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1.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):362-369, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067465

ABSTRACT

In recent decades passenger transportation journeys experienced a decline and this decline may due to various causes such as cost of transportation, low economic growth, exchange rate volatility, unemployment and petrol price. [...]to the best knowledge of the author, no study was conducted to determine the relationship between the aforementioned variables. [...]the main objective of the current study is to analyse the impact of the exchange rate, petrol price and unemployment rate on road passenger journeys in the South African transportation sector. [...]to minimize either monetary budget or physical and mental burden, irrespective of having their cars, people prefer to use public transport (Guo & Wilson, 2011;Onderwater & Kishoon, 2017). South African road transport depend on the imported fuel and the price of the latter within the domestic market is determined by the exchange rate. [...]the exchange rate is another economic variable that impacts road transpo0rt demand (Havenga et al., 2014).

2.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064339

ABSTRACT

Transportation is regarded as one of the most important issues currently being researched;this issue needs the search for approaches or processes that might lessen many contemporary traffic concerns. Congestion, pollution, and accidents have escalated lately, negatively impacting urban environments, economic development, and citizens’ lifestyles. The rise of illnesses and epidemics throughout the world, such as COVID-19, has created an urgent need to find the best way to save people’s lives. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a well-known moniker for improving transportation systems and is regarded as one of the ancient and contemporary difficulties in route planning applications. One of the main tasks of VRP is serving many customers by determining the optimal route from an initial point to a destination on a real-time road map. The best route is not necessarily the shortest-distance route, but, in emergency cases, it is the route that takes the least fitness cost (time) and the fastest way to arrive. This paper aims to provide an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the optimal time route, taking into account the factors that influence the vehicle arrival time and cause delays. In addition, the Network Analyst tool in ArcGIS is used to determine the optimal route using real-time map based on the user’s preferences and suggest the best one. Experimental results indicate that the performance of GA is mainly determined by an efficient representation, evaluation of fitness function, and other factors such as population size and selection method.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10103, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024133

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) is one of the most important pollutants for human health, and road transport could be a major anthropogenic source of it. Several research studies have shown the impact of roads on the air quality in urban areas, but the relationship between road and rail networks and ambient PM10 concentrations has not been well studied, especially in suburban and rural landscapes. In this study, we examined the link between the spatial characteristics of each road type (motorway, primary road, secondary road, and railway) and the annual average PM10 concentration. We used the European 2931 air quality (AQ) station dataset, which is classified into urban, suburban, and rural landscapes. Our results show that in urban and rural landscapes, the spatial characteristics (the density of the road network and its distance from the AQ monitoring points) have a significant statistical relationship with PM10 concentrations. According to our findings from AQ monitoring sites within the urban landscape, there is a significant negative relationship between the annual average PM10 concentration and the density of the railway network. This result can be explained by the driving wind generated by railway trains (mainly electric trains). Among the road network types, all road types in the urban landscape, only motorways in the suburban landscape, and only residential roads in the rural landscape have a significant positive statistical relationship with the PM10 values at the AQ monitoring points. Our results show that in the suburban zones, which represent the rural–urban fringe, motorways have a strong influence on PM-related air pollution. In the suburban areas, the speed of vehicles changes frequently near motorways and intersections, so higher traffic-related PM10 emission levels can be expected in these areas. The findings of this study can be used to decrease transportation-related environmental conflicts related to the air quality in urban, urban–rural fringe, and rural (agricultural) landscapes.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9588, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994189

ABSTRACT

Urban passenger transport is one of the most significant sources of fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, especially in developing countries. The rapid growth of urban transport makes it a critical target for carbon reduction. This paper establishes a method for calculating carbon emission from urban passenger transport including ground buses, private cars, cruising taxis, online-hailing taxis, and rail transit. The scope of the study is determined according to the transportation mode and energy type, and the carbon emission factor of each energy source is also determined according to the local energy structure, etc. Taking into consideration the development trend of new energy vehicles, a combination of “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches is used to estimate the carbon dioxide emission of each transportation mode. The results reveal that carbon emission from Qingdao’s passenger transport in 2020 was 8.15 million tons, of which 84.31% came from private cars, while the share of private cars of total travel was only 45.66%. Ground buses are the most efficient mode of transport. Fossil fuels emit more greenhouse gases than other clean energy sources. The emission intensity of hydrogen fuel cell buses is better than that of other fuel type vehicles. Battery electric buses have the largest sensitivity coefficient, therefore the carbon emission reduction potentially achieved by developing battery electric buses is most significant.

