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1.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

2.
Agroscope Transfer 2021. (406):11 pp. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912706

ABSTRACT

On behalf of the Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), Agroscope monitors the production and distribution of food for livestock and pets. The main purpose of its activity is to prevent harmful substances and undesirable products from being fed to animals and reaching consumers' plates through foodstuffs of animal origin. Controls also help to protect owners of animals against fraud and to preserve animal health and the environment. Official Food Control enforcement activities for animals have also been disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic and inspections had to be completely suspended. However, it was possible to resume them after a short period, although in a limited way, by applying the necessary hygiene and precautionary measures. In order to protect the inspectors and employees of the companies inspected, controls have been suspended for fifteen days in March, and then were resumed until the end of the year, but by being announced and by favouring the taking of samples. In this way it was possible to minimize contact with people and counter the spread of the virus by respecting the prescribed protection measures. The integration carried out at the end of 2019 of all the data relating to inspections, companies and products in a new laboratory information management system (LIMS) proved to be successful, although many optimizations and improvements had to be made. Due to increased data security and integration into a interdisciplinary system, production companies of animal feed thus benefited from more shipments, inspection report improved and there were more user-friendly presentation of test results in the product control report. Inspection reports were all able to be sent quickly and those of the checks of products were able to be sent following the analyses and necessary repetitions, thus guaranteeing a return of information in a timely manner. As in previous years, we also observed an increase of more than the average of new registrations/approvals companies in the animal feed sector. While 2019 can be considered a calm year in terms of feed safety, Salmonella was detected in eight animal feeds in 2020, representing 4 separate cases. In one sample, an overrun of the maximum value of coccidiostats according to appendix 10 of OLALA was detected. In 4 other samples, the authorizations issued for the addition of coccidiostats according to animal species had expired. GMOs were detected in two food samples for production animals, one of which was authorized but was not been declared. The second case concerns the contamination of undesirable seeds without germination power in linseed. In addition, GMOs exceeding the tolerance threshold have been detected in three bird feed mixtures and in another ambrosia seed mixture. These products were withdrawn from the market immediately. A total of 1,217 feed samples for livestock and for pets were analysed. 814 were compliant or had minor reporting errors. With a compliance rate of 66.9%, there was a slight improvement compared to the previous year (approx. 65%). With regard to nonconformities, it can be seen that minor non-conformities have decreased compared to last year (5.8%, previous year 12.4%). On the other hand, major non-conformities increased, from 2.6% in 2019 to 4.7% in 2020. Average non-compliances remained at the same level as the previous year, at around 23%.

3.
Health and Human Rights: An International Journal ; 23(2):1-73, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1897489

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 6 articles that discuss justice, rights, and health. Topics include: health rights, ecological justice, and anthropocentrism;rights and COVID-19;slaughterhouse workers, animals, and the environment;One Health, COVID-19, and a right to health for human and non-human animals;human rights and pesticide exposure and poisoning in children;and moral status and moral agency.

4.
TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas ; 24(41), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780395

ABSTRACT

Many modern human activities rely greatly on plastic foams, whose consumption and production have considerably increased in the past decades. The use of plastic products has had positive impacts on human general welfare;however, the negative effects derived from their inappropriate disposition have become a major concern, especially during the current COVID-19 sanitary emergency, in which the utilization of single-use plastics has rapidly increased. Although some plastic polymers such as polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) can be recycled, the high demand for energy and technology, the use of potentially toxic substances and the low profitability of the process, make this option non-optimal. In this situation, biological treatment of plastic waste is emerging as a promising alternative and the use of PE and PS-eating organisms, such as mealworms and waxworms, has attracted the attention of researchers around the world. The aim of this review is to synthesize the most recent advances in the field of plastics polymers degradation by insects larvae and an analysis of the current and future trends of this developing research area.

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