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1.
Med Hypotheses ; 166: 110926, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966946

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV are more exposed to the adverse health effects of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic's health and social repercussions may promote drug abuse and inadequate HIV management among this demographic. The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has caused unprecedented disruption worldwide in people's lives and health care. When the COVID-19 epidemic was identified, people with HIV faced significant obstacles and hurdles to achieving optimal care results. The viral spike protein (S-Protein) and the cognate host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are both realistic and appropriate intervention targets. Calanolides A, Holy Basil, Kuwanon-L, and Patentiflorin have anti-HIV effects. Our computational biology study investigated that these compounds all had interaction binding scores related to S protein of coronavirus of -9.0 kcal /mol, -7.1 kcal /mol, -9.1 kcal /mol, and -10.3 kcal/mol/mol, respectively. A combination of plant-derived anti-HIV compounds like protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogs, which are commonly used to treat HIV infection, might be explored in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19.

2.
Chest ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inflammation is pathogenic in the pneumonitis associated with severe COVID-19. Neutrophils are among the most abundantly present leukocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates and may form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) under the local influence of cytokines. NETs constitute a defense mechanism against bacteria, but also have been shown to mediate tissue damage in a number of diseases. RESEARCH QUESTION: Could NETs and their tissue-damaging properties inherent to neutrophil-associated functions play a role in the respiratory failure seen in patients with severe COVID-19, and how does this relate to the SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, IL-8 (CXCL8) chemokine expression, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte infiltrates? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen lung biopsy samples obtained immediately after death were analyzed methodically as exploratory and validation cohorts. NETs were analyzed quantitatively by multiplexed immunofluorescence and were correlated with local levels of IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the density of CD8+ T-cell infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 presence in tissue was quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: NETs were found in the lung interstitium and surrounding the bronchiolar epithelium with interindividual and spatial heterogeneity. NET density did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 tissue viral load. NETs were associated with local IL-8 mRNA levels. NETs also were detected in pulmonary thrombi and in only one of eight liver tissues. NET focal presence correlated negatively with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the lungs. INTERPRETATION: Abundant neutrophils undergoing NETosis are found in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19, but no correlation was found with viral loads. The strong association between NETs and IL-8 points to this chemokine as a potentially causative factor. The function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 may be interfered with by the presence of NETs.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 879157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933664

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination is the most important countermeasure. Pharmacovigilance concerns however emerged with very rare, but potentially disastrous thrombotic complications following vaccination with ChAdOx1. Platelet factor-4 antibody mediated vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was described as an underlying mechanism of these thrombotic events. Recent work moreover suggests that mechanisms of immunothrombosis including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation might be critical for thrombogenesis during VITT. In this study, we investigated blood and thrombus specimens of a female patient who suffered severe stroke due to VITT after vaccination with ChAdOx1 in comparison to 13 control stroke patients with similar clinical characteristics. We analyzed cerebral thrombi using histological examination, staining of complement factors, NET-markers, DNase and LL-37. In blood samples at the hyper-acute phase of stroke and 7 days later, we determined cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-histone complexes, DNase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, LL-37 and inflammatory cytokines. NET markers were identified in thrombi of all patients. Interestingly, the thrombus of the VITT-patient exclusively revealed complement factors and high amounts of DNase and LL-37. High DNase activity was also measured in blood, implying a disturbed NET-regulation. Furthermore, serum of the VITT-patient inhibited reactive oxygen species-dependent NET-release by phorbol-myristate-acetate to a lesser degree compared to controls, indicating either less efficient NET-inhibition or enhanced NET-induction in the blood of the VITT-patient. Additionally, the changes in specific cytokines over time were emphasized in the VITT-patient as well. In conclusion, insufficient resolution of NETs, e.g. by endogenous DNases or protection of NETs against degradation by embedded factors like the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 might thus be an important factor in the pathology of VITT besides increased NET-formation. On the basis of these findings, we discuss the potential implications of the mechanisms of disturbed NETs-degradation for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in VITT-related thrombogenesis, other auto-immune disorders and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Deoxyribonucleases , Female , Humans , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Peroxidase/metabolism , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/metabolism , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Vaccines/metabolism
4.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 52, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-induced disease 19 (COVID-19) infects more than three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide, and people with severe symptoms frequently die of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies indicated that excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributed to immunothrombosis, thereby leading to extensive intravascular coagulopathy and multiple organ dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced NET formation would be helpful to reduce thrombosis and prevent ARDS in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We incubated SARS-CoV-2 with neutrophils in the presence or absence of platelets to observe NET formation. We further isolated extracellular vesicles from COVID-19 patients' sera (COVID-19-EVs) to examine their ability to induce NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated that antagonistic mAbs against anti-CLEC5A mAb and anti-TLR2 mAb can inhibit COVID-19-EVs-induced NET formation, and generated clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice to confirm the critical roles of CLEC5A and TLR2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation in vivo. We found that virus-free extracellular COVID-19 EVs induced robust NET formation via Syk-coupled C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) and TLR2. Blockade of CLEC5A inhibited COVID-19 EVs-induced NETosis, and simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 further suppressed SARS-CoV-2-induced NETosis in vitro. Moreover, thromboinflammation was attenuated dramatically in clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2-activated platelets produce EVs to enhance thromboinflammation via CLEC5A and TLR2, and highlight the importance of CLEC5A and TLR2 as therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lectins, C-Type , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Receptors, Cell Surface , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
5.
Kardiologiya i Serdechno-Sosudistaya Khirurgiya ; 15(2):202-214, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1924764

