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1.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032830

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea due to oxidative stress in the piglet intestine, is a major cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. However, limited interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of TGEV. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic activity of eugenol in TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our data show that eugenol supplementation protects intestine and IPEC-J2 cells from TGEV-induced damage. Mechanistically, eugenol reduces TGEV-induced oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing reactive oxygen species levels. Interestingly, eugenol also inhibits TGEV-induced intestinal cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that eugenol prevents TGEV-induced intestinal oxidative stress by reducing ROS-mediated damage to antioxidant signaling pathways. Therefore, eugenol may be a promising therapeutic strategy for TGEV infection.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921613, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009864

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence supports the ability of eugenol to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and anti-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo; however, whether eugenol alleviates virus-mediated intestinal barrier damage and inflammation remains a mystery. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in piglets and significantly impacts the global swine industry. Here, we found that eugenol could alleviate TGEV-induced intestinal functional impairment and inflammatory responses in piglets. Our results indicated that eugenol improved feed efficiency in TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol not only increased serum immunoglobulin concentration (IgG) but also significantly decreased serum inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α) in TGEV-infected piglets. In addition, eugenol also significantly decreased the expression of NF-κB mRNA and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB P65 protein in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum, and decreased serum D-lactic acid levels. Importantly, eugenol increased tight junction protein (ZO-1) and mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporter-related genes (GluT-2 and CaT-1) in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Meanwhile, compared with TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, treatment with eugenol reduced the cell cytopathic effect, attenuated the inflammatory response. Interestingly, eugenol did not increase the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in IPEC-J2 cells. However, western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that eugenol restored TGEV-induced down-regulation of ZO-1 and Occludin, while BAY11-7082 (The NF-κB specific inhibitor) enhanced the regulatory ability of eugenol. Our findings demonstrated that eugenol attenuated TGEV-induced intestinal injury by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Eugenol may offer some therapeutic opportunities for coronavirus-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus/metabolism , Eugenol/pharmacology , Eugenol/therapeutic use , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Occludin , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology
5.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):603-609, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994656

ABSTRACT

To establish a J2-KD (knockdown) cell line stably expressing interfered IFITM1 and study the effect of interference with IFITMI gene on the infection of PCV2, PRV and TGEV. Gene cloning tech- niques were used to constructed pLKO. l-EGFP-Puro-IFITMI recombinant vector, which was co-transfected into 293 FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmids psPAXZ and pMDZ. G to produce green fluorescent protein labeled lentiviruses expression IFITMlshRNA, the viral supernatant was collected at 48 hours after post transfection. J2 cells were infected with the harvested lentiviruses, screened by puromycin and cloned via cell limited dilution. Real-time PCR identify that the cell lines with stable interference with IFITMl gene were obtained, and via MTT method verify that interference with IFITMI expression had no effect on the growth of J2 cells, the successfully constructed J2 stable cell line interfere with IFITMl expression was named as JZ-KD. PRV, PCV2 and TGEV infected J2-KD cells, respectively. Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR detect virus replication. The results showed that J2-KD cell line was successfully generated with interfered IFITMl expression;the copy number of PCV2 and TGEV were in- creased, while PRV was decreased in J'Z-KD cell. Indicating that the interference of IFITMI gene expression markedly inhibited the replication of PRV while promoted that. of TGEV and PCV2, providing a basis for further study on the function of porcine IFITMI protein and elucidates its antiviral mechanism.

6.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):556-562, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994650

ABSTRACT

In order to establish an efficient, sensitive and specific semi-nest RT-PCR method for the detection of Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), three specific primers were designed according to the N gene published by GenBank, the reaction system was established and optimized, and specificity and sensitivity were detected. The results showed that the method could successfully amplify the bands of 483 bp and 338 bp, and had good specificity to TGEV, there is no cross reaction with PEDV, PRov, PBov and PDCov, and the lowest sensitivity was 1.86 x 10-1 pg/L. The semi-nest RT-PCR shown the positive rate was 36% in 50 samples of pig diarrhea, which was higher than that of common RT-PCR, and then the positive samples coincidence rate was 100%. This semi-nest RT-PCR method has high sensitivity and specificity, and can accurately diagnose TGEV infection, which provides an effective method for clinical detection and epidemiological investigation of TGEV.

7.
Journal of Swine Health and Production ; 30(3):145-148, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1970073

ABSTRACT

Using retrospective data from 6 breedto- wean herds over 4 years, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) statuses were assigned by week according to the 2021 American Association of Swine Veterinarians PRRSV classification. Productivity changes were characterized as herds transitioned through status categories. Overall, productivity improved as farm status improved.

