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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 427, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases have complicated the surveillance and tracking of the pandemic. Previous studies have estimated that 15-25% of all infectees remain asymptomatic. METHODS: Based on contact tracing data from Oslo, Norway, we estimated transmission and susceptibility dynamics among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and their contacts as identified by manual contact tracing between September 1, 2020, and September 1, 2021. RESULTS: Among 27,473 indexes and 164,153 registered contacts, the secondary attack rate (SAR-14) was estimated to be 28% lower through asymptomatic exposure (13%) compared to symptomatic exposure (18%). Furthermore, those infected by asymptomatic cases were almost three times more likely to be asymptomatic compared to those infected by symptomatic cases. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic cases spread the virus to a greater extent than asymptomatic, and infectees are more likely to be asymptomatic if their assumed infector was asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Norway/epidemiology
2.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108477

ABSTRACT

Understanding of the droplet transmission of respiratory diseases is necessary to control the outbreak of COVID-19. HVAC systems considering droplet transmission are commonly used to prevent numerous respiratory diseases by reducing indoor virus concentrations. The transmission of the virus was directly related to indoor flow patterns generated by HVAC systems. Thus, a study on operating conditions such as direction or the tilt angle was required. In this study, the effective ventilation rate and probability of droplet transmission according to the tilt angle of supply air and the number of people were studied. A CO2 tracer gas method was used to validate the results of simulations. The breathing plane and personal respiratory zone were introduced for the probability of droplet transmission. The result showed that ventilation performance showed 17% of the maximum difference among tilt angles. Various turbulent kinetic energies were obtained according to the seated positions, resulting in non-uniform CO2 concentration. Numerous conditions were examined with locational analysis of individuals. As a result, the flow rates for ventilation were recommended to be higher than 250 m(3)/h and 350 m(3)/h with a tilt angle of 60 degrees for an occupancy of 8 and 16 people, respectively.

3.
Association for Computing Machinery Communications of the ACM ; 65(11):82, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2108352

ABSTRACT

"A number of models have been developed in India to forecast the spread of the coronavirus disease or COVID-19 in the country. While these have largely been variants of the classical susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) compartmental model, other approaches using time-series analysis, machine-learning, network models, and agent-based simulations have also helped to provide specific insights into questions of policy. Model building has had to incorporate our evolving knowledge of the disease, including the appearance of new variants, immune escape leading to reinfections, time-varying non-pharmaceutical interventions, the pace of the vaccination program, and breakthrough infections. The predictive power of these models has been hampered by the lack of availability of quality data on infection and deaths as a function of age, the nature of social contacts, demography, and the clinical consequence of infection. An early emphasis on ""ensemble models,"" a thrust toward increased data availability, a greater engagement of modelers with the epidemiological and public health communities, and a more nuanced approach to communicating the limitations of modeling could have substantially increased the usefulness of models during the COVID-19 pandemic in India."

4.
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine ; 20(6):26-37, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2107844

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, COVID-19 started to impact society at a global scale. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11 March 2020, and the world faced the most significant health problem of the last 100 years. The pandemic and its lockdown measures caused significant disruptions to society and the economy. Electricity is essential to modern society and the power grid is considered the most critical infrastructure, with essentially all other infrastructure dependent on it. Maintaining grid reliability and resilience was paramount during the pandemic. © 2003-2012 IEEE.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Household transmission studies inform how viruses spread among close contacts, but few characterize household transmission of endemic coronaviruses. METHODS: We used data collected from 223 households with school-age children participating in weekly disease surveillance over two respiratory virus seasons (December 2015 to May 2017), to describe clinical characteristics of endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43) infections, and community and household transmission probabilities using a chain-binomial model correcting for missing data from untested households. RESULTS: Among 947 participants in 223 households, we observed 121 infections during the study, most commonly subtype HCoV-OC43. Higher proportions of infected children (<19y) displayed ILI symptoms than infected adults (relative risk 3.0, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.5, 6.9). The estimated weekly household transmission probability was 9% (95% CrI 6, 13) and weekly community acquisition probability was 7% (95% CrI 5, 10). We found no evidence for differences in community or household transmission probabilities by age or symptom status. Simulations suggest that our study was underpowered to detect such differences. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need for large household studies to inform household transmission, the challenges in estimating household transmission probabilities from asymptomatic individuals, and implications for controlling endemic CoVs.

