manipulation of inspected parts to interpret their construction complexity. The documentation of brick details in augmented reality (AR) can be challenging when the relative location needs to be defined in 3D. This study aimed to compare brick details in AR, and to reconstruct the interacted result in the correct relative location. We applied photogrammetry modeling and smartphone AR for the first and secondary 3D reconstruction of brick warehouse details and compared the results. In total, 146 3D AR database models were created. The AR-based virtual reconstruction process applied multiple imagery resources from video conferencing and broadcast of models on the Augment® platform through a smartphone. Tests verified the virtual reconstruction in AR, and concluded the deviation between the final secondary reconstructed 3D model and the first reconstructed model had a standard deviation of less than 1 cm. AR enabled the study and documentation of cross-referenced results in comparison with the simplified reconstruction process, with structural detail and visual detail suitable for 3D color prints.

8.
Energies ; 15(3):976, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686667

ABSTRACT

This article aims to describe the current state of research on plastic waste management as a circular economy practice at the end of the supply chain. The methodological strategy chosen was a systematic literature review. The articles selected from the Web of Science and Scopus databases were screened, and the research corpus consisted of 201 articles published in journals between 2014 and 2021. The results present 13 study categories, showing topics such as pyrolysis, business models, Industry 4.0, and energy generation. The insertion of Industry 4.0 technologies is still in its initial stages, comprising mainly the generation of inputs to reuse waste for 3D printers’ materials. Regarding energy generation, the insertion of processes such as pyrolysis for fuel generation stands out. The proposed discussion in this article suggests a circular ecosystem in which wastes follow a reuse flow according to their properties;incineration can be an option depending on the stage and benefits generated from the removal of plastic waste from the ecosystem. The highlighted issue is the scalability of the developed processes in the research, which is only possible if the state, universities, and civil society integrate efforts in the construction of a circular ecosystem infrastructure for waste management.

9.
International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management ; 71(3):870-895, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1684988

ABSTRACT

PurposeDigital innovation and circular business model innovation are two critical enablers of a circular economy. A wide variety of digital technologies such as blockchain, 3D printing, cyber-physical systems, or big data also diverges the applications of digital technologies in circular business models. Given heterogeneous attributes of circular business models and digital technologies, the selections of digital technologies and circular business models might be highly distinctive within and between sectorial contexts. This paper examines digital circular business models in the context of the fashion industry and its multiple actors. This industry as the world’s second polluting industry requires an urgent circular economy (CE) transition with less resource consumption, lower waste emissions and a more stable economy.Design/methodology/approachAn inductive, exploratory multiple-case study method is employed to investigate the ten cases of different sized fashion companies (i.e. large, small medium-sized firm (SME) and startup firms). The comparison across cases is conducted to understand fashion firms' distinct behaviours in adopting various digital circular economy strategies.FindingsThe paper presents three archetypes of digital-based circular business models in the fashion industry: the blockchain-based supply chain model, the service-based model and the pull demand-driven model. Besides incremental innovations, the radical business model and digital innovations as presented in the pull demand-driven model may be crucial to the fashion circular economy transition. The pull demand–driven model may shift the economy from scales to scopes, change the whole process of how the fashion items are forecasted, produced, and used, and reform consumer behaviours. The paths of adopting digital fashion circular business models are also different among large, SMEs and startup fashion firms.Practical implicationsThe study provides business managers with empirical insights on how circular business models (CBMs) should be chosen according to intrinsic business capacities, technological competences and CE strategies. The emerging trends of new fashion markets (e.g. rental, subscription) and consumers' sustainable awareness should be not be neglected. Moreover, besides adopting recycling and reuse strategies, large fashion incumbents consider collaborating with other technology suppliers and startup companies to incubate more radical innovations.Social implicationsAppropriate policies and regulations should be enacted to enable the digital CE transition. Market patterns and consumer acceptances are considered highly challenging to these digital fashion models. A balanced policy on both the demand and supply sides are suggested. The one-side policy may fail CBMs that entail an upside-down collaboration of both producers and consumers. Moreover, it is perhaps time to rethink how to reduce unnecessary new demand rather than repeatedly producing and recycling.Originality/valueThe pace of CE research is lagging far behind the accelerating environmental contamination by the fashion industry. The study aims to narrow the gap between theory and practice to harmonise fashion firms' orchestration and accelerate the transition of the fashion industry towards the CE. This study examines diverse types of digital technologies in different circular business models in a homogeneous context of the fashion industry with heterogeneous firm types.

