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1.
Amfiteatru Economic ; 24(61):782-796, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030565

ABSTRACT

Deteriorating macroeconomic conditions and plans to move to a green economy such as the Green Deal are putting pressure on both internal and external stakeholders to create a liquidity cushion in the event of unexpected expenditures. However, when analyzing reported earnings, which may constitute a source of internal financing, it is necessary to take into account the corporate life cycle, which changes the quality of reported earnings. The aim of the study is to identify and examine the impact of the corporate life cycle on the level of earnings quality in European transport companies in the pre-crisis years. A hierarchical linear mixed model was used to reveal these relationships, the sample included more than 30,000 companies covering the years 2011-2019 from 30 European countries. Discretionary accruals were used as quality proxy earnings, and the company's life cycle was modeled by the Dickinson cash flow model. Transport companies in Europe in the pre-crisis period had lowquality reported earnings. These enterprises manipulated earnings in accordance with the U-shaped curve, where mature firms applied downward earnings management techniques on average. Very large companies that were listed in the pre-crisis period chose upward earnings management, while smaller and unlisted companies opportunistically reduced reported earnings. These results imply that, in the pre-crisis period, European transport companies opportunistically obtained short-term benefits according to management requirements by reporting accounting profits other than cash flow. However, during the crisis and post-crisis years, they reduced their internal financing resources and/or affected the chances of obtaining state aid and other subsidies approved according to the accounting outputs.

2.
The International Journal of Environmental Sustainability ; 17(2):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030462

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing rules have impacted on the academic community. Air travel to national and international conferences ceased and virtual conferences and meetings are increasing in momentum. This article seeks to discuss two models of academic conferences in relation to their main benefits to participants and the broader implications to the environment and SDG 13 “Climate Action.” While many participants recognize the benefits of virtual conferences, it is questionable whether this new wave of online (virtual/ video) conferences will continue post pandemic. Thus, universities should actively encourage academic and research communities to take a greater part in SDG 13 and to travel CO2-neutral or convert to virtual conferences and meetings moving forward.

3.
Health Promotion International ; 37(4):01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029024

ABSTRACT

Urban age-friendly initiatives strive to promote active and healthy ageing by addressing urban influences that impact individuals as they age. Collaborative community partnerships with multi-level stakeholders are crucial for fostering age-friendly initiatives that can transform urban community health. Employing a citizen social science (CSS) approach, this study aimed to engage older adults and stakeholders in Birmingham, UK, to (i) identify key urban barriers and facilitators to active and healthy ageing, and (ii) facilitate collaboration and knowledge production to lay the groundwork for a citizen science project. Older adults (n = 16;mean age = 72(7.5 SD);11 female) and community stakeholders (n = 11;7 female) were engaged in six online group discussions, with audio recordings transcribed and thematically analysed to present key urban barrier and facilitator themes. Ageism, winter, technology and safety were barriers identified by both groups. Outdoor spaces and infrastructure, transportation, community facilities, and Covid-19 pandemic were identified as barriers and/or facilitators. Older adults identified the ageing process as a barrier and diversity of the city, health and mobility and technology as facilitators. For stakeholders, barriers were deprivation and poverty, gender differences, and ethnicity, whereas age-inclusive activities were a facilitator. Organic and active opportunities for older adults and stakeholders to connect, co-produce knowledge on urban environments and share resources presented foundations of solution-building and future collaboration. CSS effectively facilitated a range of stakeholders across local urban spaces to collaborate and co-produce ideas and solutions for enhancing local urban environments to promote active and healthy ageing.

4.
Digital Innovation for Healthcare in COVID-19 Pandemic: Strategies and Solutions ; : 201-216, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed our lifestyle;nowadays, activities such as studying, working, and meetings, among others, have drastically changed from being face to face to being remote;however, there is still an activity that has not changed as quickly as needed because of its main purpose, i.e., transportation. In this approach, a complete COVID-19 geospatial analysis is conducted correlating official reported cases of COVID-19-infected individuals and those who died with the data of public transportation, focusing on specific areas and the subway service in Mexico City. The geospatial analysis allows identifying the importance of some subway stations and their influence on the rate of infected people and also allows visualizing the distribution of COVID-19 all over the geographic areas near the subway stations and understanding the distribution of COVID-19 in the city. Finally, the approach generates a visualization model of the distribution of COVID-19 and its relation to the subway service using geospatial intelligence. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343331