ABSTRACT

Literature data on the impact of the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2 on hemostatic system, neutrophil traps, cardiovascular, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract are analyzed. It was shown that further study of the processes following SARS-CoV-2 in-fection is required taking into account individual characteristics of each patient and multiple organ lesion in post-COVID period. Management of patients with mitochondrial, antioxidant therapy with phosphocreatine, meldonium, probiotic zakofalk and interval hypoxic-hyperoxytherapy in post-COVID period is presented. © 2022, Media Sphera Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

7.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 150(1): 9-20, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885946

ABSTRACT

In 2016, sepsis was newly defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis remains one of the crucial medical problems to be solved worldwide. Although the world health organization has made sepsis a global health priority, there remain no specific and effective therapy for sepsis so far. Indeed, over the previous decades almost all attempts to develop novel drugs have failed. This may be partly ascribable to the multifactorial complexity of the septic cascade and the resultant difficulties of identifying drug targets. In addition, there might still be missing links among dysregulated host responses in vital organs. In this review article, recent advances in understanding of the complex pathophysiology of sepsis are summarized, with a focus on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), the significant role of NETs in thrombosis/embolism, and the functional roles of plasma proteins, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) and inter-alpha-inhibitor proteins (IAIPs). The specific plasma proteins that are markedly decreased in the acute phase of sepsis may play important roles in the regulation of blood cells, vascular endothelial cells and coagulation. The accumulating evidence may provide us with insights into a novel aspect of the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic ARDS, including that in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Sepsis , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils
8.
Ecology ; : e3775, 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877584

ABSTRACT

Managing wildlife populations in the face of global change requires regular data on the abundance and distribution of wild animals, but acquiring these over appropriate spatial scales in a sustainable way has proven challenging. Here we present the data from Snapshot USA 2020, a second annual national mammal survey of the USA. This project involved 152 scientists setting camera traps in a standardized protocol at 1485 locations across 103 arrays in 43 states for a total of 52,710 trap-nights of survey effort. Most (58) of these arrays were also sampled during the same months (September and October) in 2019, providing a direct comparison of animal populations in 2 years that includes data from both during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. All data were managed by the eMammal system, with all species identifications checked by at least two reviewers. In total, we recorded 117,415 detections of 78 species of wild mammals, 9236 detections of at least 43 species of birds, 15,851 detections of six domestic animals and 23,825 detections of humans or their vehicles. Spatial differences across arrays explained more variation in the relative abundance than temporal variation across years for all 38 species modeled, although there are examples of significant site-level differences among years for many species. Temporal results show how species allocate their time and can be used to study species interactions, including between humans and wildlife. These data provide a snapshot of the mammal community of the USA for 2020 and will be useful for exploring the drivers of spatial and temporal changes in relative abundance and distribution, and the impacts of species interactions on daily activity patterns. There are no copyright restrictions, and please cite this paper when using these data, or a subset of these data, for publication.

