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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(43)2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099047

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTracking person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the population is important to understand the epidemiology of community transmission and may contribute to the containment of SARS-CoV-2. Neither contact tracing nor genomic surveillance alone, however, are typically sufficient to achieve this objective.AimWe demonstrate the successful application of the integrated genomic surveillance (IGS) system of the German city of Düsseldorf for tracing SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains in the population as well as detecting and investigating travel-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters.MethodsGenomic surveillance, phylogenetic analysis, and structured case interviews were integrated to elucidate two genetically defined clusters of SARS-CoV-2 isolates detected by IGS in Düsseldorf in July 2021.ResultsCluster 1 (n = 67 Düsseldorf cases) and Cluster 2 (n = 36) were detected in a surveillance dataset of 518 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Düsseldorf (53% of total cases, sampled mid-June to July 2021). Cluster 1 could be traced back to a complex pattern of transmission in nightlife venues following a putative importation by a SARS-CoV-2-infected return traveller (IP) in late June; 28 SARS-CoV-2 cases could be epidemiologically directly linked to IP. Supported by viral genome data from Spain, Cluster 2 was shown to represent multiple independent introduction events of a viral strain circulating in Catalonia and other European countries, followed by diffuse community transmission in Düsseldorf.ConclusionIGS enabled high-resolution tracing of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an internationally connected city during community transmission and provided infection chain-level evidence of the downstream propagation of travel-imported SARS-CoV-2 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Imported , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Contact Tracing , Germany/epidemiology , Genomics
2.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; JOUR(8):842-855, 27.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097099

ABSTRACT

In an uncertain and escalating risk period resulting from the prolonged pandemic crisis, this study aimed to identify the dimensional nature of online travel agencies' (OTAs) website credibility, and empirically investigate the effects of its components on attitude and behavioral intentions. This study was conducted by collecting 559 questionnaires from mainland Chinese OTA users in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data analyses showed that OTA website credibility comprised six components. Other proposed paths, with the exception of four, were significant at the .05 or .001 level. Interestingly, the paths between content credibility and attitude toward the OTA and between content credibility and loyalty to the OTA were not significant. However, overall, it was confirmed that OTA website credibility determined attitude toward the OTA and loyalty to the OTA, which led to behavioral intention.

3.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; JOUR(8):823-841, 27.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097098

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 have led companies and organizations to carefully decide overseas business travel after borders reopen. This study aims to develop a theory to guide a structural analysis of the situational factors that companies and organizations would consider in overseas business travel decisions and how to measure these factors. A qualitative research approach was adopted. Bunn's situational characteristics were used as the starting point to guide the study. The findings suggest that the decision results from a struggle between carry-on and hold-back forces, which were affected by two and six situational factors respectively. Their measuring dimensions and ten propositions are suggested.

4.
Journal of Air Transport Management ; JOUR: 102325,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086360

ABSTRACT

This paper develops three scenarios for the aviation industry's recovery from COVID-19 until 2030 by utilizing the scenario methodology. Besides the short- and mid-term pandemic development, the study takes into account the industry's adaptation to changes in the market environment, e.g., toward sustainability and hygiene requirements. The resulting scenarios include the expected point in time of full air traffic recovery to pre-crisis levels. Subsequent implications suggest that most COVID-19-related hygiene measures along the travel chain disappear after the pandemic is contained. Some measures might serve as a differentiator between airline business models, while others are expected to become a new standard. Implications for environmental awareness and resulting operational and technical measures include changes in society's attitude toward traveling post-pandemic, especially in light of varying levels of environmental awareness. The presented scenarios help to identify the range of plausible development paths, thus building the basis for future model-based research.

5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 51: 102486, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Student travellers are recognised as a group at high risk of travel-related morbidity, but few previous studies have evaluated students' perceptions of or willingness to take risks during travel. Individual risk propensities may influence travellers' engagement in pre-travel healthcare and can therefore inform strategies in pre-travel risk communication. This study aimed to describe the factors influencing risk-taking willingness, risk perceptions and future health-seeking intention among student travellers. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey (June-August 2021) among students enrolled at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Primary outcomes were travel-related risk-taking willingness and risk perceptions, measured using the health/safety items of the validated Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) scale. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighteen students completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 25.61 years, 78% were female and 46% were born outside Australia. Greater willingness to take risks was predicted by younger age (<25 years), being Australian-born, greater travel experience (3+ trips), having previously sought PTA, and perceiving oneself at low risk of severe COVID-19. We found no significant predictors of risk perception. Increased intention to seek pre-travel advice in the future was associated with greater risk perception, younger age, and perceiving oneself at high risk of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: These findings support the rationale for a greater role of risk communication in travel medicine promotion strategies. We recommend that this could be achieved through 1) increasing risk perception by emphasising potential travel-associated risks, 2) personalising information about travel risks, 3) addressing perceived benefits of engaging in risky behaviours, and 4) reinforcing self-efficacy.