ABSTRACT

To adhere to health regulations and reduce the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, employers, mobility operators, and travelers alike adopted new strategies such as teleworking, rigorous sanitation, and social distancing. In this research, we examine the individual-level factors contributing to transit ridership abandonment and return decisions. We utilize comprehensive survey-based data of transit users in the Chicago metropolitan area (N = 5,648) collected prior to reopening. We investigate three ridership behaviors, namely (1) discontinued public transit ridership, (2) the intent to return to pre-pandemic transit ridership levels once health concerns are alleviated, and (3) the likelihood of using public transit more often if its fare systems are integrated with other mobility services such as ridehailing and micromobility. Examining the role of sociodemographics, employment characteristics, transit investment priorities, and travel behavior before and during the pandemic, this research reveals fine-grained details about transit usage decline, as well as future intentions. The results indicate that teleworking, unemployment, and vehicle access are the major factors behind discontinued transit ridership. Analysis of race, ethnicity, and gender effects reveals that vulnerable users often have a higher risk of abandonment coupled with a lower likelihood of returning. These results point to the need for transit agencies to consider the unique concerns of ethnic/racial minorities and women. Encouragingly, there is an opportunity for agencies to attract more ridership with fare integration. Several respondent segments would use transit more if fare systems are integrated with ridehailing and micromobility, highlighting the importance of lowering the barriers to accessing these mobility services. This research informs several policies that can be adopted by transit agencies and other mobility providers. We discuss the importance of an equitable return to transit, possibilities for Mobility-as-a-Service with fare integration as a starting point and stress the significance of teleworking in future transit policies.

6.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343296

ABSTRACT

High-speed railways (HSRs) greatly decrease transportation costs and facilitate the movement of goods, services, and passengers across cities. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, however, HSRs may contribute to the cross-regional spread of the new coronavirus. This paper evaluates the role of HSRs in spreading Covid-19 from Wuhan to other Chinese cities. We use train frequencies in 1971 and 1990 as instrumental variables. Empirical results from gravity models demonstrate that one more HSR train originating from Wuhan each day before the Wuhan lockdown increases the cumulative number of Covid-19 cases in a city by about 10 percent. The empirical analysis suggests that other transportation modes, including normal-speed trains and airline flights, also contribute to the spread of Covid-19, but their effects are smaller than the effect of HSRs. This paper’s findings indicate that transportation infrastructures, especially HSR trains originating from a city where a pandemic broke out, can be important factors promoting the spread of an infectious disease.

7.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

8.
Arab World Geographer ; 24(3):205-220, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025178

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on people all over the world, posing health, economic, and social threats to the entire human population. As a part of preventive measures, at the end of March 2020 the UAE promulgated various lockdown measures to reduce the risk of the pandemic, which have a major impact on its local air quality levels. This research investigates the effect of the lockdown measures on the levels of the air pollutants like NO2 and PM2.5in Abu Dhabi Emirate using air quality stations data for the months of March and April 2020. Overall, NO2 levels have fallen dramatically by a range of 19% to 60% across all land use areas within the Emirate. Conversely, PM2.5 levels varied during the lockdown in April 2020, with increases ranging from 31% to 65% in rural and suburban industrial areas and decreases ranging from 2% to 33% in urban and suburban population areas. It can be observed that the lockdown measures had a huge impact on the NO2 levels due to reduced transportation and human activities while PM2.5 levels displayed great variability. The statistical analysis shows a significant moderate positive relationship (rs 0.476) at 0.05 level between NO2 and traffic volume crossing Musaffah Bridge. © 2021 Geo Publishing, Toronto Canada.

