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1.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199110

ABSTRACT

The translation initiation complex 4F (eIF4F) is a rate-limiting factor in protein synthesis. Alterations in eIF4F activity are linked to several diseases, including cancer and infectious diseases. To this end, coronaviruses require eIF4F complex activity to produce proteins essential for their life cycle. Efforts to target coronaviruses by abrogating translation have been largely limited to repurposing existing eIF4F complex inhibitors. Here, we report the results of a high throughput screen to identify small molecules that disrupt eIF4F complex formation and inhibit coronavirus RNA and protein levels. Of 338,000 small molecules screened for inhibition of the eIF4F-driven, CAP-dependent translation, we identified SBI-1232 and two structurally related analogs, SBI-5844 and SBI-0498, that inhibit human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43;OC43) with minimal cell toxicity. Notably, gene expression changes after OC43 infection of Vero E6 or A549 cells were effectively reverted upon treatment with SBI-5844 or SBI-0498. Moreover, SBI-5844 or SBI-0498 treatment effectively impeded the eIF4F complex assembly, with concomitant inhibition of newly synthesized OC43 nucleocapsid protein and OC43 RNA and protein levels. Overall, we identify SBI-5844 and SBI-0498 as small molecules targeting the eIF4F complex that may limit coronavirus transcripts and proteins, thereby representing a basis for developing novel therapeutic modalities against coronaviruses. Copyright © 2022 Feng, Grotegut, Jovanovic, Gandin, Olson, Murad, Beall, Colayco, De-Jesus, Chanda, English, Singer, Jackson, Topisirovic and Ronai.

2.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules ; 230:123191, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179329

ABSTRACT

Viral mRNA of coronavirus translates in an eIF4E-dependent manner, and the phosphorylation of eIF4E can modulate this process, but the role of p-eIF4E in coronavirus infection is not yet entirely evident. p-eIF4E favors the translation of selected mRNAs, specifically the mRNAs that encode proteins associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, the extracellular matrix, and tumor formation and metastasis. In the present work, two rounds of TMT relative quantitative proteomics were used to screen 77 cellular factors that are upregulated upon infection by coronavirus PEDV and are potentially susceptible to a high level of p-eIF4E. PEDV infection increased the translation level of ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit RPLp2 (but not subunit RPLp0/1) in a p-eIF4E-dependent manner. The bicistronic dual-reporter assay and polysome profile showed that RPLp2 is essential for translating the viral mRNA of PEDV. RNA binding protein and immunoprecipitation assay showed that RPLp2 interacted with PEDV 5′UTR via association with eIF4E. Moreover, the cap pull-down assay showed that the viral nucleocapsid protein is recruited in m7GTP-precipitated complexes with the assistance of RPLp2. The heterogeneous ribosomes, which are different in composition, regulate the selective translation of specific mRNAs. Our study proves that viral mRNA and protein utilize translation factors and heterogeneous ribosomes for preferential translation initiation. This previously uncharacterized process may be involved in the selective translation of coronavirus.

3.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964117

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection generates up to nine different sub-genomic mRNAs (sgRNAs), in addition to the genomic RNA (gRNA). The 5'UTR of each viral mRNA shares the first 75 nucleotides (nt.) at their 5'end, called the leader, but differentiates by a variable sequence (0 to 190 nt. long) that follows the leader. As a result, each viral mRNA has its own specific 5'UTR in term of length, RNA structure, uORF and Kozak context; each one of these characteristics could affect mRNA expression. In this study, we have measured and compared translational efficiency of each of the ten viral transcripts. Our data show that most of them are very efficiently translated in all translational systems tested. Surprisingly, the gRNA 5'UTR, which is the longest and the most structured, was also the most efficient to initiate translation. This property is conserved in the 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-1 but not in MERS-CoV strain, mainly due to the regulation imposed by the uORF. Interestingly, the translation initiation mechanism on the SARS-CoV-2 gRNA 5'UTR requires the cap structure and the components of the eIF4F complex but showed no dependence in the presence of the poly(A) tail in vitro. Our data strongly suggest that translation initiation on SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs occurs via an unusual cap-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Guide , 5' Untranslated Regions , Genomics , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110144, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588144

