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1.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (135):29 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965129

ABSTRACT

This paper explores agricultural performance of Mozambique, its institutional weaknesses, and the underlying factors that underpin an unsatisfactory performance during many decades. We point to the role of systemic political instability and violence combined with challenges to state legitimacy. Regional divides and lack of market integration continue to influence in a critical and all-encompassing manner. Finally, the way in which the interests of the elite and the influence of donors have affected progress in the agriculture sector suggests the need for concerted reorientation in existing strategies, policies, and priorities. This is reinforced by future challenges, including the extractive industry;population growth and internal migration;national and international markets;climate change;and COVID-19. We highlight the need to place the future of agriculture in Mozambique within a long-term perspective, focusing on the adoption and stabilization of an institutional framework aimed at increasing agricultural productivity and preserving the environment.

2.
Business Inform ; 1:217-223, 2022.
Article in Ukrainian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965100

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic caused crushing damage to the economies of countries and the hospitality industry, as a branch of the world economy, experienced almost the greatest shocks and destruction. In view of this, Ukraine is no exception: the pandemic has dealt a powerful blow to the entire hospitality industry - hotel and restaurant business, tourism, recreational economy, etc. Thus, according to the results of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 alone, the number of collective accommodation facilities in Ukraine decreased by 15.2%, the number of places in collective accommodation facilities decreased by 15.8%. The same negative trend is observed with the dynamics of the indicator of the number of people who used collective means of accommodation this year - a decrease of 51.5% compared to the previous, left-pointing-double-angle precovid right-pointing-double-angle year. Even more radically - by 73.5% - in 2020, the number of foreigners who used Ukrainian collective means of accommodation decreased. Quarantine restrictions imposed by the government, a decrease in the purchasing power of the population and a general pessimistic mood of potential tourists encourage in these unfavorable conditions to find and quickly introduce new directions and contemporary concepts of development and maintenance of all branches of the domestic hospitality industry in the condition, able to function: clustering of tourism and related industries, including hotel and restaurant economy, development of domestic tourism, etc. In particular, the promotion and development of promising types of domestic tourism - wine, green, agricultural, historical and cultural - can be considered a powerful factor in the development of the hospitality industry of Ukraine, in particular its southern region, in the current unfavorable and changing conditions of the pandemic.

3.
Revue Forestiere Francaise ; 73(4):499-511, 2021.
Article in French | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964903

ABSTRACT

The resin market has undergone fundamental changes in recent years. As a result of these disruptions, resin tapping resumed thanks to public and private initiatives in Spain, France and Portugal. The first part of this article describes the main tapping systems round the world and the associated products. This technical information is supplemented with economic data on the past evolution of the market for this raw material. In the second part, the recent trends related to the COVID-19 crisis and the uncertainties for the future of this sector are presented. © AgroParisTech, 2021.

4.
Webology ; 19(1):2475-2490, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964724

ABSTRACT

Due to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, industries are heavily reliant on online meeting platforms. The pandemic has forced most MNCs to rely on online platforms such as Zoom or Microsoft Teams to hold daily business meetings and even conferences and other corporate events. Schools and other educational institutions have also been forced to conduct classes and all other events through these platforms. This increased unavoidable dependence on online platforms has resulted in an exponential increase in advertising fraud. Advertising fraud is the application of any method or technology that hampers the proper delivery of advertisements to the proper audience or the proper place, or forcefully inserts advertisements at undesirable times or locations. This could take multiple forms and has become far more widespread with increased use of online platforms. Some common methods used for digital fraud can be the pay-per-click (PPC) model, domain spoofing or in the form of bots, but the main objective is to gain financial advantages from advertising transactions. The primary objective of this study is to identify and understand the factors lying behind the presence of fraudulent activities on any online medium and to analyse the probability of downloading an application after coming across the online advertisement, and watching it. The study also aims to highlight how marketing agencies tend to float fraud advertisement just to gain more revenue from their end.

5.
Webology ; 19(1):1573-1586, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964711

ABSTRACT

The Study aims to explore and test the factors affecting customers' online transaction behavior with e-banking services in the Covid-19 pandemic, with TAM (Technology Acceptance Model). The author used data survey from 225 people who are customers of commercial banks in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The research methods used SPSS software for EFA and CFA analysis. The results of multivariable regression analysis determined 7 factors affecting intention to use e-banking services: perceived ease of use, expected effectiveness, and risk. transaction risk, bank branding, social influence, behavioral control and perceived preference. In which, the risk component in the transaction has the most important influence on the intention to use e-banking services, followed by the component of expected effectiveness, followed by the component of bank brand, followed by component of bank brand followed by the Social Influence component, then perceived ease of use, and finally behavioral control and perceived preference. The research results also serve as a basis for a survey for Vietnamese banks to promote using e-banking services by customers in developing electronic products in Vietnam.