9.
World Electric Vehicle Journal ; 13(8):136, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024376

ABSTRACT

The transport sector has to be widely decarbonized by 2050 to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement. This can be performed with different drive trains and energy carriers. This paper explored four pathways to a carbon-free transport sector in Germany in 2050 with foci on electricity, hydrogen, synthetic methane, or liquid synthetic fuels. We used a transport demand model for future vehicle use and a simulation model for the determination of alternative fuel vehicle market shares. We found a large share of electric vehicles in all scenarios, even in the scenarios with a focus on other fuels. In all scenarios, the final energy consumption decreased significantly, most strongly when the focus was on electricity and almost one-third lower in primary energy demand compared with the other scenarios. A further decrease of energy demand is possible with an even faster adoption of electric vehicles, yet fuel cost then has to be even higher or electricity prices lower.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10775, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024199

ABSTRACT

An unreasonable design hourly volume (DHV) greatly impacts road facility construction costs and traffic efficiency. With the rapid rise in the tourism economy and widespread emergence of holiday travel characteristics in China, DHV applicability for suburban expressways requires verification. This study collected annual traffic volume data over 8760 h along Xi’an Ring Expressway from 2017 to 2019. Traffic demand distribution patterns throughout the year and peak hours were analyzed on the basis of the descending order of the obtained hourly traffic volume (HV) and factor data. HV distribution characteristics, 30th highest hourly volume (30 HV) typicality, and DHV factor applicability were investigated. Due to travel characteristics under the background of the tourism economy, the peak HV distribution exhibits polarization characteristics. The recommended value of the design hour traffic factor in the specification corresponded to a number of hours greater than 200, with the 30 HV factor under the background of the tourism economy being 25% higher than the recommended value. Considering the tourism economy, the high level of traffic operation time increased significantly, and the characteristics of a sharp decline in the peak HV disappeared. The 30 HV factor no longer exhibited traditional characteristics. The design causes of traffic congestion are identified herein.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10724, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024194

ABSTRACT

Road freight transportation is already contributing significantly to global warming, and its emissions are predicted to grow dramatically in the following years. Carbon footprint calculation can be used to assess CO2e emissions to understand how an organization’s activities impact global sustainability. To this end, the main objective of this paper is initially to assess the impact of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions stemming from road freight transportation. Subsequently, we adopt the EN 16258 standard to calculate the carbon footprint of a truck fleet of a freight transport operator in Greece. Based on the obtained results, we assess the performance of the company’s fleet by adopting relevant sustainability indicators. We also evaluate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel and its impact on CO2e emissions and operational costs. The paper concludes with a list of additional measures toward further reduction and offsetting of CO2e emissions.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10172, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024143

ABSTRACT

In a century where mobility is becoming more sustainable in terms of energy transition, emissions reduction, and a healthy quality of life, the use of bicycles is increasing and has many advantages over other modes of transport that have been underused. The bicycle is an excellent alternative for short distances of up to five kilometers. In combination with public transportation, it can also successfully compete with motorized transport for longer distances. For the adequate development of cycling, it is necessary to create the right conditions in terms of accessibility and road safety. This means planning appropriate cycling infrastructure where cyclists feel comfortable and safe, which can lead to additional increased use in bicycles for everyday trips. Comfort for cyclists is a concept supported by road safety, a pleasant environment, connectivity, and the attractiveness of cycling infrastructure. In other words, cyclists respond to the physical, psychological, and sociological aspects of the cycling experience that are also related to the cycling infrastructure and environment: where I am, what I see and perceive, and how I feel. This paper presents the concept of the level of service for cyclists (BLOS) as a unified method for defining the comfort of cyclists. This paper presents the method for determining the level of service or comfort for bicyclists as a function of road width, width of the cycling area, traffic volume, and the speed and structure of motorized traffic flow. The result of BLOS, the mathematical model used, is graphically presented and allows decision-makers and designers of cycling infrastructure to easily assess the suitability of cycling infrastructure. Different diagrams for different input data are presented in the paper.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10103, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024133

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) is one of the most important pollutants for human health, and road transport could be a major anthropogenic source of it. Several research studies have shown the impact of roads on the air quality in urban areas, but the relationship between road and rail networks and ambient PM10 concentrations has not been well studied, especially in suburban and rural landscapes. In this study, we examined the link between the spatial characteristics of each road type (motorway, primary road, secondary road, and railway) and the annual average PM10 concentration. We used the European 2931 air quality (AQ) station dataset, which is classified into urban, suburban, and rural landscapes. Our results show that in urban and rural landscapes, the spatial characteristics (the density of the road network and its distance from the AQ monitoring points) have a significant statistical relationship with PM10 concentrations. According to our findings from AQ monitoring sites within the urban landscape, there is a significant negative relationship between the annual average PM10 concentration and the density of the railway network. This result can be explained by the driving wind generated by railway trains (mainly electric trains). Among the road network types, all road types in the urban landscape, only motorways in the suburban landscape, and only residential roads in the rural landscape have a significant positive statistical relationship with the PM10 values at the AQ monitoring points. Our results show that in the suburban zones, which represent the rural–urban fringe, motorways have a strong influence on PM-related air pollution. In the suburban areas, the speed of vehicles changes frequently near motorways and intersections, so higher traffic-related PM10 emission levels can be expected in these areas. The findings of this study can be used to decrease transportation-related environmental conflicts related to the air quality in urban, urban–rural fringe, and rural (agricultural) landscapes.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(16):9962, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024123