5.
Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal ; 92(8):6, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970769

ABSTRACT

At the Opening Session of each ITE Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Paniati provides a "State of ITE" report. He wanted to take this opportunity to share the highlights of his presentation in New Orleans: Membership Is Growing -- Despite COVID-19, their membership continues to grow. They expect to exceed 16,500 members in 2022. If recent trends continue, they can reach 17,000 in 2023--which would be the highest membership in the more than 90-year history of ITE. Fueling their growth are new public agency members;the past year they added Caltrans;New York State DOT;Kentucky Transportation Cabinet;Connecticut DOT;City of Atlanta GA;City of Orange CA;City of Victoria, BC and City of Richmond Hill, ON, both in Canada;St. Charles County MO;and Douglas County, Castle Rock CO. With strong fiscal leadership by the International Board of Direction (IBOD) and the ITE staff, they have built their financial reserves from 20 percent of their annual operating budget in 2016 to 100 percent at the end of 2021. The considerable effort to create a more consistent member experience and organizational structure across their Districts, Sections, and Chapters is resulting in more effective Districts and stronger Sections.

6.
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954242

ABSTRACT

Background: After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic, movement restrictions were implemented across sub-Saharan Africa. There has been much speculation on what the long-term impacts on urban transport might be. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the revealed and future travel impacts of the pandemic. Method: To pursue this aim, evidence was compiled from two sources: secondary big data;and a ( n = 15) two-wave Delphi panel survey of experts in the region. Results: It is predicted that longer-term impacts will take the form of: reduced travel by, and accessibility for, low-income households residing in peripheral locations because of decreased welfare;reduced transport service availability;operator reduction (particularly amongst unsubsidised formal operators);increased remote activity participation for a minority of better resourced households with white-collar workers;and disrupted trip distributions as the mix of city-centre land use changes in response to business attrition in economic recession rather than to disrupted bid rents. Conclusion: The major impact of the pandemic is likely to be on welfare, rather than on trip substitution. There is a need, therefore, to focus policy on the mitigation of these impacts and, more particularly, on ways of measuring changes in transport disadvantage and exclusion so that reliable data are available to inform mitigation strategies. The mitigation strategies considered should include investment in affordable ‘digital connectivity’ as a means of complementing accessibility from physical proximity and mobility. The pandemic also highlights the need to develop more robust transport planning practices to deal with uncertainty.

7.
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954241

ABSTRACT

Background: Nowadays, a gradual change in customers’ attitudes towards transport service makes it more challenging to understand the reasons behind customers’ travel decisions. High-speed rail (HSR) has been mentioned recently and is expected as the best and most modern transport option in long-distance trips in Vietnam. However, research studies have paid scant regard to how HSR’s attributes may affect potential users, and therefore the motivations and barriers to adopting HSR are still unknown. Objectives: This study aimed at examining motivations and barriers to take-up HSR for considering customers’ preference on the proper attributes and levels of HSR. Method: This study drew on a nationwide survey and conjoint analysis to investigate customers’ behaviour. Results: In Vietnam’s context, HSR ticket was found to be the principal barrier to adoption, whereas the speed of HSR was identified as the least important behavioural driver amongst potential HSR users. The results show that HSR design and planning should provide a combination of minimum check-in and waiting time, a 20-min frequency, average speed of 250 km/h, all add-on services and facilities, ticketing of approximately VND 500–700 thousand per 300–500 km and nearby all-day parking. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated the value of conjoint analysis to compare a wide range of attributes associated with consumers’ decision to use HSR. The findings indicate that in countries such as Vietnam, in particular, where train usage is low, policymakers and transportation agencies seeking to boost the use of HSR must take attributes other than fare into consideration.