10.
EcoMat ; 4(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1591106

ABSTRACT

Direct solar vapor generation (SVG) provides a sustainable and eco‐friendly solution to the current global water scarcity challenges. However, existing SVG systems operating under natural sunlight suffer from low water yield and high energy requirement of vaporization. New materials with reduced latent heat of water vaporization are in urgent demand to boost SVG process. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to additively fabricate anisotropic hybrid 3D structure from photocurable thermoresponsive p(NIPAm‐co‐PEGDA) hydrogel on the top of PEGDA foam for SVG. The in‐situ post‐printing synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles within the p(NIPAm‐co‐PEGDA) hydrogel on the top surface, thus introducing anisotropy, is achieved by adding metallic salt precursor into the printing solution. The as‐fabricated hydrogel composite structure exhibits superior light absorption properties and rapid capillary‐driven water transport through a 3D‐printed microchannel network within the hydrogel. As a result, our SVG device achieves an extraordinary water evaporation rate of 5.12 kg m−2 h−1 under one sun (1 kW/m2). The intrinsic water activation states, in addition to wettability modulation with temperature increase within p(NIPAm‐co‐PEGDA) hydrogel, plays a critical role in reducing the equivalent vaporization enthalpy and shifting the vaporization to relatively lower temperatures. The proposed hybrid SVG device is feasible, portable, and highly efficient, promising great potential for grand water‐energy nexus challenges.

11.
Advanced Intelligent Systems ; 3(12), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1597207

ABSTRACT

Local or national crises, such as natural disasters, major infrastructure failures, and pandemics, pose dire threats to manufacturing. The concept of a rideshare‐like distributed network of consumer‐type 3D printers is proposed to address the limited ability of the industrial base to quickly respond to abrupt changes in critical product demand or to disruptions in manufacturing and supply‐chain capacity. The technical challenges that prevent the implementation of such a network are discussed, including 1) remote qualification of 3D printers, 2) dynamic routing algorithms with reactive and predictive components, which take advantage of real‐time information about current events that may affect the network, and 3) performance evaluation of the network. Furthermore, a cyber‐infrastructure that enables autonomous operation and reconfiguration of the network to render it “crisis‐proof” by minimizing human involvement is introduced. The concept of a distributed network of consumer‐type 3D printers allows anyone with a 3D printer and access to the internet to manufacture critical supplies, triggered by actual and predicted customer demand. Beyond crisis relief, distributed networks of manufacturing assets have broad relevance, and they can establish a virtual marketplace to exchange manufacturing capacity. Thus, this future manufacturing platform has the potential to transform how to manufacture for the masses.

12.
Polim Med ; 51(2): 91-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused an increase in the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and disruptions in production chains, resulting in an acute shortage of PPE. A possible solution to this problem was additive manufacturing (AM) technology - allowing for a quick start of the production of PPE and potentially able to meet the demand until the production is restored. In addition, AM allows for the production of PPE prototypes with potentially greater comfort of use or degree of protection. In order to assess the production of PPE in AM during the COVID-19 pandemic, previously published articles in this field were analyzed. After analyzing abstracts and full texts, 30 original works were selected from the initially collected 487 articles. Based on the analyzed literature, it was found that there are not enough studies comparing traditional and AM PPE as well as not enough comparisons of the different types of AM PPE with each other. In many cases, researchers focused only on the subjective assessment of the comfort of using PPE, without assessing their effectiveness in preventing infections. Despite that, AM has a great potential to quickly produce lacking PPE. Respirators and shields made by AM were rated by the vast majority of users as comfortable to wear. Some of the respirators could be adapted to a specific user, by designing on the basis of a face scan or after warming up the finished print and modeling the shape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
13.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society ; 2021, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1556854

ABSTRACT

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the concrete practice of sustainable development at the enterprise level, emphasizing the human value in the production process. The proposal of Industry 5.0 begins to take the coordinated development between human and various production factors as one of the key points of corporate sustainable management. Therefore, this paper studies the optimization of medical enterprise’s operations management considering enterprise CSR under Industry 5.0. A mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is developed to maximize the CSR with the consideration of the impact of precision medical technologies such as surgical robots (SRs) and 3D bone printing on employee social welfare, corporate profits, social environment, and customer surplus value. An improved variable neighborhood tabu search (IVNTS) algorithm which combines the variable neighborhood tabu search (VNTS) algorithm and simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is designed to solve the model, and numerical experiments are analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed IVNTS. The research aids medical enterprise to make reasonable operations management decisions, while providing a reference for the government to draft and implement related policies, thereby achieving sustainable social development.