6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(10): 1076-1080, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105411

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women continue to be vulnerable to COVID-19, and their immunosuppressed state could put them at greater risk of developing more severe forms of the disease. In Colombia and Latin America, there are few studies on the immune response of the newborn against SARS-CoV-2. AIM: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in umbilical cord blood in two hospital centers in Córdoba and Sucre. METHODS: Between March and June 2021, a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Two hospitals from the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, located in the Northwest Caribbean area of Colombia, participated. Three hundred sixty umbilical cord blood samples were taken at the two hospitals. A commercial ELISA was performed to detect total IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. The ethics committee approved the study of the participating institutions. RESULTS: Of 3.291 women who gave birth in the hospital centers included in the study, 360 (11%) participated. Complete clinical data were obtained for 223 women. The mean age of the women was 24 years (range, 15-42). 29.4% (106/360) of the umbilical cord samples had total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women did not have blood samples taken. 58% of the women were asymptomatic. There was no association between umbilical cord samples, clinical, epidemiological characteristics, and serological response to antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of umbilical cord blood samples was 29.4% for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The study provides essential aspects for the epidemiological approach to neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the concentration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the air of hospital rooms occupied by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients who had viable SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples in early infection. METHODS: Between July and October 2021, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 20 inpatients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a tertiary hospital in Japan. Air samples were collected from their rooms, tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and cultured to determine potential infectivity. RESULTS: The nasopharyngeal swab samples of 18 patients were positive for viable SARS-CoV-2 (median concentration: 4.0×105 TCID50/mL). In the air samples, viral RNA (median concentration: 1.1×105 copies/m3) was detected in 12/18 (67%) patients and viable virus (median concentration: 8.9×102 TCID50/m3) was detected in 5/18 (28%) patients. The median time between illness onset and sampling was 3 days. The RNA concentration was significantly higher in samples wherein viable SARS-CoV-2 was detected than in samples in which viable virus was not detected (p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Viable SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the air surrounding patients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection. Healthcare workers should pay attention to infection control when caring for patients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 126: 1-9, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assay the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in vaginal, rectal, and placental swabs among pregnant women and in newborn nasopharyngeal swabs and to investigate the immunological response and maternal antibody transfer through the umbilical cord blood and milk of unvaccinated mothers. METHODS: Vaginal, rectal, and placental specimens, maternal and neonatal serum, and milk were collected from a wide cohort of pregnant Italian women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the hospital between February 25, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Samples were tested in selected reference laboratories according to a shared interlaboratory protocol. RESULTS: Among 1086 enrolled women, the SARS-CoV-2 positive rate detected in all specimens ranged from 0.7% to 8.4%. Respectively, 45.2% of maternal sera collected during pregnancy and 39.7% of those collected at birth tested positive for immunoglobulin G, whereas 50.5% tested positive among neonates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive in 0.8% of the newborns, and immunoglobulin G was detected in 3.0% of the milk samples. The highest immunological response was recorded within 30 days during pregnancy and within 60 days of birth and in the neonatal population. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission should be considered a rare event; although, a good maternal immunological response and antibodies transfer throughout the umbilical cord blood was detected.

9.
Glob Epidemiol ; 4: 100094, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104972

ABSTRACT

We simulate the impact of school reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic in three major urban centers in Brazil to identify the epidemiological indicators and the best timing for the return of in-school activities and the effect of contact tracing as a mitigation measure. Our goal is to offer guidelines for evidence-based policymaking. We implement an extended SEIR model stratified by age and considering contact networks in different settings - school, home, work, and community, in which the infection transmission rate is affected by various intervention measures. After fitting epidemiological and demographic data, we simulate scenarios with increasing school transmission due to school reopening, and also estimate the number of hospitalization and deaths averted by the implementation of contact tracing. Reopening schools results in a non-linear increase in reported COVID-19 cases and deaths, which is highly dependent on infection and disease incidence at the time of reopening. When contact tracing and quarantining are restricted to school and home settings, a large number of daily tests is required to produce significant effects in reducing the total number of hospitalizations and deaths. Policymakers should carefully consider the epidemiological context and timing regarding the implementation of school closure and return of in-person school activities. While contact tracing strategies prevent new infections within school environments, they alone are not sufficient to avoid significant impacts on community transmission.