8.
European Transport Research Review ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1951048

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHistorically, quantitative forecasting methods have been used in transport planning. As forecasts can be unreliable to plan for the medium- and long-term, scenario building has recently been increasingly used. However, scenario building methods often fail to take disruptions and wild cards into account, i.e., low probability but high impact events. When unaccounted for, wild card events, like the COVID-19 pandemic, lower the efficacy of scenario building in policy making, as these events may completely disturb the developed scenarios of the future.MethodsIn this paper, we develop and apply a creative and participatory methodology to develop visions and disrupted scenarios for rural mobility. Our research was carried out in the Belgian village of Oetingen, where inhabitants developed more resilient views of the future by creating disrupted mobility scenarios and a preferred mobility vision for their village for the year 2050 in a participatory scenario building exercise. Wild cards related to mobility were collected from mobility experts and inhabitants in three workshops. Inhabitants were engaged to define their mobility vision on a postcard that was distributed to all houses in the village as well as on a project website. Respondents were invited for a follow-up interview in which their preferred mobility vision was subjected to the wild cards, and participants described how these wild cards would change their preferred vision. As children tend to have more creative ideas, they were engaged via workshops at school.ResultsThis process resulted in mobility scenarios for the village for the year 2050 based on the different wild cards, as well as an overall desired vision. We found that the use of wild cards did not significantly change the scenarios when compared to the vision, although it did make the interviewees step outside of their comfort zones. We also found that the citizens did not have more original and less path-dependent ideas in developing wild cards when compared to experts. Lastly, we found that children have many outside-of-the-box suggestions when it comes to the future. Although some of their ideas can be judged as impractical by today’s standards, many ideas had an indirect implication for mobility in the village and gave insights into children’s priorities, as potential future residents of the village.

9.
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936561

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, to prevent the spread of the virus, countries all adopted various safety measures, including masking, social distancing, and vaccination. However, there is a lack of methods that can quantitively evaluate the effectiveness of these countermeasures. This research first develops a model to quantitively evaluate the infection risk of riding public transit. By utilizing the developed model, the effectiveness of different countermeasures could be evaluated and compared. For demonstration purposes, the developed model is applied to a particular bus route in the City of Houston, Texas. The modeling results show that masking, social distancing, and vaccination can all reduce the infection risk for passengers. And among all these countermeasures, face masking is the most effective one. In addition, model results approve that the COVID-19 infection risk is highly related to the exposure time and the risk can be controlled by reducing the exposure time. Thus, a new strategy named the “split route strategy” is proposed and compared with the “capacity reduction strategy” using the model developed. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis is performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed “split route strategy”. Furthermore, two interviews were conducted with practitioners at Houston Metro. Both interviewees believe that face masking could significantly prevent the spread of the virus, which validated the model results.

10.
Natsional'nyi Hirnychyi Universytet. Naukovyi Visnyk ; - (3):125-130, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924976

ABSTRACT

Мета. Шдвищення ефективност вантажних автомобшьних перевезень (ВАШ) в умовах прничодобувного пщприемства за рахунок розробки рекомендацш, спрямованих на пщвищення надшносн транспортного процесу. Методика. Для визначення факторщ впливу на надшнють ВАШ застосовано метод «Functional Resonance Analysis Method» (ада - метод «FRAM»), що базуеться на дослщженш функцш автомобшьного транспортного процесу перевезення вантажу, виходячи з шести рпних аспекта: час, контроль, вихщ, ресурс, передумови та вхщ. Результаты. Транспортний процес ВАШ в умовах прничодобувного пщприемства представлено за допомогою пяти основних функцш: подготовки ВАШ, подачi вантажного автомобщя пщ завантаження, завантаження вантажу, перевезення й розвантаження вантажу в мющ призначення. Для кожно! функцп транспортного процесу ВАШ визначено: ii мшливють, виходячи з показниив точност та своечасност виконання транспортно! операцп;фактори, що впливають на надшнють транспортного процесу - професшний досвщ водш, адмшь стративний контроль, час виконання транспортно! операцп, складнють транспортно! операцп, ергономша робочого мюця, навантаження та стрес, ршень пщтримки кершництва, яи можуть попршити кшцевий результат - доставки вантажу до мюця розвантаження. Встановлено, що найменша надшнють функцп транспортного процесу ВАШ - це подготовка та транспортування вантажу до мюця призначення, що повязано зi значною !х мшливютю й варшбельнютю, великою кшькютю виробничих завдань i високими змшними нормативами транспортно! роботи. Запропоновано для пщвищення надшносн ВАШ в умовах прничодобувного пщприемства та зменшення ймовфносн вщмов при виконанш транспортно! роботи посилити контроль за психофшологiчним станом водiя. Наукова новизна. Шолягае у встановленi взаемозвязку мож функцiями й факторами транспортного процесу ВАШ в умовах прничодобувного пщприемства, що дозволяе провести оцшку ршня надiйностi виконання поставленого завдання у визначений термш. Практична значимють. Шолягае в кщькюнш оцiнцi впливу факторiв транспортного процесу на надшнють ВАШ в умовах прничодобувного пщприемства.Alternate :Purpose. Improving the efficiency of trucking (TR) in the conditions of a mining enterprise by means of developing recommendations aimed at enhancing reliability of the transport process. Methodology. To determine the factors influencing the reliability of TR the Functional Resonance Analysis ethod (hereinafter - FRAM) was used, which is based on the study on the functions of freight automobile transportation process with respect to six different aspects: time, control, output, resource, prerequisites, and entrance. Findings. The transport process of TR in the conditions of a mining enterprise is represented by five main functions: preparation of TR, supply of the truck for loading, loading of cargo, transportation and unloading of cargo at the destination point. For each function of the transport process TR we determined its variability as based on the accuracy and timeliness of the transport operation;identified factors that affect the reliability of the transport process, namely driver experience, administrative control, time of the transport operation, complexity of the transport operation, workplace ergonomics, workload and stress, the level of management support that may worsen the final result of goods delivery to the point of unloading. It is determined that preparation and transportation of cargo to the destination point is the least reliable function of TR transport process. This is due to the significant changeability and variability, a large number of production tasks and high variable standards of transport work. It is proposed to strengthen the control over the psychophysiological condition of the driver in order to improve the reliability of TR in the conditions of a mining enterprise and to reduce the probability of failures during the performance of transportation work. Originality. It consists in establishing the relationship between the functions and factors of the transport process of TR in the conditions of a mining enterprise, which allows assessment of the reliability level of the task in a timely manner. Practical value. It consists in a quantitative assessment of the impact of transportation process factors on the reliability of TR in the conditions of a mining enterprise.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(12):7268, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1911549