6.
IET Intelligent Transport Systems ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082967

ABSTRACT

The mobility provider MOIA operates Europe's largest contiguous electric ride-pooling service in Hamburg, representing a testbed of how shared and digitized transport can help foster the transformation of urban mobility. The on-demand service has been in operation since 2019 and was thus affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. This study shows real-world insights into travel behavior before and during the pandemic, contributing to the empirical evidence on recent mobility behavior. After the application of descriptive statistical analyses, several (spatial) regression models are estimated to understand the relationship between spatial variables and demand. MOIA trip data from three different time periods are used: (a) before the COVID-19 pandemic in summer and autumn 2019, (b) during the time of the first lockdown in Germany in spring 2020, and (c) after the first lockdown in summer and autumn 2020. A significant positive effect on ride-pooling demand is observed for number of inhabitants, workplaces, gastronomic facilities, and at the airport in all time periods. In the course of the pandemic, the main travel patterns remained stable. However, the positive influences of gastronomy and the airport on ride-pooling demand diminished in 2020. In contrast, the impact of hospitals on ride-pooling demand increased in the course of the pandemic. In areas with high car ownership, ride-pooling demand declined compared to pre-pandemic times.

7.
Asian Transport Studies ; JOUR: 100087,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082715

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the behavioural impact of COVID-19 on commuter's mobility. For this purpose, an online questionnaire survey was prepared, which was circulated in Delhi, India. More than 200 respondents participated in the survey. The information regarding travel patterns, working, mental health, and psychological stress are obtained for pre, during and post-COVID-19 periods. The results highlight that a significant number of commuters stated to shift their choice of commuting from shared modes to private modes of transport in the post-COVID-19 period. About 28.7% of persons who change their modes are likely to use it for a more extended period. Due to lockdown, 65% of people who are working/studying from home expressed to resume offline mode after COVID-19. About 80% of the persons will have anxiety and tension, which is likely to affect their driving behaviour (e.g., rash driving, distraction, insecurity).

8.
Cities ; : 104058, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082529

ABSTRACT

Women are among the groups most affected by the pandemic as they are more likely to be dependent on public transport (PT), which was heavily restricted during COVID-19. Thus, there is a need to consider transport alternatives such as bike sharing that can ensure their mobility needs. By conducting a survey to the bike sharing system (BSS) of Lisbon, we explored differences in travel behaviour and attitudes between female and male users before and during COVID-19. We found men to have higher bike ownership rates, a higher modal share of personal bicycle regarding commuting, and more likely to use their own bikes if BSS was unavailable. Conversely, women more frequently combined BSS with PT and were more likely to use PT if BSS was unavailable. Moreover, while men were using BSS more frequently than women pre-pandemic, during COVID-19 women are using BSS as frequently as men. Our research provides evidence on the potential role of BSS as a transport alternative during pandemics, inducing women to take up cycling who otherwise would not cycle, therefore, potentially decreasing the current cycling gender gap. Findings suggest that introducing family/friend discounts and promoting BSS for exercising may be increase the share of female cyclists.

9.
Sustainability ; 13(23), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080476

ABSTRACT

International esteem for Galapagos' natural wonders and the democratization of travel have contributed to a 300% increase in annual tourist entries to the archipelago from 2000 (68,989) to 2018 (275,817). The attendant spike in tourism-related anthropogenic impact coupled with deficient infrastructure development has put the archipelago's natural capital and carrying capacity at risk. The complex nature of Galapagos' food insecurity is linked to the archipelago's geographic isolation, its diminishing agricultural workforce, international tourists' demand for recognizable food, and a lack of investment in sustainable and innovative agricultural futures. Food security is key to the long-term well-being of Galapaguenos, who sustain Galapagos' tourism industry. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the vulnerability of human systems in Galapagos, especially the fragility of Galapagos' ecotourism dependency. Galapaguenos' struggle to endure the tourism sector's slow rebound following the 2020 travel restrictions points to an urgent need to implement food security measures as an indispensable component of the archipelago's long-term sustainability plan. This article presents ethnographic data to discuss the tourism sector's impact on local food systems, Galapaguenos' right to food sovereignty, efforts to increase agricultural production, and why strengthening institutional partnerships is vital to Galapagos' food self-sufficiency.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080469