10.
Eur Econ Rev ; 150: 104283, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104917

ABSTRACT

Do cities accelerate COVID-19 transmission? Increased transmission arising from population density prompts spatial policies for financial support and containment, and poorer prospects for recovery. Using daily case counts from over 3,000 counties in the U.S. from February to September 2020, I estimate a compartmental transmission equation. Rational sheltering behavior plausibly varies by location, so I propose two instruments that exploit unanticipated variation in exposure to potential infection. In the first month of local infections, an additional log point of population density raises the expected transmission parameter estimate by around 3%. After the first month, the relation vanishes: density effects occur only in the outbreaks. Public transport, work-from-home jobs and income explain additional variation in transmission but do not account for the density effects. Consistent with location-varying optimal sheltering behavior, I document stronger mobility declines in denser areas, but only after the first month of infections. These results suggest that differences in transmission between cities and other places do not motivate spatial policies for recovery or containment, or poorer prospects after the pandemic.

11.
Science of the Total Environment ; 856, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105898

ABSTRACT

International air travel is now widely recognised as one of the primary mechanisms responsible for the transnational movement and global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Monitoring the viral load and novel lineages within human-derived wastewater collected from aircraft and at air transport hubs has been proposed as an effective way to monitor the im-portation frequency of viral pathogens. The success of this approach, however, is highly dependent on the bathroom and defecation habits of air passengers during their journey. In this study of UK adults (n = 2103), we quantified the likelihood of defecation prior to departure, on the aircraft and upon arrival on both short-and long-haul flights. The results were then used to assess the likelihood of capturing the signal from infected individuals at UK travel hubs. To obtain a representative cross-section of the population, the survey was stratified by geographical region, gender, age, parenting status, and social class. We found that an individual's likelihood to defecate on short-haul flights (< 6 h in duration) was low (< 13 % of the total), but was higher on long-haul flights (< 36 %;> 6 h in duration). This behaviour pattern was higher among males and younger age groups. The maximum likelihood of defecation was prior to departure (< 39 %). Based on known SARS-CoV-2 faecal shedding rates (30-60 %) and an equal probability of in-fected individuals being on short-(71 % of inbound flights) and long-haul flights (29 %), we estimate that aircraft wastewater is likely to capture ca. 8-14 % of SARS-CoV-2 cases entering the UK. Monte Carlo simulations predicted that SARS-CoV-2 would be present in wastewater on 14 % of short-haul flights and 62 % of long-haul flights under current pandemic conditions. We conclude that aircraft wastewater alone is insufficient to effectively monitor all the transboundary entries of faecal-borne pathogens but can form part of a wider strategy for public heath surveillance at national borders.

12.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 124:190-198, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105080

ABSTRACT

Objectives: SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted within households, with massive healthcare system bur-dens. The role of inactivated vaccines and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination in the prevention of within -household transmission remains unknown.Methods: This observational case-control study tracked 408 SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction- confirmed index cases from April to September 2021. This study aimed to prove the benefit of inactivated and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccinated index cases in preventing within-household transmissibility.Results: A total of 1178 household contacts were investigated. A total of 231 index cases were vaccinated with inactivated or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, and 177 were unvaccinated. The vaccinated index cases ex-hibited a 7.8% risk reduction in household transmission. There was no difference in the secondary attack rate of 50.77% in unvaccinated cases compared with 46.81% in vaccinated index cases ( P-value = 0.177). Those who completed the two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination demonstrated a 93% reduction in household transmissibility within 14-90 days. The effectiveness for preventing household transmission was 26.09%. The 87% reduced risk of household transmissibility was observed among those who wore masks.Conclusion: The completed two-dose SARS-CoV-2 inactivated and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination within 14-90 days among index cases demonstrated benefits in preventing within-household transmissibility. Implementing high-efficacy vaccination and an appropriate booster dose can prevent household trans-mission. (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ )

