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1.
Sustainability ; 13(23), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080476

ABSTRACT

International esteem for Galapagos' natural wonders and the democratization of travel have contributed to a 300% increase in annual tourist entries to the archipelago from 2000 (68,989) to 2018 (275,817). The attendant spike in tourism-related anthropogenic impact coupled with deficient infrastructure development has put the archipelago's natural capital and carrying capacity at risk. The complex nature of Galapagos' food insecurity is linked to the archipelago's geographic isolation, its diminishing agricultural workforce, international tourists' demand for recognizable food, and a lack of investment in sustainable and innovative agricultural futures. Food security is key to the long-term well-being of Galapaguenos, who sustain Galapagos' tourism industry. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the vulnerability of human systems in Galapagos, especially the fragility of Galapagos' ecotourism dependency. Galapaguenos' struggle to endure the tourism sector's slow rebound following the 2020 travel restrictions points to an urgent need to implement food security measures as an indispensable component of the archipelago's long-term sustainability plan. This article presents ethnographic data to discuss the tourism sector's impact on local food systems, Galapaguenos' right to food sovereignty, efforts to increase agricultural production, and why strengthening institutional partnerships is vital to Galapagos' food self-sufficiency.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080469

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to the acceleration of the digitization process and to a shifting to Industry 4.0. Blockchain (BC) is one of the technologies that has been introduced worldwide in recent years. It has been beneficial for the tourism industry, in addition to many other sectors. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of BC adoption in the tourism industry, as well as the possible solutions to overcome the challenges. This paper conducts a systematic literature review (SLR) that consists of the operations for detecting, selecting, categorizing, and analyzing relevant articles on a specified subject. It is evident from the results that the majority of the academic works illustrate the benefits of BC implementation and explain its potential by providing diverse models of BC-based systems. However, since BC is a young technology, numerous challenges have appeared on the path to its full adoption in the tourism industry. Possible solutions are the achievement of a collaborative approach among the stakeholders, the deepening of academic research in the field, testing more models of BC-based systems, and the establishment of relevant policies. Consequently, the implications for the theory, practice, policy, and research of this work are significant.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080464

ABSTRACT

The tourism industry is one of the most affected industries by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding travel motivation is necessary for the tourism movement, even in the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this quantitative study aimed to explore travel motivation and its determinants. We collected 181 samples through a web-based questionnaire survey of the Nepali people in January and February 2021. The data were analyzed using a probit regression model through two different travel companion perspectives, i.e., traveling with friends and traveling with family members. We found that travel motivation, attributes, travel purpose, and transport mode preferences differed in companion groups. Specifically, those who want to travel with friends are government employees, 20-29 years of age, set health and wellness purposes, choose the bike for transportation, are less willing to visit homestay and agritourism, and want to travel for around one week. Those who plan to travel with family members use the coach to travel, choose rural destinations, including villages, and spend around two weeks. Based on these findings, we suggest that the Nepalese tourism destination and public transport companies make tourism packages targeting the groups. Since both groups showed interest in visiting rural destinations, we can say that tourism in rural destinations may revive earlier than urban tourism after the pandemic. However, a low-risk travel environment should be ensured for traveling to attract more tourists during and the post-disaster.

4.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 8(3):282-297, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2078122

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to examine critically the literature on transformational tourism and explore a research agenda for a post-COVID future. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the transformational tourism literature is performed over a 42-year period from 1978 to 2020. Findings: Further research is required in terms of how transformative experiences should be calibrated and measured both in qualitative and quantitative terms, particularly from the perspective of how tourists are transformed by their experiences. Similarly, the nature and depth of these transformative processes remain poorly understood, particularly given the many different types of tourism associated with transformative experiences, which range from religious pilgrimages to backpacking and include several forms of ecotourism. Practical implications: Future research directions for transformational tourism are discussed with regard to how COVID-19 will transform the dynamics of tourism and travel, including the role of new smart technologies in the creation of enhanced transformational experiences, and the changing expectations and perceptions of transformative travel in the post-COVID era. In addition, the researchers call for future studies on transformational tourism to explore the role of host communities in the delivery of meaningful visitor experiences. Originality/value: Transformational tourism is an emerging body of research, which has attracted a growing level of interest among tourism scholars in recent years. However, to this date, a systematic review of published literature in this field has not been conducted yet in a holistic sense. This paper offers a framework for future research in this field.