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to the acceleration of the digitization process and to a shifting to Industry 4.0. Blockchain (BC) is one of the technologies that has been introduced worldwide in recent years. It has been beneficial for the tourism industry, in addition to many other sectors. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of BC adoption in the tourism industry, as well as the possible solutions to overcome the challenges. This paper conducts a systematic literature review (SLR) that consists of the operations for detecting, selecting, categorizing, and analyzing relevant articles on a specified subject. It is evident from the results that the majority of the academic works illustrate the benefits of BC implementation and explain its potential by providing diverse models of BC-based systems. However, since BC is a young technology, numerous challenges have appeared on the path to its full adoption in the tourism industry. Possible solutions are the achievement of a collaborative approach among the stakeholders, the deepening of academic research in the field, testing more models of BC-based systems, and the establishment of relevant policies. Consequently, the implications for the theory, practice, policy, and research of this work are significant.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080464

ABSTRACT

The tourism industry is one of the most affected industries by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding travel motivation is necessary for the tourism movement, even in the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this quantitative study aimed to explore travel motivation and its determinants. We collected 181 samples through a web-based questionnaire survey of the Nepali people in January and February 2021. The data were analyzed using a probit regression model through two different travel companion perspectives, i.e., traveling with friends and traveling with family members. We found that travel motivation, attributes, travel purpose, and transport mode preferences differed in companion groups. Specifically, those who want to travel with friends are government employees, 20-29 years of age, set health and wellness purposes, choose the bike for transportation, are less willing to visit homestay and agritourism, and want to travel for around one week. Those who plan to travel with family members use the coach to travel, choose rural destinations, including villages, and spend around two weeks. Based on these findings, we suggest that the Nepalese tourism destination and public transport companies make tourism packages targeting the groups. Since both groups showed interest in visiting rural destinations, we can say that tourism in rural destinations may revive earlier than urban tourism after the pandemic. However, a low-risk travel environment should be ensured for traveling to attract more tourists during and the post-disaster.

12.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080769

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruptions in international communications and travel for academic global health programs (AGHPs) in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given the importance of international travel and communication to AGHPs, the pandemic has likely had considerable impact on the education, research, and administrative components of these programs. To date, no substantive study has determined the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on AGHPs in HICs and LMICs. This study assessed the impacts and resultant adaptations of AGHPs to pandemic realities with the goal of sharing strategies and approaches. Methods: This study applied a mixed methods sequential explanatory design to survey AGHPs in HICs and LMICs about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on three program domains: education, research, and administration. First, we surveyed a range of AGHP stakeholders to capture quantitative data on the pandemic's impact. Subsequently we conducted semi-structured interviews with select survey participants to gather qualitative data expanding on specific survey responses. Data from both phases were then compared and interpreted together to develop conclusions and suggest adaptive/innovative approaches for AGHPs. Results: AGHPs in both HICs and LMICs were significantly impacted by the pandemic in all three domains, though in different ways. While education initiatives managed to adapt by pivoting towards virtual learning, research programs were impacted more negatively by the disruptions in communication and international travel. The impact of the pandemic on scholarly output as well as on funding for education and research was quite variable, although LMIC programs were more negatively impacted. Administratively, AGHPs implemented a range of safety and risk mitigation strategies and showed a low risk tolerance for international travel. The pandemic posed many challenges but also revealed opportunities for AGHPs. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted AGHPs in HICs and LMICs in expected and unexpected ways. Programs noted some unanticipated reductions in education program funding, negative impacts on research programs, and reduced scholarly output. Many programs reported well-coordinated adaptive responses to the pandemic including, for instance, virtual (in place of in-person) collaboration in research. The pandemic will likely have lasting impacts with regard to education, research collaborations, and administration of programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Front Psychol ; 13: 906108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080250