13.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104986

ABSTRACT

Public transport environments are thought to play a key role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. Indeed, high crowding indexes (i.e. high numbers of people relative to the vehicle size), inadequate clean air supply, and frequent extended exposure durations make transport environments potential hotspots for transmission of respiratory infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, generic mitigation measures (e.g. physical distancing) have been applied without also considering the airborne transmission route. This is due to the lack of quantified data about airborne contagion risk in transport environments.In this study, we apply a novel combination of close proximity and room-scale risk assessment approaches for people sharing public transport environments to predict their contagion risk due to SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection. In particular, the individual infection risk of susceptible subjects and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 (expressed through the reproduction number) are evaluated for two types of buses, differing in terms of exposure time and crowding index: urban and long-distance buses. Infection risk and reproduction number are calculated for different scenarios as a function of the ventilation rates (both measured and estimated according to standards), crowding indexes, and travel times. The results show that for urban buses, the close proximity contribution significantly affects the maximum occupancy to maintain a reproductive number of <1. In particular, full occupancy of the bus would be permitted only for an infected subject breathing, whereas for an infected subject speaking, masking would be required. For long-distance buses, full occupancy of the bus can be maintained only if specific mitigation solutions are simultaneously applied. For example, for an infected person speaking for 1 h, appropriate filtration of the recirculated air and simultaneous use of FFP2 masks would permit full occupancy of the bus for a period of almost 8 h. Otherwise, a high percentage of immunized persons (>80%) would be needed.(c) 2022 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

14.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104982

ABSTRACT

With the prevalence of COVID-19, the phenomenon of viruses spreading through aerosols has become a focus of attention. Diners in university dining halls have a high risk of exposure to respiratory droplets from others without the protection of face masks, which greatly increases the risk of COVID-19 transmis-sion. Therefore, the transmission mechanism of respiratory droplets in extremely crowded dining envi-ronments should be investigated. In this study, a numerical simulation of coughing at dining tables under two conditions was performed, namely the presence and absence of protective partitions, and the evaporation and condensation of aerosol droplets in the air were examined. By using the numerical method, we analyzed and verified the isolation effect of dining table partitions in the propagation of aero-sol droplets. The effect of changes in room temperature on the diffusion of coughed aerosols when par-titions were present was analyzed. We demonstrated how respiratory droplets spread through coughing and how these droplets affect others. Finally, we proposed a design for a dining table partition that min-imizes the transmission of COVID-19.(c) 2021 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by

15.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104976

ABSTRACT

Ongoing uncertainty over the relative importance of aerosol transmission of COVID-19 is in part rooted in the history of medical science and our understanding of how epidemic diseases can spread through human populations. Ancient Greek medical theory held that such illnesses are transmitted by airborne pathogenic emanations containing particulate matter ("miasmata"). Notable Roman and medieval schol-ars such as Varro, Ibn al-Khatib and Fracastoro developed these ideas, combining them with early germ theory and the concept of contagion. A widely held but vaguely defined belief in toxic miasmatic mists as a dominant causative agent in disease propagation was overtaken by the science of 19th century micro-biology and epidemiology, especially in the study of cholera, which was proven to be mainly transmitted by contaminated water. Airborne disease transmission came to be viewed as burdened by a dubious his-torical reputation and difficult to demonstrate convincingly. A breakthrough came with the classic mid -20th century work of Wells, Riley and Mills who proved how expiratory aerosols (their "droplet nuclei") could transport still-infectious tuberculosis bacteria through ventilation systems. The topic of aerosol transmission of pathogenic respiratory diseases assumed a new dimension with the mid-late 20th cen-tury "Great Acceleration" of an increasingly hypermobile human population repeatedly infected by dif-ferent strains of zoonotic viruses, and has taken centre stage this century in response to outbreaks of new respiratory infections that include coronaviruses. From a geoscience perspective, the consequences of pandemic-status diseases such as COVID-19, produced by viral pathogens utilising aerosols to infect a human population currently approaching 8 billion, are far-reaching and unprecedented. The obvious and sudden impacts on for example waste plastic production, water and air quality and atmospheric chem-istry are accelerating human awareness of current environmental challenges. As such, the "anthropause" lockdown enforced by COVID-19 may come to be seen as a harbinger of change great enough to be pre-served in the Anthropocene stratal record.(c) 2021 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