ABSTRACT

Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is an angiogenesis-inducing oncovirus whose ability to usurp the oxygen-sensing machinery is central to its oncogenicity. By upregulating the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), KSHV reprograms infected cells to a hypoxia-like state, triggering angiogenesis. Here we identify a link between KSHV replicative biology and oncogenicity by showing that KSHV's ability to regulate HIF2α levels and localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in normoxia enables translation of viral lytic mRNAs through the HIF2α-regulated eIF4E2 translation-initiation complex. This mechanism of translation in infected cells is critical for lytic protein synthesis and contributes to KSHV-induced PDGFRA activation and VEGF secretion. Thus, KSHV regulation of the oxygen-sensing machinery allows virally infected cells to initiate translation via the mTOR-dependent eIF4E1 or the HIF2α-dependent, mTOR-independent, eIF4E2. This "translation initiation plasticity" (TRIP) is an oncoviral strategy used to optimize viral protein expression that links molecular strategies of viral replication to angiogenicity and oncogenesis.


Subject(s)
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Virus Replication , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Carcinogenesis/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/genetics , Sarcoma, Kaposi/metabolism , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Virus Activation
5.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(9): 1060-1094, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416611

ABSTRACT

Viruses exploit the translation machinery of an infected cell to synthesize their proteins. Therefore, viral mRNAs have to compete for ribosomes and translation factors with cellular mRNAs. To succeed, eukaryotic viruses adopt multiple strategies. One is to circumvent the need for m7G-cap through alternative instruments for ribosome recruitment. These include internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which make translation independent of the free 5' end, or cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs), which promote initiation at the uncapped 5' end, even if located in 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Even if a virus uses the canonical cap-dependent ribosome recruitment, it can still perturb conventional ribosomal scanning and start codon selection. The pressure for genome compression often gives rise to internal and overlapping open reading frames. Their translation is initiated through specific mechanisms, such as leaky scanning, 43S sliding, shunting, or coupled termination-reinitiation. Deviations from the canonical initiation reduce the dependence of viral mRNAs on translation initiation factors, thereby providing resistance to antiviral mechanisms and cellular stress responses. Moreover, viruses can gain advantage in a competition for the translational machinery by inactivating individual translational factors and/or replacing them with viral counterparts. Certain viruses even create specialized intracellular "translation factories", which spatially isolate the sites of their protein synthesis from cellular antiviral systems, and increase availability of translational components. However, these virus-specific mechanisms may become the Achilles' heel of a viral life cycle. Thus, better understanding of the unconventional mechanisms of viral mRNA translation initiation provides valuable insight for developing new approaches to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Eukaryotic Cells/virology , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Animals , Eukaryotic Cells/physiology , Humans , Internal Ribosome Entry Sites/physiology , RNA, Circular/genetics , Viral Proteins/physiology
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(1): 113-118, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384446

ABSTRACT

To better understand the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and human host and find potential ways to block the pandemic, one of the unresolved questions is that how the virus economically utilizes the resources of the hosts. Particularly, the tRNA pool has been adapted to the host genes. If the virus intends to translate its own RNA, then it has to compete with the abundant host mRNAs for the tRNA molecules. Translation initiation is the rate-limiting step during protein synthesis. The tRNAs carrying the initiation Methionine (iMet) recognize the start codon termed initiation ATG (iATG). Other normal Met-carrying tRNAs recognize the internal ATGs. The tAI of virus genes is significantly lower than the tAI of human genes. This disadvantage in translation elongation of viral RNAs must be compensated by more efficient initiation rates. In the human genome, the abundance of iMet-tRNAs to Met-tRNAs is five times higher than the iATG to ATG ratio. However, when SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells, the iMet has an 8.5-time enrichment to iATG. We collected 58 virus species and found that the enrichment of iMet is higher in all viruses compared to human. Our study indicates that the genome sequences of viruses like SARS-CoV-2 have the advantage of competing for the iMet-tRNAs with host mRNAs. The capture of iMet-tRNAs allows the fast translation initiation and the reproduction of virus itself, which compensates the lower tAI of viral genes. This might explain why the virus could rapidly translate its own RNA and reproduce itself from the sea of host mRNAs. Meanwhile, our study reminds the researchers not to ignore the mutations related to ATGs.