5.
Business Inform ; 7:155-161, 2022.
Article in Bulgarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057037

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify the features, problems and perspectives in the development of international tourism in the post-covid world. Analyzing the statistical and forecast data of relevant international organizations, as well as expert opinions of market practitioners, a significant dependence of the tourism system on exogenous factors of negative impact is revealed, and COVID-19 is viewed as the largest crisis in terms of consequences, because the highly globalized world itself contributes to the large-scale and rapid spread of the pandemic. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the periods of development of tourist activity in the world, the following indicators were analyzed: the dynamics of the growth rate of the world economy and world tourism;dynamics of development of sectors of the world economy with the separation of the place of tourism;regional dynamics of international tourist arrivals and revenues from international tourism;loss of jobs in the tourism industry by region of the world as result of the spread of COVID-19, reduced business activity and tourist mobility. All indicators show a significant reduction and there is a relationship with the overall economic and social environment of countries. As result of the study, the main vectors of public policy on countering the consequences of COVID-19 in the tourism sector are defined and attention is focused on the need for consolidated precise and timely actions at all management levels: local, national, and international. An algorithm for overcoming the crisis phenomena in the tourism business caused by the pandemic has been developed, which provides for a set of consistent measures aimed at managing and controlling the crisis, stabilizing the market situation and accelerating the revitalization of the industry, as well as developing a new paradigm for the functioning of world tourism in post- covid realities. Trend tendencies in the further development of international tourism activities are proposed, taking into account changes in consumer preferences, namely: digitalization, virtualization, shifting the vector to domestic tourism, staycation and workation, wellness tourism, deeper awareness of the need for further implementation of the principles of sustainable development, etc.

6.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):850-854, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055474

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and explore source of infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases imported through an inbound air flight from Kenya to Guangzhou, China.

7.
Event Management ; 26(7):1591-1606, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055460

ABSTRACT

With the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic widely visible in the event industry, event organizers face challenges regarding customer retention in the form of return visits. Because event revisit intention is crucial to predicting event attendees' behavior, this study attempts to examine the likelihood of return for customers who have prior event (state fair) experience. Drawing from previous studies on event-related hazards and safety risks, our proposed framework suggests that a certain type of trust (i.e., social trust and confidence) reduces perceived risk, leading to increased event revisit intention in a time of pandemic. To test hypothesized relationships among trust, perceived risk, and event revisit intention, consumer information was gathered through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. Key findings that emerge include the fact that trust in events is a strong predictor of event revisit intention, while perceived risk mediates the relationship between trust and revisit intention, albeit weakly. These results offer event organizers insights into how to enhance revisit intention in the face of health risks and ongoing uncertainty.

8.
Event Management ; 26(7):1565-1576, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055459

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to explore the perceived impacts of COVID-19 in participating in academic events, relating the attractiveness of destinations and tourist opportunities as pull factors. Remote communication technologies have also been put into perspective to understand how they can influence future participation in events. A partial least squares (PLS) was used to test both research model and hypotheses. This study supports that COVID-19 has profoundly affected participation in events and has an impact on the attractiveness of the destination and tourist opportunities. During the pandemic context, remote communication technologies have replaced physical presence at events and are expected to continue to be present in future events. However, it is anticipated that technology will not permanently replace physical presence at events, due to the social character it represents. Also, destination attractiveness and tourist opportunities will be important in the decision to participate in physical events. This article addresses the current topic of COVID-19 and the impact on the future of physical events and gives some indicators that may contribute to a better planning of destinations in the recovery of this sector, namely by enhancing the tourist attractiveness of destinations as pull factor.

9.
Event Management ; 26(7):1537-1547, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055458

ABSTRACT

The authors propose a strategy to help event planners pivot and adjust to the post-COVID world. This involves the use of social media and sales force automation (SFA). The authors explain how both of these can be accomplished in a low cost, easy to learn and use manner by adopting LinkedIn. The authors also present three tools that will help the event planner assess if they and their personnel are ready to make such a change. The authors conclude with a set of managerial imperatives that include not only how to be proactive and competitive but also the operational adjustments that will be necessary for the mode of operation, the reach of the planner, how online presence and content will drive awareness, the role and definition of personnel, how client relationships are conducted, and how the different facets of the event itself will change.