16.
Gene Rep ; 20: 100756, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104964

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) belongs to the family of coronaviruses, and it is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. It causes a contagious disease, which affects the respiratory system and can lead to severe complications in some cases. This virus was detected in China, then rapidly spread to almost all countries. Because of their complexity and the malignancy of the symptoms, they remain a center of interest for researchers. Herein, we provide a review in terms of transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options in clinical trials of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), because readers need to update themselves regularly, and there is still much more to know about it.

17.
Viral Infections and Antiviral Therapies ; : 69-83, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104205

ABSTRACT

Infectious pathogens are a threat to global healthcare and the socioeconomic progress of the world. Since December 2019, the world has battled with the 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a zoonotic viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has resulted in high rates of infection and deaths across continents. Coronaviruses, due to their genetic nomenclature of being RNA viruses, easily undergo genetic mutation during their replication cycle. This has resulted in several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. The current state and what the future of COVID-19 holds for mankind is an unresolved question hanging on. Recently, there has been great improvement in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines have been developed to reduce the risk of infection. Also, insights from the study of previous coronaviruses and previous pandemics have been helpful in the quick development of different effective vaccines and the deployment of various effective interventions. In this chapter, discussions on the genesis of COVID-19, its transmission, impact, preventive measures, and therapeutic advancements are presented.

18.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 48-58, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100347

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. RESULTADOS: De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. CONCLUSIONES: Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión  zoonótica o entre especie.


Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. Objetivo. Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. Resultados. De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. Conclusiones. Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión zoonótica o entre especie.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Colombia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099326

ABSTRACT

Climate change affects ecosystems and human health in multiple dimensions. With the acceleration of climate change, climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases (VBDs) pose an increasing threat to public health. This paper summaries 10 publications on the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and human health; then it synthesizes the other existing literature to more broadly explain how climate change drives the transmission and spread of VBDs through an ecological perspective. We highlight the multi-dimensional nature of climate change, its interaction with other factors, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on transmission and spread of VBDs, specifically including: (1) the generally nonlinear relationship of local climate (temperature, precipitation and wind) and VBD transmission, with temperature especially exhibiting an n-shape relation; (2) the time-lagged effect of regional climate phenomena (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation) on VBD transmission; (3) the u-shaped effect of extreme climate (heat waves, cold waves, floods, and droughts) on VBD spread; (4) how interactions between non-climatic (land use and human mobility) and climatic factors increase VBD transmission and spread; and (5) that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change is debatable, and its impact on VBDs remains uncertain. By exploring the influence of climate change and non-climatic factors on VBD transmission and spread, this paper provides scientific understanding and guidance for their effective prevention and control.

20.
Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 69(4):445-459, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100994

ABSTRACT

Poxviruses have caused the most important diseases for humanity for a long time. An important triumph was achieved with the eradication of smallpox, defined by the World Health Organization in 1979. Poxviruses include significant agents that cause important animal diseases that are non-zoonotic and zoonotic. While humanity has been battling COVID-19, a new battle against monkeypox has recently emerged due to an increase in case numbers and the outbreak's global spread. The other points of the 2022 monkeypox outbreak that make it more serious than previous outbreaks are severe clinical outcomes such as encephalitis and death, and also the higher transmission rate, which occurs at approximately 99% in men, especially those who have sex with men. The 2022 monkeypox virus outbreak has focused public and scientific attention on poxviruses and potential bioterrorism risks posed by poxviruses. Therefore, it is aimed at writing a review that compiles information about monkeypox, cowpox, vaccinia, bovine papular stomatitis, orf, pseudocowpox, gray seal pox, and red deerpox viruses.

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