Subject(s)
Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , RNA, Transfer, Met/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Codon , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mutation , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389574

ABSTRACT

The design of Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines involves many different types of optimizations. Proper optimization of vaccine mRNA can reduce dosage required for each injection leading to more efficient immunization programs. The mRNA components of the vaccine need to have a 5'-UTR to load ribosomes efficiently onto the mRNA for translation initiation, optimized codon usage for efficient translation elongation, and optimal stop codon for efficient translation termination. Both 5'-UTR and the downstream 3'-UTR should be optimized for mRNA stability. The replacement of uridine by N1-methylpseudourinine (Ψ) complicates some of these optimization processes because Ψ is more versatile in wobbling than U. Different optimizations can conflict with each other, and compromises would need to be made. I highlight the similarities and differences between Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines and discuss the advantage and disadvantage of each to facilitate future vaccine improvement. In particular, I point out a few optimizations in the design of the two mRNA vaccines that have not been performed properly.

8.
EMBO J ; 40(11): e102277, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194823

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demonstrates the continuous threat of emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) to public health. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share an otherwise non-conserved part of non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), therefore named as "SARS-unique domain" (SUD). We previously found a yeast-2-hybrid screen interaction of the SARS-CoV SUD with human poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)-interacting protein 1 (Paip1), a stimulator of protein translation. Here, we validate SARS-CoV SUD:Paip1 interaction by size-exclusion chromatography, split-yellow fluorescent protein, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and confirm such interaction also between the corresponding domain of SARS-CoV-2 and Paip1. The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV SUD ("macrodomain II", Mac2) in complex with the middle domain of Paip1, determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering, provides insights into the structural determinants of the complex formation. In cellulo, SUD enhances synthesis of viral but not host proteins via binding to Paip1 in pBAC-SARS-CoV replicon-transfected cells. We propose a possible mechanism for stimulation of viral translation by the SUD of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Peptide Initiation Factors/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Bacterial Proteins , Chromatography, Gel , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Luminescent Proteins , Models, Molecular , Peptide Initiation Factors/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Mapping , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Scattering, Small Angle , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction
9.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134191

ABSTRACT

The increase in pandemics caused by RNA viruses of zoonotic origin highlights the urgent need for broad-spectrum antivirals against novel and re-emerging RNA viruses. Broad-spectrum antivirals could be deployed as first-line interventions during an outbreak while virus-specific drugs and vaccines are developed and rolled out. Viruses depend on the host's protein synthesis machinery for replication. Several natural compounds that target the cellular DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, a key component of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex eIF4F, have emerged as potential broad-spectrum antivirals. Rocaglates, a group of flavaglines of plant origin that clamp mRNAs with highly structured 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs) onto the surface of eIF4A through specific stacking interactions, exhibit the largest selectivity and potential therapeutic indices among all known eIF4A inhibitors. Their unique mechanism of action limits the inhibitory effect of rocaglates to the translation of eIF4A-dependent viral mRNAs and a minor fraction of host mRNAs exhibiting stable RNA secondary structures and/or polypurine sequence stretches in their 5'UTRs, resulting in minimal potential toxic side effects. Maintaining a favorable safety profile while inducing efficient inhibition of a broad spectrum of RNA viruses makes rocaglates into primary candidates for further development as pan-antiviral therapeutics.

10.
Antiviral Res ; 186: 105012, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064809

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, a severe respiratory disease with varying clinical presentations and outcomes, and responsible for a major pandemic that started in early 2020. With no vaccines or effective antiviral treatments available, the quest for novel therapeutic solutions remains an urgent priority. Rocaglates, a class of plant-derived cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple RNA viruses including coronaviruses. Specifically, rocaglates inhibit eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A)-dependent mRNA translation initiation, resulting in strongly reduced viral RNA translation. Here, we assessed the antiviral activity of the synthetic rocaglate CR-31-B (-) against SARS-CoV-2 using both in vitro and ex vivo cell culture models. In Vero E6 cells, CR-31-B (-) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with an EC50 of ~1.8 nM. In primary human airway epithelial cells, CR-31-B (-) reduced viral titers to undetectable levels at a concentration of 100 nM. Reduced virus reproduction was accompanied by substantially reduced viral protein accumulation and replication/transcription complex formation. The data reveal a potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity by CR-31-B (-), corroborating previous results obtained for other coronaviruses and supporting the idea that rocaglates may be used in first-line antiviral intervention strategies against novel and emerging RNA virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzofurans/chemistry , Bronchi/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Replication Compartments/drug effects
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042832