9.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(5): 2122-2138, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869490

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils play a pathogenic role in COVID-19 by releasing Neutrophils Extracellular Traps (NETs) or human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Given that HNE is inhibited by α1-antitrypsin (AAT), we aimed to assess the content of HNE, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and HNE-AAT complexes (the AAT/HNE balance) in 33 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) samples from COVID-19 patients. These samples were submitted for Gel-Electrophoresis, Western Blot and ELISA, and proteins (bound to AAT or HNE) were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. NETs' release was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Both HNE and AAT were clearly detectable in BALf at high levels. Contrary to what was previously observed in other settings, the formation of HNE-AAT complex was not detected in COVID-19. Rather, HNE was found to be bound to acute phase proteins, histones and C3. Due to the relevant role of NETs, we assessed the ability of free AAT to bind to histones. While confirming this binding, AAT was not able to inhibit NET formation. In conclusion, despite the finding of a high burden of free and bound HNE, the lack of the HNE-AAT inhibitory complex in COVID-19 BALf demonstrates that AAT is not able to block HNE activity. Furthermore, while binding to histones, AAT does not prevent NET formation nor their noxious activity.

10.
Immunol Res ; 70(4): 449-460, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859115

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular webs composed of neutrophil granular and nuclear elements. Because of the potentially dangerous amplification circuit between inflammation and tissue damage, NETs are becoming one of the investigated components in the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize studies on the role of NETs in determining the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The study used six databases: PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCOHost, Europe PMC, ProQuest, and Scopus. This literature search was implemented until October 31, 2021. The search terms were determined specifically for each databases, generally included the Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, COVID-19, and prognosis. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) was then used to assess the risk of bias. Ten studies with a total of 810 participants were chosen based on the attainment of the prerequisite. Two were of high quality, seven were of moderate quality, and the rest were of low quality. The majority of studies compared COVID-19 to healthy control. Thrombosis was observed in three studies, while four studies recorded the need for mechanical ventilation. In COVID-19 patients, the early NETs concentration or the evolving NETs degradations can predict patient mortality. Based on their interactions with inflammatory and organ dysfunction markers, it is concluded that NETs play a significant role in navigating the severity of COVID-19 patients and thus impacting their prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Humans , Neutrophils , Pandemics
11.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 186, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a merging role of immunothrombosis in the formation of arterial thrombosis. Our study aims to investigate its relevance in stroke patients. METHODS: We compared the peripheral immunological profile of stroke patients vs. healthy controls. Serum samples were functionally analyzed for their formation and clearance of Neutrophil-Extracellular-Traps. The composition of retrieved thrombi has been immunologically analyzed. RESULTS: Peripheral blood of stroke patients showed significantly elevated levels of DNAse-I (p < 0.001), LDG (p = 0.003), CD4 (p = 0.005) as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 (p < 0.001), INF-γ (p < 0.001) and IL-22 (p < 0.001) compared to controls, reflecting a TH1/TH17 response. Increased counts of DNAse-I in sera (p = 0.045) and Neutrophil-Extracellular-Traps in thrombi (p = 0.032) have been observed in patients with onset time of symptoms longer than 4,5 h. Lower values of CD66b in thrombi were independently associated with greater improvement of NIHSS after mechanical thrombectomy (p = 0.045). Stroke-derived neutrophils show higher potential for Neutrophil-Extracellular-Traps formation after stimulation and worse resolution under DNAse-I treatment compared to neutrophils derived from healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide new insight in the role of activated neutrophils and Neutrophil-Extracellular-Traps in ischemic stroke. Future larger studies are warranted to further investigate the role of immunothrombosis in the cascades of stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS, DRKS00013278, Registered 15 November 2017, https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00013278.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombosis , Deoxyribonucleases , Humans , Neutrophils
12.
Cells ; 11(9):1490, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837098

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells, a small subset of T cells in blood, play a substantial role in influencing immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The functional impact of γδ T cells on angiogenesis in ischemic muscle tissue has never been reported and is the topic of the present work. Femoral artery ligation (FAL) was used to induce angiogenesis in the lower leg of γδ T cell depleted mice and wildtype and isotype antibody-treated control groups. Gastrocnemius muscle tissue was harvested 3 and 7 days after FAL and assessed using (immuno-)histological analyses. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining showed an increased area of tissue damage in γδ T cell depleted mice 7 days after FAL. Impaired angiogenesis was demonstrated by lower capillary to muscle fiber ratio and decreased number of proliferating endothelial cells (CD31+/BrdU+). γδ T cell depleted mice showed an increased number of total leukocytes (CD45+), neutrophils (MPO+) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) (MPO+/CitH3+), without changes in the neutrophils to NETs ratio. Moreover, the depletion resulted in a higher macrophage count (DAPI/CD68+) caused by an increase in inflammatory M1-like macrophages (CD68+/MRC1−). Altogether, we show that depletion of γδ T cells leads to increased accumulation of leukocytes and M1-like macrophages, along with impaired angiogenesis.