6.
Algorithms ; 15(7):231, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963660

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is still a major cause of disease morbidity and mortality, making its early diagnosis desirable and urging researchers to develop efficient methods devoted to automatic AF detection. Till now, the analysis of Holter-ECG recordings remains the gold-standard technique to screen AF. This is usually achieved by studying either RR interval time series analysis, P-wave detection or combinations of both morphological characteristics. After extraction and selection of meaningful features, each of the AF detection methods might be conducted through univariate and multivariate data analysis. Many of these automatic techniques have been proposed over the last years. This work presents an overview of research studies of AF detection based on RR interval time series. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community and newcomers to the field of AF screening with a resource that presents introductory concepts, clinical features, and a literature review that describes the techniques that are mostly followed when RR interval time series are used for accurate detection of AF.

7.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963410

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of COVID-19 in 2020, various actions have been taken by governments and agencies globally to curtail its spread and devastating effects. Risk communication is an essential component of such actions. Examination of public interest, risk perception and new cases of COVID-19 is vital to understanding the effectiveness of risk communication strategies implemented. With data paucity plaguing policymaking in Nigeria, there is a need to examine new data sources to support the enhancement of risk communication. The study explored Google Trends (GT) and Google Mobility Reports (GMR) in monitoring public restlessness and risk perception, respectively, toward COVID-19 in Nigeria. This is geared toward understanding the effectiveness of the national risk communication strategy. COVID-19 case statistics, stringency index, mobility, and search indices for selected terms were collated (February 28 to June 30, 2020). Temporal dynamics were examined while correlation analysis was carried out to examine the association. Public attention peaked just around the commencement of the nationwide lockdown and declined considerably afterwards despite increasing new cases. Mobility toward most place categories showed a sharp decline at the beginning of the pandemic, except for residential areas. This trend also reversed soon after the lockdown. COVID-19 case statistics were found to be negatively correlated with the public interest. Public interest had a weak but both negative and positive association with the stringency index, while mobility exhibited a weak negative association with the case statistics (except residential area mobility). The results indicated that the risk communication efforts were inadequate in providing a prolonged health behavior change. The initial risk communication and lockdown created a positive outcome, however, the impact soon faded out. The evidence suggests that risk perception may have been poorly targeted by risk communication interventions. It is recommended that continuous monitoring of public interest and risk perception is implemented during an emergency and risk communication adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2022 Lawal.

8.
Foundations of Computing and Decision Sciences ; 47(2):209-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963309

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the research in this article is to investigate the main trends in the development of the different industries during the COVID-19 pandemic, to identify the main problems facing the different industries in the context of the global crisis, as well as to form the basic concepts necessary for a real recovery of the global industry. The authors identify the main problems facing the aviation industry in the developing world crisis and possible ways to solve them. As a working hypothesis, it is proposed to form the basic concepts necessary for preparing and implementing operational measures to restore passenger and cargo aviation. Considering the main threats facing the aviation industry during COVID-19, the article proposes the organizational and economic mechanisms to restore the industry. Furthermore, several recovery scenarios are considered, considering the relevant factors that have a particular impact. Next, a novel mathematical model for pharmaceutical products, which are the most important in COVID-19 pandemics, is proposed. Moreover, the model considers the uncertainty, and a robust optimization approach is applied. The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of documentary data provided by government agencies in several European countries. An analysis of global and Russian passenger traffic for Q1-Q4 (quartile) of 2020 and a development forecast for Q1-Q2 of 2021 is provided. The scenario problems facing the aviation industry in the context of the COVID-19 crisis are identified. There are key concepts necessary to prepare and implement effective measures to restore the aviation industry. © 2022 Alexey I. Tikhonov et al., published by Sciendo.