8.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 298(9): 102280, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936718

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronavirus family, is the pathogen responsible for transmissible gastroenteritis, which results in mitochondrial dysfunction in host cells. Previously, we identified 123 differentially expressed circular RNAs (cRNA)from the TGEV-infected porcine intestinal epithelial cell line jejunum 2 (IPEC-J2). Previous bioinformatics analysis suggested that, of these, circBIRC6 had the potential to regulate mitochondrial function. Furthermore, mitochondrial permeability transition, a key step in the process of mitochondrial dysfunction, is known to be caused by abnormal opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs) regulated by the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC)-Cyclophilin D (CypD) complex. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of circBIRC6-2 on mitochondrial dysfunction and opening of mPTPs. We found that TGEV infection reduced circBIRC6-2 levels, which in turn reduced mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) levels, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and opening of mPTPs. In addition, we also identified ORFs and internal ribosomal entrance sites within the circBIRC6-2 RNA. We demonstrate circBIRC6-2 encodes a novel protein, BIRC6-236aa, which we show inhibits TGEV-induced opening of mPTPs during TGEV infection. Mechanistically, we identified an interaction between BIRC6-236aa and VDAC1, suggesting that BIRC6-236aa destabilizes the VDAC1-CypD complex. Taken together, the results suggest that the novel protein BIRC6-236aa encoded by cRNA circBIRC6-2 inhibits mPTP opening and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction by interacting with VDAC1.


Subject(s)
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore , RNA, Circular , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line , Cyclophilin D/metabolism , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/genetics , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/metabolism , Mitochondria/virology , Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Circular/metabolism , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/metabolism
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 844657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896678

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are two highly contagious intestinal diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Notably, coinfection of TGEV and PEDV is common in piglets with diarrhea-related diseases. In this study, intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were single or coinfected with PEDV and/or TGEV, followed by the comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), especially interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), between different groups via transcriptomics analysis and real-time qPCR. The antiviral activity of swine interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (sIFITM3) on PEDV and TGEV infection was also evaluated. The results showed that DEGs can be detected in the cells infected with PEDV, TGEV, and PEDV+TGEV at 12, 24, and 48 hpi, and the number of DEGs was the highest at 24 hpi. The DEGs are mainly annotated to the GO terms of protein binding, immune system process, organelle part, and intracellular organelle part. Furthermore, 90 ISGs were upregulated during PEDV or TGEV infection, 27 of which were associated with antiviral activity, including ISG15, OASL, IFITM1, and IFITM3. Furthermore, sIFITM3 can significantly inhibit PEDV and TGEV infection in porcine IPEC-J2 cells and/or monkey Vero cells. Besides, sIFITM3 can also inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication in Vero cells. These results indicate that sIFITM3 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diarrhea , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Transcriptome , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics , Vero Cells
11.
Ecohealth ; 19(2): 159-163, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872562

ABSTRACT

Swine coronaviruses affecting pigs have been studied sporadically in wildlife. In Argentina, epidemiological surveillance of TGEV/PRCV is conducted only in domestic pigs. The aim was to assess the prevalence of TGEV/PRCV in wild Suina. Antibodies against these diseases in wild boar and captive collared peccary were surveyed by ELISA. Antibodies against TGEV were found in three collared peccaries (n = 87). No TGEV/PRCV antibodies were detected in wild boar (n = 160). Preventive measures should be conducted in contact nodes where the transmission of agents may increase. Epidemiological surveillance in wildlife populations and in captive animals before their reintroduction should be attempted.


Subject(s)
Artiodactyla , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine , Swine Diseases , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Animals, Wild , Argentina/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine
12.
Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ; 34(1):159-176, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1771309

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri secreting bovine lactoferrin peptide (LFCA) on growth performance of newborn piglets and the protective effect on porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)infection which caused piglet diarrhea. Experiment 1:thirty-six one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group and control group, each group with 12 piglets. Piglets in each group were orally administered recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri expressing LFCA pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21, containing empty vector plasmid PPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume phosphate buffer (PBS);oral administration continued for 3 days, and the observation time after oral administration was 14 d. During the period, piglets were fed freely, and the changes of body weight and diarrhea were recorded. Experiment 2:thirty one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups and given TGEV with a half tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) of 10-7.50/mL by oral administration of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mL, respectively. The observation period of 7 d was set to analyze the conditions of half lethal dose. Experiment 3:another thirty-two newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 piglets in each group. The groups were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group, control group and TGEV infect group. There were 8 replicates in each group and 1 piglet in each replicate. Each head of the experimental group was orally fed ppG-LFCA/LR-CO21, pPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume of PBS at a dose of 2..1010 CFU per day for 1 consecutive week. At 8 days of age, TGEV was infected by oral administration at half lethal dose, and samples were collected after 7 days of infection. The weight change and diarrhea of each group of piglets were recorded;hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to detect the length of intestinal villi and the depth of crypts;enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine total serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibody contents. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA relative expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-P (IFN-P), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The flora structure of the contents of the piglet's cecum was analyzed. After oral recombinant porcine Lactobacillusreuteri, compared with the control group, the average daily gain of newborn piglets in the pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was significantly increased (P < 0.01), while the diarrhea rate was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with TGEV infection group, the average daily gain of piglets in pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was increased and diarrhea rate was decreased, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The contents of total IgG and intestinal mucosal total sIgA antibody in serum of piglets were significantly increased (P < 0.05);the mRNA relative expression levels of tight junction protein-related genes Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 in intestinal mucosal tissue were extremely significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the serum TNF-a content was extremely significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Serum IFN-P, IL-6, IL-8 and TLR2 contents were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the survival rate of piglets was improved. The analysis of the bacterial diversity in the contents of the piglets' cecum showed that the proportion of normal intestinal flora of piglets decreased after TGEV infection. Compared with the TGEV infect group, the proportion of pathogenic bacteria Bacteroides in piglet's intestinal flora decreased by o