13.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834702

ABSTRACT

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cells in the circulation. These cells act as the fast and powerful defenders against environmental pathogenic microbes to protect the body. In addition, these innate inflammatory cells can produce a number of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors for actively participating in the immune network and immune homeostasis. Many novel biological functions including mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity (MICC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), exocytosis of microvesicles (ectosomes and exosomes), trogocytosis (plasma membrane exchange) and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been successively discovered. Furthermore, recent investigations unveiled that PMNs act as a double-edged sword to exhibit paradoxical activities on pro-inflammation/anti-inflammation, antibacteria/autoimmunity, pro-cancer/anticancer, antiviral infection/COVID-19-induced immunothrombotic dysregulation. The NETs released from PMNs are believed to play a pivotal role in these paradoxical activities, especially in the cytokine storm and immunothrombotic dysregulation in the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this review, we would like to discuss in detail the molecular basis for these strange activities of PMNs.

14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(5): 577-587, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830043

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can capture and kill viruses, such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), thus contributing to host defense. Contrary to our expectation, we show here that the histones released by NETosis enhance the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, as found by using live SARS-CoV-2 and two pseudovirus systems as well as a mouse model. The histone H3 or H4 selectively binds to subunit 2 of the spike (S) protein, as shown by a biochemical binding assay, surface plasmon resonance and binding energy calculation as well as the construction of a mutant S protein by replacing four acidic amino acids. Sialic acid on the host cell surface is the key molecule to which histones bridge subunit 2 of the S protein. Moreover, histones enhance cell-cell fusion. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NETosis, histone H3 or H4, or sialic acid notably affected the levels of sgRNA copies and the number of apoptotic cells in a mouse model. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could hijack histones from neutrophil NETosis to promote its host cell attachment and entry process and may be important in exploring pathogenesis and possible strategies to develop new effective therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Histones , Mice , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
15.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has resulted in significant mortality and burdening of healthcare resources. While initially noted as a pulmonary pathology, subsequent studies later identified cardiovascular involvement with high mortalities reported in specific cohorts of patients. While cardiovascular comorbidities were identified early on, the exact manifestation and etiopathology of the infection remained elusive. This systematic review aims to investigate the role of inflammatory pathways, highlighting several culprits including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which have since been extensively investigated. METHOD: A search was conducted using three databases (MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and EMBASE). Data from randomized controlled trials (RCT), prospective series, meta-analyses, and unmatched observational studies were considered for the processing of the algorithm and treatment of inflammatory response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studies without the SARS-CoV-2 Infection period and case reports were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included in this study. The role of the acute inflammatory response in the propagation of the systemic inflammatory sequelae of the disease plays a major part in determining outcomes. Some of the mechanisms of activation of these pathways have been highlighted in previous studies and are highlighted. CONCLUSION: NETs play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response. Despite moving into the endemic phase of the disease in most countries, COVID-19 remains an entity that has not been fully understood with long-term effects remaining uncertain and requiring ongoing monitoring and research.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809941

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are a contributing factor of vascular thrombosis and alveolar damage in COVID-19 patients. As enoxaparin is currently used to inhibit vascular thrombosis, this study aimed to investigate whether enoxaparin also reduced inflammation and NETs in COVID-19 patients. Patients with COVID-19 infection were classified into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe (n = 10 for all groups). Plasma was collected from patients and healthy donors (n = 10). Neutrophils isolated from healthy controls were incubated with COVID-19 or healthy plasma, and with or without enoxaparin pretreatment in vitro. Neutrophils and plasma isolated from patients treated with enoxaparin were also investigated. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and NET products such as dsDNA, NE, MPO-DNA and Histone-DNA complexes in plasma and supernatants were measured using immunofluorescence staining and ELISA kits. The expression of inflammatory signaling genes by neutrophils (RELA, SYK, ERK and PKC) was measured using real-time qPCR. The levels of NET products were elevated in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, particularly in the severe group (p < 0.01). Moreover, plasma from the severe group enhanced NET formation (p < 0.01) from neutrophils in vitro. Enoxaparin pretreatment in vitro decreased plasma-induced NETs in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory genes (p < 0.05). Patients treated with prophylactic enoxaparin showed lower inflammatory cytokine levels and expression of inflammatory genes (p < 0.05). Increased NETs were associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection, particularly in patients with severe pneumonia, and could be used as biomarkers to assess disease severity. Enoxaparin pretreatment inhibited NETs and reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and these effects mostly persisted in patients treated with prophylactic enoxaparin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/metabolism
17.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 5: 100154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783601