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta-CoV that recently emerged as a human pathogen and is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A molecular framework of how the virus manipulates host cellular machinery to facilitate infection remains unclear. Here, we focus on SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, which is proposed to be a virulence factor that inhibits protein synthesis by directly binding the human ribosome. We demonstrate biochemically that NSP1 inhibits translation of model human and SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). NSP1 specifically binds to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit, which is required for translation inhibition. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays to monitor NSP1-40S subunit binding in real time, we determine that eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) allosterically modulate the interaction of NSP1 with ribosomal preinitiation complexes in the absence of mRNA. We further elucidate that NSP1 competes with RNA segments downstream of the start codon to bind the 40S subunit and that the protein is unable to associate rapidly with 80S ribosomes assembled on an mRNA. Collectively, our findings support a model where NSP1 proteins from viruses in at least two subgenera of beta-CoVs associate with the open head conformation of the 40S subunit to inhibit an early step of translation, by preventing accommodation of mRNA within the entry channel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factors/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
12.
Gene Rep ; 22: 101012, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002539

ABSTRACT

Recently an outbreak that emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, spread to the whole world in a short time and killed >1,410,000 people. It was determined that a new type of beta coronavirus called severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was causative agent of this outbreak and the disease caused by the virus was named as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID19). Despite the information obtained from the viral genome structure, many aspects of the virus-host interactions during infection is still unknown. In this study we aimed to identify SARS-CoV-2 encoded microRNAs and their cellular targets. We applied a computational method to predict miRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2 along with their putative targets in humans. Targets of predicted miRNAs were clustered into groups based on their biological processes, molecular function, and cellular compartments using GO and PANTHER. By using KEGG pathway enrichment analysis top pathways were identified. Finally, we have constructed an integrative pathway network analysis with target genes. We identified 40 SARS-CoV-2 miRNAs and their regulated targets. Our analysis showed that targeted genes including NFKB1, NFKBIE, JAK1-2, STAT3-4, STAT5B, STAT6, SOCS1-6, IL2, IL8, IL10, IL17, TGFBR1-2, SMAD2-4, HDAC1-6 and JARID1A-C, JARID2 play important roles in NFKB, JAK/STAT and TGFB signaling pathways as well as cells' epigenetic regulation pathways. Our results may help to understand virus-host interaction and the role of viral miRNAs during SARS-CoV-2 infection. As there is no current drug and effective treatment available for COVID19, it may also help to develop new treatment strategies.

13.
Antiviral Res ; 175: 104706, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162

ABSTRACT

Rocaglates, a class of natural compounds isolated from plants of the genus Aglaia, are potent inhibitors of translation initiation. They are proposed to form stacking interactions with polypurine sequences in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of selected mRNAs, thereby clamping the RNA substrate onto eIF4A and causing inhibition of the translation initiation complex. Since virus replication relies on the host translation machinery, it is not surprising that the rocaglate Silvestrol has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Unfortunately, synthesis of Silvestrol is sophisticated and time-consuming, thus hampering the prospects for further antiviral drug development. Here, we present the less complex structured synthetic rocaglate CR-31-B (-) as a novel compound with potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity in primary cells and in an ex vivo bronchial epithelial cell system. CR-31-B (-) inhibited the replication of corona-, Zika-, Lassa-, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses and, to a lesser extent, hepatitis E virus (HEV) at non-cytotoxic low nanomolar concentrations. Since HEV has a polypurine-free 5'-UTR that folds into a stable hairpin structure, we hypothesized that RNA clamping by Silvestrol and its derivatives may also occur in a polypurine-independent but structure-dependent manner. Interestingly, the HEV 5'-UTR conferred sensitivity towards Silvestrol but not to CR-31-B (-). However, if an exposed polypurine stretch was introduced into the HEV 5'-UTR, CR-31-B (-) became an active inhibitor comparable to Silvestrol. Moreover, thermodynamic destabilization of the HEV 5'-UTR led to reduced translational inhibition by Silvestrol, suggesting differences between rocaglates in their mode of action, most probably by engaging Silvestrol's additional dioxane moiety.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Benzofurans/chemical synthesis , Bronchi/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/virology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/antagonists & inhibitors , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , Mice , Viruses/classification
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