13.
Plasma Medicine ; 11(3):1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1745247

ABSTRACT

Wearing a mask population-wide is an important preventive measure in address-ing COVID-19 and potential future pandemics. We showed how a household microwave oven, a coat-hanger, and a coffee cup can generate plasma that can be used to decontaminate N95 respirators in less than 1 minute. We proved that microwave-generated plasma can reduce infectivity of the Tulane virus and the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) on N95 respirators by > 3-log10. We further studied the Tulane virus by molecular assays to understand inactivation mech-anisms, and we found that the plasma damages both viral proteins and genomes. Spectroscopy of the plasma revealed OH and C-containing radicals as the most prevalent active species expected to cause virus inactivation. The respirators still maintained filtration and fit even after 10 cycles of the plasma treatment. We believe that microwave-generated plasma is an easily accessible respirator decontamination technique that everyone could use for safe respirator reuse. © 2021 by Begell House, Inc.

14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(7): 1413-1429, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535802

ABSTRACT

Although the functional parameters of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been explored to some extent, the roles of these molecules in coronavirus infection and the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in virus infection are still unclear. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an enteropathgenic coronavirus and causes high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Here, we demonstrated that microRNA-27b-3p (miR-27b-3p) suppressed TGEV replication by directly targeting porcine suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6), while TGEV infection downregulated miR-27b-3p expression in swine testicular (ST) cells and in piglets. Mechanistically, the decrease of miR-27b-3p expression during TGEV infection was mediated by the activated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Further studies showed that when ER stress was induced by TGEV, IRE1 acted as an RNase activated by autophosphorylation and unconventionally spliced mRNA encoding a potent transcription factor, X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1s). Xbp1s inhibited the transcription of miR-27 and ultimately reduced the production of miR-27b-3p. Therefore, our findings indicate that TGEV inhibits the expression of an anti-coronavirus microRNA through the IRE1 pathway and suggest a novel way in which coronavirus regulates the host cell response to infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , MicroRNAs , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics
15.
Energy (Oxf) ; 244: 122709, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520890

ABSTRACT

The spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affects the health of people and the economy worldwide. As air transmits the virus, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings, enclosed spaces and public transport play a significant role in limiting the transmission of airborne pathogens at the expenses of increased energy consumption and possibly reduced thermal comfort. On the other hand, liquid desiccant technology could be adopted as an air scrubber to increase indoor air quality and inactivate pathogens through temperature and humidity control, making them less favourable to the growth, proliferation and infectivity of microorganisms. The objectives of this study are to review the role of HVAC in airborne viral transmission, estimate its energy penalty associated with the adoption of HVAC for transmission reduction and understand the potential of liquid desiccant technology. Factors affecting the inactivation of pathogens by liquid desiccant solutions and possible modifications to increase their heat and mass transfer and sanitising characteristics are also described, followed by an economic evaluation. It is concluded that the liquid desiccant technology could be beneficial in buildings (requiring humidity control or moisture removal in particular when viruses are likely to present) or in high-footfall enclosed spaces (during virus outbreaks).