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is completely changing the transport customs of city residents. It has decreased the number of travels and has affected changes in the division of transport means. This article presents a case study of the city of Warsaw, attempting to describe the process of changes in the use of public transport in daily trips in the following months of the pandemic. Statistical data on the public transport offer, number of passengers, and tickets sold in 2017–2021, which are available in monthly and annual bulletins issued by the public transport organizer, were used. The knowledge base was supplemented with the results of surveys conducted among the city’s residents. The obtained data were organized and analyzed using descriptive statistics methods. The study findings reveal that the lower use of public transport for travel during the COVID-19 pandemic is mainly due to the imposed limits on the number of passengers and is also linked to changes in the structure of the tickets purchased, especially a significant decrease in the sale of long-distance tickets, which implies the loss of a significant number of most valuable, regular users. It was also observed that the appraisal of public transport did not deteriorate, which allowed to expect with optimism the return of passengers after the pandemic. Therefore, a package of possible steps to be taken to restore confidence in public transport and to enable return of lost passengers is presented. The results of the analyses show how easily passengers can be lost and why it is so important to ensure the functioning of public transport even in crisis situations such as a pandemic. These results can also be applied in transport policy updates.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(10):6296, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870850

ABSTRACT

Sustainability of large transport infrastructure projects is directly linked with the working conditions and procedures in construction and maintenance. Furthermore, safety is one of the most crucial performance indicators for transport infrastructure operators, dealing with management priorities, policies and measures closely related to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). This issue is extremely important especially for public private partnerships (PPP), extensively adopted in transport sector in many regions, where detailed contacts and OHS provisions should be considered. By a systemic analysis, this research identifies the key management factors influence safety performance in the PPP/concession projects and the management comprehensives over those factors. The survey analysis framework for the evaluation of OHS management performance for large transport operators are breakdown, promoting the structure and the expected outcomes toward sustainable management of transport infrastructure. The application is the Greek motorways concessions projects that implemented in the last decade. The research outputs provide key messages to planners, managers, decision makers, and stakeholders over large transport infrastructure sustainable development, promoting OHS performance aspects should be taken into consideration in operation management contacts and highlighting the link between OHS, level of safety, and sustainability. The case study structure and outputs are valuable for comparisons with similar cases, provide the framework for using in other places and/or cases and stimulate the interest for further research.