9.
ARS Medica Tomitana ; 26(4):200-203, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1963304

ABSTRACT

Urticaria is one of the best-known dermatological diseases and affects between 15% and 25% of the global population. Angioedema, an acute complication of urticaria, affects about 3% of the population. The retrospective study took into account the patients diagnosed with urticaria in the emergency room of the Macin City Hospital, and aimed to assess the epidemiological aspects during the 2015-2020 period, and too see how it the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic influenced the incidence of diagnosed urticaria in the emergency room of a local hospital from South-East Romania. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic might be observed in the ER activity of city hospitals, where a decreased number of presentations was observed, and, at the same time with an increase in the proportion and absolute number of urticaria cases.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worsening air quality and pollution lead to numerous environmental health and sustainability issues in the South Asia region. This study analyzes India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal for air quality data trends and sustainability indicators. METHODOLOGY: By using a population-based study design, six South Asian countries were analyzed using a step-wise approach. Data were obtained from government websites and publicly available repositories for region dynamics and key variables. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2020, air quality data indicated the highest rise in CO2 emissions in India (578.5 to 2441.8 million tons) (MT), Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Greenhouse gas emissions, from 1990 to 2018, nearly tripled in India (1990.4 to 3346.6 MT of CO2-equivalents), Nepal (20.6 to 54.6 MT of CO2-equivalents), and Pakistan, and doubled in Bangladesh. Methane emissions rose the highest in Pakistan (70.4 to 151 MT of CO2-equivalents), followed by Nepal (17 to 31 MT of CO2-equivalents) and India (524.8 to 669.3 MT of CO2-equivalents). Nitrous oxide nearly doubled in Bangladesh (16.5 to 29.3 MT of CO2-equivalents), India (141.6 to 256.9 MT of CO2-equivalents), Nepal (17 to 31 MT of CO2-equivalents), and more than doubled in Pakistan (27 to 61 MT of CO2-equivalents). On noting particulate matter 2,5 annual exposure, India saw the highest rise from 81.3 µg/m3 (in 1990) to 90.9 µg/m3 (2017), whereas trends were steady in Pakistan (60.34 to 58.3 µg/m3). The highest rise was noted in Nepal (87.6 to 99.7 µg/m3) until 2017. During the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, the pre-and post-pandemic changes between 2018 and 2021 indicated the highest PM2.5 concentration in Bangladesh (76.9 µg/m3), followed by Pakistan (66.8 µg/m3), India (58.1 µg/m3), Nepal (46 µg/m3) and Sri Lanka (17.4 µg/m3). Overall, South Asian countries contribute to the worst air quality and sustainability trends regions worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is prevalent across a majority of South Asia countries. Owing to unsustainable industrial practices, pollution trends have risen to hazardous levels. Economic, environmental, and human health impacts have manifested and require urgent, concerted efforts by governing bodies in the region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Environmental Pollution , Humans , India/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Sri Lanka
11.
Journal on Migration and Human Security ; 10(2):134-145, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1962718

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes and provides estimates of the undercount of the foreign-born in the US Census Bureau’s 2020 American Community Survey (ACS). It confirms that a differential undercount occurred in the 2020 ACS. In particular, noncitizens that arrived from Central American countries after 1981 had undercount rates of 15–25 percent, but undercount of noncitizens that arrived from European countries in the same period was not detectable by the methods described in this paper. The Center for Migration Studies of New York (CMS) and others use ACS data to derive annual estimates of the US undocumented population. The Census Bureau recently reported that the total population count for the 2020 Census was consistent with the count for recent censuses, despite the Covid-19 pandemic and the Trump administration’s interference in the 2020 Census. Nonetheless, the accuracy of 2020 ACS data for the noncitizen population that arrived after 1981 remains a major concern given the fear generated by the Trump administration’s abusive rhetoric and anti-immigrant policies. The estimates set forth in this paper were derived by analyzing trends in annual ACS data for 2016–2020 compiled from the IPUMS website (Ruggles et al. 2021). Decennial census data cannot be used for this purpose because data on country of birth, citizenship, and year of immigration are not collected in the census. However, it is reasonable to believe that the 2020 census and the 2020 ACS experienced similar challenges because they were conducted under comparable conditions. The patterns of undercount of noncitizens described here for the 2020 ACS are likely mirrored in the 2020 census and will reduce federal funding and representation to affected cities and states for the next decade.