ABSTRACT

The clinical and immunological spectrum of acute and post-active COVID-19 syndrome overlaps with criteria used to characterize autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Indeed, following SARS-Cov2 infection, the innate immune response is altered with an initial delayed production of interferon type I (IFN-I), while the NF-kappa B and inflammasome pathways are activated. In lung and digestive tissues, an alternative and extrafollicular immune response against SARS-Cov2 takes place with, consequently, an altered humoral and memory T cell response leading to breakdown of tolerance with the emergence of autoantibodies. However, the risk of developing severe COVID-19 among SLE and RA patients did not exceed the general population except in those having pre-existing neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-I. Treatment discontinuation rather than COVID-19 infection or vaccination increases the risk of developing flares. Last but not least, a limited number of case reports of individuals having developed SLE or RA following COVID-19 infection/vaccination have been reported. Altogether, the SARS-Cov2 pandemic represents an unique opportunity to investigate the dangerous interplay between the immune response against infectious agents and autoimmunity, and to better understand the triggering role of infection as a risk factor in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease development.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821007, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775665

ABSTRACT

Despite ongoing vaccination COVID-19 is a global healthcare problem because of the lack of an effective targeted therapy. In severe COVID-19 manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome, uncontrolled innate immune system activation results in cytokine deregulation, damage-associated molecular patterns release upon tissue damage and high occurrence of thrombotic events. These pathomechanisms are linked to neutrophil function and dysfunction, particularly increased formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). While the association of NETs and severity of COVID-19 has been shown and proved, the causes of NETs formation are unclear. The aim of this review is to summarize potential inducers of NETs formation in severe COVID-19 and to discuss potential treatment options targeting NETs formation of removal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2
19.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2057832, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774257

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and vaccines have shown improvement in lowering viral burden and hospitalization. However, emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants contain neutralizing antibody-escape mutations. Therefore, several reports have suggested the administration of recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rACE2) as a soluble receptor trap to block SARS-CoV-2 infection and limit viral escape potential. Several strategies have been implemented to enhance the efficacy of rACE2 as a therapeutic agent. Fc fusions have been used to improve pharmacokinetics and boost the affinity and avidity of ACE2 decoys for the virus spike protein. Furthermore, the intrinsic catalytic activity of ACE2 can be eliminated by introducing point mutations on the catalytic site of ACE2 to obtain an exclusive antiviral activity. This review summarizes different evolution platforms that have been used to enhance ACE2-Fc (i.e., immunoadhesins) as potential therapeutics for the current pandemic or future outbreaks of SARS-associated betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765732

ABSTRACT

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a two-faced innate host defense mechanism, which, on the one hand, can counteract microbial infections, but on the other hand, can contribute to massive detrimental effects on the host. Cholesterol depletion from the cellular membrane by Methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) is known as one of the processes initiating NET formation. Since neutrophils mainly act in an inflammatory environment with decreased, so-called hypoxic, oxygen conditions, we aimed to study the effect of oxygen and the oxygen stress regulator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on cholesterol-dependent NET formation. Thus, murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils from wild-type and HIF-knockout mice or human neutrophils were stimulated with MßCD under normoxic (21% O2) compared to hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, and the formation of NETs were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. We found significantly induced NET formation after treatment with MßCD in murine neutrophils derived from wild-type as well as HIF-1α KO mice at both hypoxic (1% O2) as well as normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Similar observations were made in freshly isolated human neutrophils after stimulation with MßCD or statins, which block the HMG-CoA reductase as the key enzyme in the cholesterol metabolism. HPLC was used to confirm the reduction of cholesterol in treated neutrophils. In summary, we were able to show that NET formation via MßCD or statin-treatment is oxygen and HIF-1α independent.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Animals , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mice , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism
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