10.
Event Management ; 26(7):1653-1662, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055457

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to examine how tourism conference organizers react to the restricted mobility incurred by the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Do they cancel, change format, or change date for the event? This study contributes to an initial analysis of how organizers of international academic conferences in the tourism and hospitality industry deal with whole groups of participants who are no longer mobile and therefore cannot actively network personally. This uniquely compiled data covers a large representative number of conferences in this field. A Multinomial Logit model is used to estimate the options available. Data are based on unique information on almost 100 conferences, meetings, and congresses in the tourism and hospitality sector, including related fields such as leisure and recreation, planned to be held during the period of March to November 2020. Descriptive evidence shows that approximately one out of five conferences changes to a virtual format, somewhat more than half moves the date (mainly to the year 2021), and the remaining 25% cancel the event without alternative offers. Estimation results reveal that the decision to change to an online format increases nonlinearly over time in the form of an inverse U-shaped curve. This indicates a certain resistance to virtual conferences, although with more time for planning, a gradual adaptation to the actual situation appears to be possible. Longer conferences are less likely to change format. The probability of cancellations is lower for association conferences, which are held regularly.

11.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:275-284, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2049492

ABSTRACT

This study set out to investigate the effects of country image (CI), subjective knowledge (SK) of COVID-19, and destination trust (DT) and their relationship to travel attitude and visit intention during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used Canada and the USA as cases to investigate people's domestic and international travel intentions. It tested the travel attitude and visit intention of domestic residents and international travellers, specifically Canadians travelling domestically versus Americans travelling domestically, and Canadians travelling to the USA versus Americans travelling to Canada. Two timeframes (i.e., one year vs. two years) were examined to further reveal the underlying relationships between those important constructs. First, this study supports findings that CI positively influences travel attitude and that DT is more prominent compared to CI under the adverse conditions of an ongoing pandemic. The indirect impact of CI through DT on travel attitude is significantly greater than the direct impact of CI. Second, it confirms that SK of COVID-19 negatively influences both domestic and international travel attitude. However, the impact of SK on DT varies with the risk of the domestic environment. Third, there were no direct impacts of CI, SK, and DT on domestic visit intention.

12.
Tourism Geographies ; 24(4/5):716-736, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2047240

ABSTRACT

Social distance is an important tool for evaluating the degree of intimacy between individuals that has been applied in various disciplines. However, while increasing attention has been paid to this topic, little effort has been invested in understanding the construct of social distance between tourism community residents. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale that would assist in understanding and evaluating the social distance between tourism community residents. First, focus group interviews, literature review analysis and content analysis were conducted to generate the initial items. Second, EFA and CFA were used as quantitative methods to analyze the questionnaire data obtained from the field survey of the tourism community. Following rigorous scale development procedures, we developed a 16-item scale that comprises three dimensions: degree of familiarity, degree of interaction and degree of support. The data support this dimensional structure of the social distance between tourism community residents as well as its internal consistency and validity (i.e., content, convergence, discriminant, and criterion-related validity). Theoretical and practical implications of the study results are discussed in detail.

13.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:93-100, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046953

ABSTRACT

From March to September 2020, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism launched a study with 23 countries to know the measures taken by the public authorities to support the sector during the COVID-19 crisis, to detail the strategies of tourism players to deal with it, to define the rebound in the short and medium term, and finally to imagine the future of tourism, with or without COVID-19. The results of this survey are instructive and also show the many similarities in contexts and reactions around the world.

14.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:118-125, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046930

ABSTRACT

Accor, the European leader in the hotel industry, has been hit hard by the effects of the health crisis since March 2020. With the closure of hotels, hiring freeze, and deployment of partial unemployment, more than 220,000 employees have been affected by the consequences of the pandemic on the hotel group's activity. Beyond the emergency measures put in place, Accor has deployed an unprecedented aid system aimed at financially supporting its employees in the most difficult situation, and at welcoming the most vulnerable people within its establishments. At the same time, the group is already working on its recovery. It is in the process of certifying its hotels to guarantee optimum sanitary conditions, and is adapting a strategy focusing on the development of the lifestyle segment and on local customers.