12.
2022 12th International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics, ICAPM 2022 ; 2287, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960902

ABSTRACT

This paper study the nowcasting and forecasting for the healthcare stock price in the united states during the Covid-19 period including the google trend data information. The data is collected in monthly data from 2015 to 2020 which are five interested stock price indexes in the healthcare sector. Empirically, the finding reveals that the Bayesian structural time series analysis can be used to investigate the stock price indexes with the google trend data is becoming useful for the prediction in term of current movement. In term of the machine learning algorithms, the unsupervised learning k-Mean algorithm is employed to cluster the cycle regimes of the stock market which provided three regimes such as Bull market, Sideways and Bear market. There are twenty-nine months stand for bull market, thirty-seven months are predictively provided sideways market and five months are referred as the bear market. Additionally, the supervised learning algorithms by using the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) and Support vector machine (SVM) are used to investigate the cycle regimes of healthcare stock in next five year. The results indicated that LDA is chosen by the highest coefficient validation which represented the the regimes of stock in the healcare sector of the unites states of America will stay on the sideways periods in the next five years. Thus, the finding in this paper can be the useful information for investor to manage their portfolio especially, in healthcare sector during the Covid-19 period. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

13.
BMC Urol ; 22(1): 88, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962805

ABSTRACT

AIM: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare in Australia have yet to be fully determined. There are well documented decreases in the rates of screening and diagnostic testing for many cancers in 2020, with commensurate stage migration of cancers when they are eventually detected. We aimed to determine whether there was a decrease in the rate of prostate cancer (PC) screening and testing in Australia in 2020. METHOD: Data was extracted from the Department of Human Services (DHS) website for Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) item numbers for tests pertinent to detection of Prostate Cancer. This data is de-identified and publicly available. Data was analysed at both a national, and a state level. RESULTS: For 2020 nationwide the percentage change for prostate cancer testing was minor with 97% as many PSA tests, 99% as many prostate MRIs, and 105% as many prostate biopsies as the average for the preceding years. The differences were not significant (PSA tests p = 0.059 and prostate biopsies p = 0.109). The predicted values are fairly similar to both the average values for the preceding 5 years and the actual number of tests done in 2020. With exception of PSA tests in Victoria the actual number of tests performed was within the 95% Prediction Interval (performed: 167,426; predicted 171,194-196,699; p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: The current pandemic has had a widespread reach across Australia, with varying impact across each state and territory. Contrary to the trends across the world, our data suggest that during 2020 in Australia most areas remained unaffected in terms of prostate cancer testing excluding Victoria, which had statistically significant decrease in the number of PSA tests correlating with the extended lockdown that occurred in the state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Male , National Health Programs , Pandemics , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Victoria
14.
International Conference on Tourism, Technology and Systems, ICOTTS 2021 ; 293:311-325, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958928

ABSTRACT

Although tourism, as a system, develops risk prevention and mitigation strategies, the direct, indirect, and induced generated shock by the Covid-19 pandemic is different when compared to previous high-impact events. This pandemic is more intense and conducive to structural changes. In this context, tourists’ perceptions affect their behaviour and decisions, with adverse results in Tourism consumption, and the safety, protection, and health risks generate a cause-effect relationship on the specificities of destinations, the valences of infrastructure, compliance with protocols, and the adoption of good practices (Seabra et al. in Int J Tour Cities 7:463–491, [1]). The prevailing opinion amongst specialists is that Tourism will only reach pre-Covid levels between 2023 and 2024 whereby the proposed approach and methodology prove to be opportune because they allow a more detailed knowledge of the characterization of demand and constitute a relevant information base for structuring the offer. Thus, through the systematic review of the literature, it is relevant to approach the behaviour of tourists in a post-pandemic context, through the meta-analysis of studies carried out in 2020 and 2021, emphasizing the conclusions obtained, the dynamics of their comparison, and their potential impact. The results achieved suggest the need to readjust models, methods, and processes, as well as to reconfigure means and interactions, in order to add value in the design of instruments, in the implementation of solutions and, in the management of expectations. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1104-1106, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958303

ABSTRACT

In their study, Aliseda-Alonso et al. compared publicly available surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)to data on COVID-19 cases and deaths from state and territorial governmental sources;they found that the CDC consistently underreports the cases and deaths of Blacks and Latinos as well as people younger than 65 years. Standardizing data collection and reporting is necessary, but not sufficient, for interoperability-the ability of the US health system's many sectors to easily exchange information to benefit clinical, public health, and research efforts. A wide variety of data sources will be required, including, but not limited to, public health surveillance data, clinical data from public and private health systems, death certificates, claims, and administrative and survey data. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has created an Interoperability Standards Advisory process to provide information regarding standards needed for interoperability, although without the authority to require implementation or adoption.7 In a 2020 report, interoperability between health systems in the United States was reported to be improving, albeit slowly;it is concentrated in cities, is highly variable, and is associated with health system size.8 In Iran, Shanbehzadeh et al. consulted the literature and convened experts to create a COVID-19 minimum data set and interoperable reporting framework to support their nation's public health pandemic response.9 Following the implementation of a standardized, interoperable data collection system, states must be held accountable for data reporting.