ABSTRACT

The paper presents a discussion concerning the development of projects regarding active travel with the policy of sustainable mobility, with active school transport in southern Poland being taken into special consideration. The implementation of the idea of sustainable school travel planning involves linking several social groups, including traffic planners and organizers, school administrators, governments, parents, and children. This, in turn, requires considering the criteria reported by all parties when choosing a scenario for the region’s development in terms of transport solutions. The following study was based on the methodological foundations of multicriteria decision-making analysis. The research purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the actions, policies, and scenarios of active travel projects for the sustainable development of mobility based on the cities of southern Poland. The evaluation was carried out through expert methods with multicriteria decision-making tools based on the MULTIPOL (MULTI-criteria and POLicy) prospective analysis technique. It allowed for the selection of the most probable policy, which covered the six actions considered by the experts to be the most significant for the development of the active school transport system in the analyzed region. Such actions are as follows: identification of walking school bus routes, modernization of crosswalk lines, planning of walking and cycling routes to schools, promoting safety educational programs, distribution of active school transport booklets and cycling, and pedestrian skills training workshops. The paper presents a new method to evaluate the policies and actions regarding promoting sustainable (active) travel to school. The innovative approach results from assembling a mixed group of people (stakeholders) as experts. The mix of experts consisting of users (pupils and parents), practitioners, and scientist experts in this field allowed us to score policies, actions, and scenarios, enabling a wider spectrum of assessment than before.

15.
Sensors ; 22(17):6450, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024048

ABSTRACT

Maritime transport has become important due to its ability to internationally unite all continents. In turn, during the last two years, we have observed that the increase of consumer goods has resulted in global shipping deadlocks. In addition, the future goes through the role of ports and efficiency in maritime transport to decarbonize its impact on the environment. In order to improve the economy and people’s lives, in this work, we propose to enhance services offered in maritime logistics. To do this, a communications system is designed on the deck of ships to transmit data through a constellation of satellites using interconnected smart devices based on IoT. Among the services, we highlight the monitoring and tracking of refrigerated containers, the transmission of geolocation data from Global Positioning System (GPS), and security through the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This information will be used for a fleet of ships to make better decisions and help guarantee the status of the cargo and maritime safety on the routes. The system design, network dimensioning, and a communications protocol for decision-making will be presented.

16.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering ; 10(8):1006, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023810

ABSTRACT

The recent inclusion of shipping in the Fit for 55 legislation package will have large knock-on effects on the industry and consequently on end consumers. The present paper presents an innovative top-down methodology, the MSF455 model, which estimates the new vessel Operational Expenditure (OPEX) as per the provisions of the Fit for 55 package and various scenarios based on carbon tax, penalty allowances, maritime fuel tax and effect. The methodology is presented and tested against six scenarios that are based on Det Norske Veritas’s (DNV) fuel maritime projections. The model illustrates that the distinction between intra-EU and extra-EU penalty allowance creates a large disparity and thus reduction in the competitiveness of goods (produced and transported).

17.
Energies ; 15(17):6471, 2022.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023316

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors assessed the road emissions of several passenger cars using specialised instrumentation, of the PEMS type, to measure particle number emissions in real traffic conditions. The tests were performed on a RDE test route developed and compliant with EU guidelines. The results of the tests were discussed in terms of the direct (created in the internal combustion engine) emission of particulate matter in various road conditions. Additionally, an index was determined that characterizes the number of particles according to their diameter in relation to the content of particles in the air. A characteristic of combustion engines (gasoline, diesel) is that during a cold start of the engine, the concentration of the number of particles with diameters around 100 nm increases more than 200 times (for hybrids—300 times). On this basis, it can be concluded that particle emissions with diameters smaller than 23 nm are significant in motor vehicles powered by combustion engines, regardless of whether they are conventional or hybrid vehicles. The share of particles with diameters less than 5 nm is 66% (for diesel engines) and 40% (for gasoline engines) of all the particles.