15.
Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento ; 138:111-126, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046500

ABSTRACT

Five dimensions allow to understand sustainable development from a multidisciplinary perspective: the geographic, the economic, the ecological, the social and the cultural ones. Different attitudes can be adopted by the gastronomic sector which contribute to a sustainability-focused management. In view of this, the aim of the present article is to discuss the perception of sustainability from the gastronomy industry perspective. For this, in addition to a literature review a quali-quantitative approach was taken through the compilation of a questionnaire which was electronically sent to establishments that form the Campos Gerais gastronomic network in Parana. The current pandemic scenario was taken into account in order to identify attitudes that allowed the establishments to remain operational in the face of the restrictions imposed by Covid-19. Twenty-two of twenty-five associated establishments responded to the survey, most of them showing to have adopted sustainable management actions and, especially regarding the pandemic scenario, adaptations that allowed them to remain in business.

16.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:114-117, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046437

ABSTRACT

10% of the French population concentrates a large part of the resources of the communication budgets of institutional tourism organizations. However, the vast majority of French people who go on vacation stay every summer in non-commercial accommodation. The challenges of growth in the tourist economy should therefore not be based on the quest for new customers in new markets, but on greater consumption of leisure activities by local populations. The absence of foreign customers in the summer of 2020 highlighted this mistake in marketing strategy when the potential of local customers is immense. This is demonstrated, in particular, by the success of the OCC'ygene card deployed by the Occitania region and the Regional Committee for Tourism and Leisure (CRTL).

17.
Working Paper - University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa 2022. (2022-4):29 pp. 37 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045056

ABSTRACT

The economy of Hawaii was extremely vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic due to its heavy reliance on tourism. This article is a thorough survey of issues affecting a tourism-dependent open economy during the COVID-19 pandemic. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the pandemicaTMs economic impact in Hawaii by comparing the actual outcomes during the affected period with the pre-pandemic forecast. We explain why HawaiiaTMs experience differed from other states, suggest reasons for a slow recovery, and discuss the pandemicaTMs lasting effects in the Islands. We also describe changes in the economic forecasting process necessitated by the increase in uncertainty.

18.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:106-108, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045039

ABSTRACT

The events sector has suffered an unprecedented halt to its activity since March 2020. More than 300,000 jobs have been threatened since trade fairs, seminars, meetings and team building were brought to a halt by the Covid-19 epidemic. Far from being discouraged, the profession quickly thought about new models of encounters by imagining remote devices. The idea has been germinating for some time, but the health crisis has accelerated the trend towards the digitization of events without completely setting aside real encounters, but promoting a new form of hybrid encounters.

19.
Journal of ISSAAS ; 28(1):152-153, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044831

ABSTRACT

Prior to the pandemic, agri-tourism was on its rise in the Philippines. It is known as a fusion of Agriculture and tourism, linked to other sectors, including hospitality and transportation. However, travel bans and other restrictions amid the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected tourism. This study aimed to describe the pandemic effects on agri-tourism enterprises in the province of La Union, Philippines, and their adaptation strategies. A survey of 16 enterprises was conducted in May 2021. Descriptive and content analysis was employed to analyze the data and information gathered. The pandemic was found to have significantly affected the enterprises' marketing function, resulting in financial losses and adjustments to their business models. Their adaptation strategies were categorized as either survival or sustaining. Survival strategies were the farms' initial coping mechanisms like shifting to a new market, lowered prices, and switching to online marketing. On the other hand, sustaining strategies were also known as long-term solutions like diversification and expansion. The enterprises that adopted both strategies had wider offerings and possessed more than one accreditation. It is recommended that agri-tourism enterprises continue strategizing as the pandemic remains a threat. They should consider employing sustaining strategies for post-pandemic.

20.
Island Studies Journal ; 17(1):26-84, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044736

ABSTRACT

This section contains three papers dealing with: toxic colonialism in Ilet la Mere, French Guiana;the isolation of Mediterranean islands from COVID-19 and the recovery of their tourism economy;and the effect of colonialism and neocolonialism on the response of Barbuda and Puerto Rico to COVID-19.

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