ABSTRACT

At the 2019 and 2021 International Conference on Environmental Psychology, discussions were held on the future of conferences in light of the enormous greenhouse gas emissions and inequities associated with conference travel. In this manuscript, we provide an early career researcher (ECR) perspective on this discussion. We argue that travel-intensive conference practices damage both the environment and our credibility as a discipline, conflict with the intrinsic values and motivations of our discipline, and are inequitable. As such, they must change. This change can be achieved by moving toward virtual and hybrid conferences, which can reduce researchers' carbon footprints and promote equity, if employed carefully and with informal exchange as a priority. By acting collectively and with the support of institutional change, we can adapt conference travel norms in our field. To investigate whether our arguments correspond to views in the wider community of ECRs within environmental psychology, we conducted a community case study. By leveraging our professional networks and directly contacting researchers in countries underrepresented in those networks, we recruited 117 ECRs in 32 countries for an online survey in February 2022. The surveyed ECRs supported a change in conference travel practices, including flying less, and perceived the number of researchers wanting to reduce their travel emissions to be growing. Thirteen percent of respondents had even considered leaving academia due to travel requirements. Concerning alternative conference formats, a mixed picture emerged. Overall, participants had slightly negative evaluations of virtual conferences, but expected them to improve within the next 5 years. However, ECRs with health issues, facing visa challenges, on low funding, living in remote areas, with caretaking obligations or facing travel restrictions due to COVID-19 expected a switch toward virtual or hybrid conferences to positively affect their groups. Participants were divided about their ability to build professional relationships in virtual settings, but believed that maintaining relationships virtually is possible. We conclude by arguing that the concerns of ECRs in environmental psychology about current and alternative conference practices must be taken seriously. We call on our community to work on collective solutions and less travel-intensive conference designs using participatory methods.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 32(11): 510-518, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increases in human mobility have been linked to rises in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. The pandemic era in Japan has been characterized by changes in inter-prefectural mobility across state of emergency (SOE) declarations and travel campaigns, but they have yet to be characterized. METHODS: Using Yahoo Japan mobility data extracted from the smartphones of more than 10 million Japanese residents, we calculated the monthly number of inter-prefectural travel instances, stratified by residential prefecture and destination prefecture. We then used this adjacency matrix to calculate two network connectedness metrics, closeness centrality and effective distance, that reliably predict disease transmission. RESULTS: Inter-prefectural mobility and network connectedness decreased most considerably during the first SOE, but this decrease dampened with each successive SOE. Mobility and network connectedness increased during the Go To Travel campaign. Travel volume between distant prefectures decreased more than travel between prefectures with geographic proximity. Closeness centrality was found to be negatively correlated with the rate of COVID-19 infection across prefectures, with the strength of this association increasing in tandem with the infection rate. Changes in effective distance were more visible among geographically isolated prefectures (Hokkaido and Okinawa) than among metropolitan, central prefectures (Tokyo, Aichi, Osaka, and Fukuoka). CONCLUSION: The magnitude of reductions in human mobility decreased with each subsequent state of emergency, consistent with pandemic fatigue. The association between network connectedness and rates of COVID-19 infection remained visible throughout the entirety of the pandemic period, suggesting that inter-prefectural mobility may have contributed to disease spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Travel , Tokyo
15.
Transport and Sustainability ; 17:165-183, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078147

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted travel patterns, use of space and modal choice. Cities took actions in a way they did not before, trying to accommodate economic and travel needs with the goal of reducing the spreading of the virus. Active travel (AT) played an important role in accommodating travel needs and in increasing the resilience and environmental friendliness of the urban transport system. As cities gradually return to their normal life, transport planners must decide which role to assign to AT in future urban plans. In particular, whether to confirm the temporary policies incentivising AT enacted to counteract the reduction in the use of public transport or to return to the previous road space allocation that dedicated considerable urban space to motorised vehicular traffic. After reviewing the empirical evidence on the AT evolution during the various pandemic phases and illustrating the main policies planned and implemented at city level in many countries, this chapter summarises the lessons learnt, derives some policy suggestions, and identifies future research needs. © 2022 by Emerald Publishing Limited.

16.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 8(3):282-297, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2078122

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to examine critically the literature on transformational tourism and explore a research agenda for a post-COVID future. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the transformational tourism literature is performed over a 42-year period from 1978 to 2020. Findings: Further research is required in terms of how transformative experiences should be calibrated and measured both in qualitative and quantitative terms, particularly from the perspective of how tourists are transformed by their experiences. Similarly, the nature and depth of these transformative processes remain poorly understood, particularly given the many different types of tourism associated with transformative experiences, which range from religious pilgrimages to backpacking and include several forms of ecotourism. Practical implications: Future research directions for transformational tourism are discussed with regard to how COVID-19 will transform the dynamics of tourism and travel, including the role of new smart technologies in the creation of enhanced transformational experiences, and the changing expectations and perceptions of transformative travel in the post-COVID era. In addition, the researchers call for future studies on transformational tourism to explore the role of host communities in the delivery of meaningful visitor experiences. Originality/value: Transformational tourism is an emerging body of research, which has attracted a growing level of interest among tourism scholars in recent years. However, to this date, a systematic review of published literature in this field has not been conducted yet in a holistic sense. This paper offers a framework for future research in this field.