13.
European Transport Research Review ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857549

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe design, management and operation of transport systems is a complex activity and this has only been exacerbated since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Concern has been raised over the likelihood of the public transport sector surviving in some locations given the significant drops in patronage;this is especially so in rural environments where the existing provision was already limited. Furthermore, within the growing literature on the impact of COVID-19 on travel behaviour most of the focus is on urban areas with little documented experience of how rural travel behaviour has been impacted.PurposeThis paper investigates the impact of COVID-19 on the transport sector and travel behaviour in the rural periphery.MethodsDrawing on the work of the International Transport Forum (ITF) Working Group on Innovative Mobility for the Periphery, augmented by additional evidence and findings from the literature, this paper addresses three specific questions: Firstly, how COVID-19 has affected rural mobility. Secondly, how we can plan for sustainable rural transport solutions in the post-COVID world. Thirdly, the longer-term impacts of COVID-19 with implications for mobility.ResultsThere will be substantial impacts from COVID-19 on rural societies and while the short-term impacts have been negative, in the longer-term there may be opportunity for changed mobility behaviours (including in response to modified work and activity patterns). Evidence suggests that it would seem likely that there are opportunities to foster new rural mobility solutions to support sustainable mobility (including Mobility-as-a-Service) and counter the traditionally fragmented transport base;this will be important as we learn to live with COVID-19.ConclusionsWhile recognising the impact of changing funding priorities and the possible shift in economic activity as a result of the pandemic we conclude with suggestions for future rural transport policy.

14.
Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal ; 92(5):6, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824296

ABSTRACT

One of the most confounding and unexpected results of COVID-19 has been the dramatic increase in the loss of life on our nations roadways. If you had told me at the start of the pandemic that travel would drop dramatically during this period, but fatalities would increase significantly, it would be hard to believe. Unfortunately, that is exactly what happened. In 2019, prior to the pandemic, the National Safety Council estimated that there were 39,107 motor-vehicle deaths. That increased to 42,339 in 2020, and again in 2021 to 46,020. Across this same period, the fatality rate increased from 1.20 fatalities per hundred million vehicle miles traveled in 2019, to 1.43 in 2021. What to do? No single action or solution will reverse this trend. As a community of transportation professionals, this vexing problem requires all the tools in our toolbox. This is the essence of the Safe System Approach. ITE has championed this approach in the United States, which is built around the idea of creating a multifaceted safety net of safer users, safer vehicles, safer roads, safer speeds, and effective post-crash care.

15.
47th Annual Conference of the IEEE-Industrial-Electronics-Society (IECON) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799287

ABSTRACT

Electric Vehicles (EVs) have become prominent on our roadways. They are cost-effective, save our precious time and create a pollution-free environment. High efficiency inductive wireless charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) have proved convenient and user friendly compared to their wired charging counterparts. Wireless EVs (WEVs) are unusual in most countries due to the associated techno-economic problems. Hence, it becomes essential to study in detail about the same before deploying a WEV charging infrastructure. This paper examines the economic aspects of wireless charging systems (WCS) for EVs. The impacts of the COVID-19 and real-estate availability for constructing and commissioning various (WCS) are discussed. Additionally, the cost involved in converters/ inverters, coils, battery for WCS are enumerated.

16.
Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal ; 92(4):26-29, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1790181

ABSTRACT

Equity is becoming a higher priority for transportation agencies and organizations, particularly as the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted gaps in access and as racial injustice has inspired new commitments to antiracist practices. Still, while questions of diversity, access, and bias have come into focus within our industry and have even, at times, led to more equitable public engagement during the planning stages of a project, centering equity should not stop there. Here, Thompson et al encourage transportation practitioners to remember that our work does not have an unspecified end--it impacts actual people whose lived experiences matter and who should be treated equitably.

17.
Beijing Jiaotong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Jiaotong University ; 46(1):51-60 and 78, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789680

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to discuss whether there is heterogeneity in the elderly's satisfaction with bus travel before and after COVID-19. Based on the survey data of the elderly in Taiyuan, this paper subdivides 10 dependent variables of bus travel satisfaction considering the general environment of the pandemic. And the Multi-Categorical and Ordered Logit(MCOL) model and Structural Equation Model(SEM) are adopted to study the impact of personal attributes, travel attributes as well as psychological attributes on the elderly's satisfaction with bus travel before and after COVID-19. The results show that regarding personal attributes, household registration, gender, occupation, disability, and degree of disability all have significant effects on different satisfaction indicators. Among the travel attributes, if the travel purpose was to work before the pandemic, it would have a negative impact on waiting time and arrival time;while the non-work trip would have a negative impact on indicators regarding the inner-bus condition;after the pandemic, only non-work trip has a significant positive impact on the pandemic-related safety warning information. The influence of travel distance and travel time on the elderly's satisfaction with bus travel before and after the pandemic is consistent. In the psychological attributes, before the pandemic, the degree of attention has a strong positive effect on psychological anxiety with an effect value of 0.758;while after the pandemic, the degree of attention produces a significant negative effect of psychological anxiety on bus travel satisfaction, with an effect value of -0.119. This study can serve as a reference for improving the bus transportation environment for the elderly when similar major public health emergencies happen in the future. © 2022, Editorial Department of Journal of Beijing Jiaotong University. All right reserved.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3522, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765893