16.
Biophysics (Oxf) ; 66(4): 589-595, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470498

ABSTRACT

In recent years, members of the Coronaviridae family have caused outbreaks of respiratory diseases (MERS, SARS, and COVID-19). At the same time, the potential of radiation-induced inactivation of this group of viruses have been little studied, although radiation technologies can be widely used both in the processing of personal protective equipment and in the sterilization of vaccines. In the present work, the effect of 10 MeV electron beams and 7.6 MeV bremsstrahlung on the coronavirus infection pathogen (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) has been studied in vitro. In the given experimental conditions, irradiation with photons turned out to be more effective. The virus-containing suspension frozen at -86°C was the most resistant to radiation: the dose required for complete inactivation of the virus in this case was from 15 kGy, while for the liquid suspension and lyophilized form the sterilizing dose was from 10 kGy. At lower radiation doses for all samples during passaging in cell culture, residual infectious activity of the virus was observed. These differences in the efficiency of inactivation of liquid and frozen virus-containing samples indicate a significant contribution of the direct effect of radiation.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308347

ABSTRACT

Recently, as is evident with the COVID-19 pandemic, virus-containing aerosols can rapidly spread worldwide. As a consequence, filtering facepieces (FFP) are essential tools to protect against airborne viral particles. Incorrect donning and doffing of masks and a lack of hand-hygiene cause contagion by the wearers' own hands. This study aimed to prove that hypertonic saline effectively reduces the infectious viral load on treated masks. Therefore, a hypertonic salt solution´s protective effect on surgical masks was investigated, specifically analyzing the infectivity of aerosolized Alphacoronavirus 1 in pigs (Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)). Uncoated and hypertonic salt pre-coated FFPs were sprayed with TGEV. After drying, a defined part of the mask was rinsed with the medium, and the eluent was used for the infection of a porcine testicular cell line. Additionally, airborne microorganisms´ long-term infectivity of sodium-chloride in phosphate-buffered saline comprising 5% saccharose was investigated. In the results from an initial Median Tissue Culture Infectious Dose, infection rate of TGEV was minimally reduced by untreated FFP. In contrast, this could be reduced by a factor of 104 if FFPs were treated with hypertonic salt solutions. Airborne pathogens did not contaminate the growth medium if salt concentrations exceeded 5%. We conclude that hypertonic saline is a vital tool for anti-virus protection, exponentially improving the impact of FFPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Animals , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
18.
J Pineal Res ; 71(2): e12754, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276748

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), highlights major gaps in our knowledge on the prevention control and cross-species transmission mechanisms of animal coronaviruses. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) are three common swine coronaviruses and have similar clinical features. In the absence of effective treatments, they have led to significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. We reported that indoles exerted potent activity against swine coronaviruses, the molecules used included melatonin, indole, tryptamine, and L-tryptophan. Herein, we did further systematic studies with melatonin, a ubiquitous and versatile molecule, and found it inhibited TGEV, PEDV, and PDCoV infection in PK-15, Vero, or LLC-PK1 cells by reducing viral entry and replication, respectively. Collectively, we provide the molecular basis for the development of new treatments based on the ability of indoles to control TGEV, PEDV, and PDCoV infection and spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
19.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1072-1080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056514

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) infects a broad range of hosts including humans as well as a variety of animals. It has gained overwhelming concerns since the emergence of deadly human coronaviruses (HCoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, followed by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2015. Very recently, special attention has been paid to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 due to its high mobility and mortality. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, despite vast research efforts, the effective pharmaceutical interventions are still not available for clinical uses. Both expanded knowledge on structure insights and the essential function of viral nucleocapsid (N) protein are key basis for the development of novel, and potentially, a broad-spectrum inhibitor against coronavirus diseases. This review aimed to delineate the current research from the perspective of biochemical and structural study in cell-based assays as well as virtual screen approaches to identify N protein antagonists targeting not only HCoVs but also animal CoVs.

20.
Chem Eng J ; 405: 126893, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952653

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is depicting the distressing pandemic consequence on human health, economy as well as ecosystem services. So far novel coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks were associated with SARS-CoV-2 (2019), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, 2012), and SARS-CoV-1 (2003) events. CoV relates to the enveloped family of Betacoronavirus (ßCoV) with positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA). Knowing well the persistence, transmission, and spread of SARS-CoV-2 through proximity, the faecal-oral route is now emerging as a major environmental concern to community transmission. The replication and persistence of CoV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and shedding through stools is indicating a potential transmission route to the environment settings. Despite of the evidence, based on fewer reports on SARS-CoV-2 occurrence and persistence in wastewater/sewage/water, the transmission of the infective virus to the community is yet to be established. In this realm, this communication attempted to review the possible influx route of the enteric enveloped viral transmission in the environmental settings with reference to its occurrence, persistence, detection, and inactivation based on the published literature so far. The possibilities of airborne transmission through enteric virus-laden aerosols, environmental factors that may influence the viral transmission, and disinfection methods (conventional and emerging) as well as the inactivation mechanism with reference to the enveloped virus were reviewed. The need for wastewater epidemiology (WBE) studies for surveillance as well as for early warning signal was elaborated. This communication will provide a basis to understand the SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses in the context of the environmental engineering perspective to design effective strategies to counter the enteric virus transmission and also serves as a working paper for researchers, policy makers and regulators.

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