17.
COVID-19 in the Environment: Impact, Concerns, and Management of Coronavirus ; : 231-248, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075805

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus drastically changes people’s travel behavior all over the world. This study aims to investigate the effect of people’s adaptive travel behavior on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in south Asian countries. We estimate the changes in GHG emission due to the COVID-19 global restrictions during the period of March-May 2020. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to explore the travel distance, the number of trips, and travel modes in pre-pandemic and during the pandemic in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The travel distances were converted to GHG emission using IPCC and UNEPA emission factors for different modes of travel. COVID-19 suddenly declined the choice of public transport, taxi, and office transport by 55.80 percent, 33.33 percent, and 55.81 percent, respectively. The choice of walking, car, and motorcycle was increased by 42.85 percent, 16.21 percent, and 9.28 percent, respectively. Avoidance of travel was increased by 229 percent. These sharp changes in the choice of travel modes are attributable to the control measures, risk perception, and adaptive behavior, e.g., remote working, online shopping, virtual teaching-learning and meetings, and stay at home. Travel length for all modes was declined including walking, rickshaw, tuktuk, taxi, private car, office/campus transport, and public transport, while the bicycling length was increased by 40.75 percent. Pandemic reduced emission by 52.34 percent, 22.84 percent, 57.28 percent, 46.05 percent, and 30.16 percent for public transport, private car, office/campus transport, taxi, and motorcycle, respectively. COVID-19 caused a notable 32.81 percent reduction in emission in the month of May 2020 in the study area. The control measures and risk perception of COVID-19 made some sustainable impressions on travel behavior expected to be continued apart from COVID-19 that would contribute to the reduction of 35 percent GHG emission by 2050 that is assigned to the transport sectors in the Paris Climate Agreement. The findings are useful in sustainable transport planning, decision, and the policymaking process to capture travel behavior in pandemics. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18.
Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones ; : 000-000, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072035

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on anticipatory happiness during the week (current happiness but considering the rest of the week) in employees confined due to COVID-19. In Diary Study 1, 71 employees with home-based telework participated on five consecutive workdays (Monday-Friday). We found a quadratic change pattern with an acceleration of the increase in anticipatory happiness right before the weekend. Results also confirmed a positive association between daily variability in anticipatory happiness and daily fluctuations in job satisfaction and positive affect. In Diary Study 2, 83 employees who carried out an essential activity outside the home participated for two consecutive weeks. Our findings showed a cubic change pattern where anticipatory happiness reaches its highest average score on Friday, dropping sharply on Monday, and then the cycle (rhythm) begins again. Changes in anticipatory happiness were positively associated with changes in job satisfaction and positive affect, and negatively related to fluctuations in negative affect.

19.
Aims Biophysics ; 9(3):235-245, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071963

ABSTRACT

Travel restrictions have become an important epidemic preventive measure, but there are few relevant quantitative studies. In this paper, travel proportion is introduced into a four-compartment model to quantify the spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan. It is found that decreasing the travel proportion can reduce the peak of infections and delay the peak time. When the travel proportion is less than 35%, transmission can be prevented. This method provides reference for other places.

20.
Pacific Business Review International ; 15(1):33-40, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071034

ABSTRACT

The increasing cases of Covid-19 (Corona virus) resulted towards lockdown not only in India but all over the world. The movement of traffic internationally was closed. The nationwide lockdown which was imposed by Government of India brought a lot of changes in the lifestyle of people. Earlier, many studies have reported about the financial impact of COVID-19 on tourism industry & the correlation between COVID-19 and trends in tourism industry. The idea is to relate those variables with onslaught of Covid-19 and to understand, more long-term impact that COVID-19 will have on travellers' perception towards tourism. An online survey was conducted to collect primary data in which a questionnaire was circulated to travellers all over India. The results of this study can be used by the companies and government institutions to develop marketing strategies to increase travellers' consumption experience.

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