ABSTRACT

With the development of urbanization and the ageing population, the improvement of the urban environment and the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly in cities with a cold climate have become critical issues to be addressed. However, only a few studies have focused on this aspect. According to a review of the literature, the contents of the built environment (BE) in severe cold regions are defined as thirteen key factors of four categories (density, environmental aesthetics, outdoor environment, and accessibility) and the QOL of old people consists of three aspects (residential, health, and social satisfaction). This study explores how BE variables are associated with the QOL of older adults by using ordered logit and gologit2 models. The data consist of the results of 1945 questionnaires from field surveys in 11 different residential areas, across two cities in northeastern China. The results show: (1) Walkability in winter, distance to a public park of 400–1000 m, outdoor shelters and seating, less than five buses available, and a mixture of evergreen and deciduous trees are five of the most important variables of BE that have a significant positive impact on QOL compared with other climatic regions;(2) “Pocket parks” and pedestrian walkway safety are appropriate approaches to improve wellbeing under local economic conditions. For public transportation, metro and rail transit systems are encouraged, and some rules are needed to reduce the number of buses in harsh weather conditions;(3) Compared with spatial distribution in other climates, the scope of a 15 min city should be less than 1km in severe cold areas. From the findings, we conclude that there are six possible pattern languages to improve the urban environment, and they can provide information for further study on environmental planning in severe cold regions.

19.
Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings ; 4:666-671, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1762466

ABSTRACT

The South Caucasian region started to capture Chinas attention in 2013 when the «One Belt One Road» Initiative was announced. Chinas interest to expand its economic impact in this region can be explained based on a few factors: the regions growing demand for large investments, the economic crisis of neighboring countries caused by US and EU sanctions against Iran, Russia, and Turkey. It should be noted the growing geo-economic role of Azerbaijan in the implementation of the big logistical projects such as Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, Free Economic Zone within Alat International Sea Trade Port, international transport corridors "East-West" and "North-South". These projects have increased Azerbaijan's viability to become a logistical hub on the trade bridge between China and Europe. Today 96 percent of trade volume between China and Europe is carried out via sea routes. China is interested in using the remaining 4 % via land routes throughout the territories of countries that the Great Silk Way passed through in ancient times. This article will analyze the historical and economic aspects of trade relations between Azerbaijan and China, assess the carrying capacity of its transport potential, the possibility of attracting new investments and accessing their impact on its economy and GDP as a whole. Today, the Chinese economic system, and the world economy, is facing a very strong enemy-the coronavirus. A sharp drop in world oil prices on the background of coronavirus slowed global GDP and decreasing of demand for goods supplied by China to foreign markets. According to the Chinese government, the drop in exports for January-February 2020 in dollar terms was 17.2%. To strengthen ties with the world, first of all, all countries must be cured of this disease. And we believe that this difficult task will be solved and the "One Belt One Road" project will be realized.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(5):2645, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1742644

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, freight transport is crucial in the functioning of cities worldwide. To dig further into the understanding of urban freight transport movements, in this research, we conducted a case study in which we estimated an origin-destination matrix for the trucks traveling on Autopista Central, one of Santiago de Chile’s most important urban highways. To do so, we used full real-world vehicle-by-vehicle information of freight vehicles’ movements along the highway. This data was collected from several toll collection gates equipped with free-flow and automatic vehicle identification technology. However, this data did not include any vehicle information before or after using the highway. To estimate the origins and destinations of these trips, we proposed a multisource methodology that used GPS information provided by SimpliRoute, a Chilean routing company. Nevertheless, this GPS data involved only a small subset of trucks that used the highway. In order to reduce the bias, we built a decision tree model for estimating the trips’ origin, whose input data was complemented by other public databases. Furthermore, we computed trip destinations using proportionality factors obtained from SimpliRoute data. Our results showed that most of the estimated origins belonged to outskirt municipalities, while the estimated destinations were mainly located in the downtown area. Our findings might help improve freight transport comprehension in the city, enabling the implementation of focused transport policies and investments to help mitigate negative externalities, such as congestion and pollution.

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