18.
Energies ; 15(17):6166, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023314

ABSTRACT

Short-term car rental services, i.e., carsharing, is a solution that has been developing better and better in urban transport systems in recent years. Along with intensive expansion, service providers have to face an increasing number of challenges to compete with each other. One of them is meeting the expectations of customers about the fleet of vehicles offered in the system. While this aspect is noticed in the literature review mainly in terms of fleet optimization and management, there is a research gap regarding the appropriate selection of vehicle models. In response, the article was dedicated to identifying the vehicles that were best suited to carsharing systems from the point of view of frequent customers. The selection of appropriate vehicles was treated as a multi-criteria decision issue, therefore the study used one of the multi-criteria decision support methods—ELECTRE III. The work focuses on researching the opinions of users (experts) who often use carsharing services in Poland. The study included a list of the most popular vehicles in Europe in 2021, including classic, electric, and hybrid cars, and a list of 11 evaluation criteria. The research results indicate for frequent users the advantage of conventional drive vehicles over electric and hydrogen vehicles. Moreover, they indicate that the best vehicles are relatively large cars (European car segments C and D) with the greatest possible length, boot capacity, engine power, number of safety systems, and quality. On the other hand, the least important issues are the number of seats in the vehicle and the number of doors. Interestingly, the vehicles selected by frequent users questioned the concept of small city cars, which occupied a small public space on which carsharing was supposed to focus. The results obtained support the operators of carsharing services in making fleet decisions.

19.
Energies ; 15(16):6030, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023309

ABSTRACT

The primary aim of this study was to assess and classify selected EU countries to groups differing in terms of the degree of implementation of innovative energy technologies to alleviate adverse externalities in road transport. This aim was realised using three groups of research methods: collection of empirical data, data processing and presentation of study outcomes. When collecting the research material, the authors used the method of critical literature review and the documentation method. The research material was processed using the agglomerative clustering technique, which was one of the hierarchical clustering methods. The distance between objects (here, selected EU countries) was determined based on the Euclidean distance. The outcome of this analysis was a dendrogram, which constitutes a graphical interpretation of obtained results. The study was conducted on 21 EU countries. The analyses covered the years 2013–2019. The sources of materials included literature on the subject and the Eurostat data. The problem of innovative energy technologies in road transport is presently of considerable importance. This results from the current situation related to human activity. As a result of the conducted cluster analysis, groups were distinguished based on differences in the use of innovative energy technologies alleviating negative externalities generated by road transport. The first group comprised Sweden, the Netherlands and Finland. Compared to the other groups, this group was distinguished by the highest values of four indexes, i.e., the share of renewable energy sources used in transport in 2019, the share in the market of electric passenger vehicles in 2019, the share in the market of electric lorries in 2019, as well as the share in the market of hybrid automobiles in 2019. Countries which participated the least in the elimination of negative externalities generated by road transport included Romania, Hungary, Greece, Poland, Latvia and Estonia.

20.
Applied Sciences ; 12(16):8262, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023100

ABSTRACT

Exosomal nanoparticles (exosomes or nanovesicles) are biogenic membrane vesicles secreted by various cell types and represent a conservative mechanism of intercellular and interspecies communication in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. By transporting specific proteins, nucleic acids, and low molecular weight metabolites, the exosomes are involved in the regulation of developmental processes, activation of the immune system, and the development of a protective response to stress. Recently, the plant nanovesicles, due to an economical and affordable source of their production, have attracted a lot of attention in the biomedical field. Being a natural transport system, the plant exosomes represent a promising platform in biomedicine for the delivery of molecules of both endogenous and exogenous origin. This review presents current data on the biogenesis of plant exosomes and their composition, as well as mechanisms of their loading with various therapeutic compounds, which are determining factors for their possible practical use. We believe that further research in this area will significantly expand the potential of targeted therapy, particularly targeted gene regulation via the small RNAs, due to the use of plant exosomes in clinical practice.

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