Agricultural trade in India has recently experienced significant changes as a result of global crisis. The years 2021 and 2022 saw record exports ($50.2 billion) and imports ($32.4 billion). The resulting surplus of $17.8 billion was significantly lower than the surplus of $27.7 billion in the previous record-breaking export year 2013–14. Covid pandemic and Russia Ukraine war had a positive influence on the record exports from India. But the greater increase in imports has partially offset the remarkable expansion in exports. In this context, an attempt has been made to examine the causes of this pattern in India's export of agricultural produces. The study in this regard is significant because, aside from software services, this is one industry in which India has some comparative advantage. The nation must prioritise a stable trade policy, especially for those goods having highest trade potential.
For the last seventy years, Africa has suffered a disease burden that is steadily growing in scale and complexity. Despite that, health development in the continent has continued to rely on donors´ packages since decolonization. The last decade, however, has marked some health-related achievements on the continent such as the development of the Africa Health Strategy 2016-2030, the establishment of Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), the launch of The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) and most recently the African Medicines Agency (AMA). These developments and the response to the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted the importance and the opportunities of practicing Global Health Diplomacy on the continent. Home to 27% of the world´s countries, Africa has a tremendous global voting power which makes global health diplomacy an unequivocally effective soft power tool to achieve "The Africa we want". In this paper, we will expand on the importance of Global Health Diplomacy (GHD) practice in Africa as a soft power tool, illustrate the COVID-19 response in the continent championed by the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) as a case study, and offer some recommendations to sustain and strengthen GHD´s role in the continent.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Politics , Africa/epidemiology , Global Health
The outbreak of COVID-19 in March 2020 led to substantial upheaval in the EU's trade policy. Over the course of a year, EU Trade Policy as a field witnessed the launch of hitherto unthinkable ideas; the proliferation of a range of new buzzwords such as resilience, autonomy, and reshoring; and ultimately the arrival of a new consensus in the Trade Policy Review of February 2021. This article uses a discourse-theoretical approach (PDT) to retrace the political process that unfolded throughout this year, from the start of the COVID-19 crisis, to a fundamental dislocation of EU trade politics, and ultimately to the consolidation of a partial, temporary, and frail new hegemony within the policy field. Our goal is to explain the trajectory and the dynamics of this process by studying the discourses, the framings, and the political strategies that comprised the hegemonic struggle underlying it.