14.
Food Chem ; 370: 130830, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377714

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is having a far-reaching negative impact on global economic and social development. One of the challenges arising from the pandemic is ensuring food security, especially with respect to cold chain food. Given the current situation of high contagion and large numbers of infected people, the perspective briefed emergency management measures of cold chain food, compared the development of accurate and rapid detection methods of COVID-19 and hazards in foods. In addition, we proposed three-dimensional-printing of foods as a promising candidate for ensuring food security during the current pandemic because it uses locally-obtained raw materials and does not need long-distance cold chain transportation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
3D Print Med ; 7(1): 22, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365406

ABSTRACT

3-dimensional (3D) printing technology provides a solution to meet the high demand for producing adult nasal swabs. A smaller, more flexible nasopharyngeal swab needs to be developed for children and infants suspected of having coronavirus. The information shared here presents a novel 3D-printed pediatric swab for the purpose of collecting upper respiratory clinical specimens.

17.
Int J Bioprint ; 6(4): 281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890854

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has led to an international shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), with traditional supply chains unable to cope with the significant demand leading to critical shortfalls. A number of open and crowdsourcing initiatives have sought to address this shortfall by producing equipment such as protective face shields using additive manufacturing techniques such as fused filament fabrication (FFF). This paper reports the process of designing and manufacturing protective face shields using large-scale additive manufacturing (LSAM) to produce the major thermoplastic components of the face shield. LSAM offers significant advantages over other additive manufacturing technologies in bridge manufacturing scenarios as a true transition between prototypes and mass production techniques such as injection molding. In the context of production of COVID-19 face shields, the ability to produce the optimized components in under 5 min compared to what would typically take 1 - 2 h using another additive manufacturing technologies meant that significant production volume could be achieved rapidly with minimal staffing.

18.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0226, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine rapidly emerging ventilator technologies during coronavirus disease 2019 and highlight the role of CRISIS, a novel 3D printed solution. DATA SOURCES: Published articles, literature, and government guidelines that describe and review emergency use ventilator technologies. STUDY SELECTION: Literature was chosen from peer-reviewed journals and articles were limited to recent publications. DATA EXTRACTION: All information regarding ventilator technology was extracted from primary sources. DATA SYNTHESIS: Analysis of technology and relevance to coronavirus disease 2019 physiology was collectively synthesized by all authors. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has placed massive stress on global supply chains for ventilators due to the critical damage the virus causes to lung function. There is an urgent need to increase supply, as hospitals become inundated with patients requiring intensive respiratory support. Coalitions across the United States have formed in order to create new devices that can be manufactured quickly, with minimal resources, and provide consistent and safe respiratory support. Due to threats to public health and the vulnerability of the U.S. population, the Food and Drug Administration released Emergency Use Authorizations for new or repurposed devices, shortening the approval timeline from years to weeks. The list of authorized devices varies widely in complexity, from automated bagging techniques to repurposed sleep apnea machines. Three-dimensional printed ventilators, such as "CRISIS," propose a potential solution to increase the available number of vents for the United States and abroad, one that is dynamic and able to absorb the massive influx of hospitalized patients for the foreseeable future.

19.
Int J Bioprint ; 6(4): 278, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836438

ABSTRACT

Face masks are becoming one of the most useful personal protective equipment with the outbreak of the coronavirus (CoV) pandemic. The entire world is experiencing shortage of disposable masks and melt-blown non-woven fabrics, which is the raw material of the mask filter. Recyclability of the discarded mask is also becoming a big challenge for the environment. Here, we introduce a facile method based on electrospinning and three-dimensional printing to make changeable and biodegradable mask filters. We printed polylactic acid (PLA) polymer struts on a PLA nanofiber web to fabricate a nanoporous filter with a hierarchical structure and transparent look. The transparent look overcomes the threatening appearance of the masks that can be a feasible way of reducing the social trauma caused by the current CoV disease-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigated the effects of nozzle temperature on the optical, mechanical, and morphological and filtration properties of the nanoporous filter.

20.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(9)2020 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829854

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the greatest potential to revolutionize the future of pharmaceutical manufacturing by overcoming challenges of conventional pharmaceutical operations and focusing design and production of dosage forms on the patient's needs. Of the many technologies available, fusion deposition modelling (FDM) is considered of the lowest cost and higher reproducibility and accessibility, offering clear advantages in drug delivery. FDM requires in-house production of filaments of drug-containing thermoplastic polymers by hot-melt extrusion (HME), and the prospect of connecting the two technologies has been under investigation. The ability to integrate HME and FDM and predict and tailor the filaments' properties will extend the range of printable polymers/formulations. Hence, this work revises the properties of the most common pharmaceutical-grade polymers used and their effect on extrudability, printability, and printing outcome, providing suitable processing windows for different raw materials. As a result, formulation selection will be more straightforward (considering the characteristics of drug and desired dosage form or release profile) and the processes setup will be more expedite (avoiding or mitigating typical processing issues), thus guaranteeing the success of both HME and FDM. Relevant techniques used to characterize filaments and 3D-printed dosage forms as an essential component for the evaluation of the quality output are also presented.

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