16.
IUP Journal of Knowledge Management ; 20(2):38-59, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958260

ABSTRACT

Sustainable Development (SD) has remained a major discourse in the political and academic circles for over a decade. According to the United Nations, SD is defined by 17 measurable goals which could be used to evaluate a nation's achievements. Lately, the concept of bioeconomy has emerged as a strategic direction for economic prosperity among the comity of nations amid the devastating effects of the Covid-19 pandemic. It is argued that bioeconomy has the ultimate potential of actualizing the SD goals. Consequent upon such prospects, this paper seeks to establish a nexus between the pervasive knowledgedriven technologies of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the development and sustenance of a vibrant bioeconomy. It adopts a systematic review with a prime focus on how AI integrates and drives biotechnological processes towards sustainable production particularly in the area of food security. This paper further identifies the lapses in the integration and adoption processes and makes a case for interdisciplinary collaboration among professional societies who are the major players in the academia and the industry, as well as the government's contribution towards the review and implementation of appropriate public-private partnership programs to drive AI-driven biotech projects at the grassroots.

17.
Hirosaki Medical Journal ; 72(1-4):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958209

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To clarify the association between the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic curve and Google Trends search volumes for the disease during the three major epidemic waves in Japan. Method: Correlation between the number of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan and the internet search volume for “corona” in the period 12th January 2020 to 19th February 2021 was evaluated using the open database provided by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation and Google Trends index data. Results: The peak search volume for “corona” was highest during the first wave and lowest during the third wave. In contrast, the peak number of new cases per week was lowest during the first wave and highest during the third wave. The search volume and number of new cases per week showed strong correlations in each wave;however, the search volume in each wave decreased remarkably from the first to the third wave. Conclusion: This study identified evidence of so-called “pandemic fatigue”, a habituation reaction against COVID-19, in Japan. Prolonged and repeated waves of the epidemic have made people less sensitive for preventing spread of coronavirus disease 2019. Sustained, clear communication will be required to elicit the cooperation of the population in controlling the pandemic. © 2022 Hirosaki University School of Medicine. All rights reserved.

18.
Webology ; 19(2):4593-4603, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957928

ABSTRACT

In the modern business environment, there is an evident mismatch of the skills possessed by individuals and those businesses are sourcing. Despite business leaders ensuring automation, digitisation and extraction of value of data (for example by artificial intelligence) are core organisational priorities, the workforce should still be in a position to complement the value of technology. The rising popularity of technology has impacted the manner in which knowledge is acquired. This is particularly important for the Millennials and Generation Z who are currently transitioning to the new world of work and largely acquiring knowledge through the internet. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has upset the balance of this new world of work, involving business, digital technologies and new ways of working. The solution to a successful transition by Millennials and Generation Z requires embracing technology and upgrading training programmes. Therefore, this paper has identified the best practice in using digital learning to harness the transition to the new world of work. Also, this paper has evaluated on the ways in which the markets evolve or change over time. It has been pointed out that their implications would include varying employment markets, changing demands and supplies for skills, and demographic trends (Millennials and Generation Z.) The current COVID-19 pandemic has been noted to have an impact on the labour markets today and in future.

19.
IUP Journal of Knowledge Management ; 20(2):60-74, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957893

ABSTRACT

We live in a rapidly changing, uncertain environment. The political and economic strength of countries and regions is changing based on their capabilities to become more resilient, futureoriented and knowledge-based. In this environment, basic economic indicators like growth measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) do not measure future readiness, resilience to change, or development in general, as they are based on past decisions. This paper argues that in order to be able to successfully adapt to the changing environment, economic and social achievements have to be measured not by growth indicators, but by development ones, which highlight real progress and convergence. Among them, intangible asset and intangible investment indicators are especially crucial, as they measure the real health of the economy and society. The key competitive factor on which progress will be based is human capital with good health, knowledge and skills. The paper proves that countries with excellent growth results lag behind in terms of development achievements, measured by the mentioned intangibles. This discrepancy may lead to a dangerous development trap situation. The paper uses statistical data of different countries to prove its suggestions.

20.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; : 102304, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956181

ABSTRACT

We investigate stock market uncertainty spillovers to commodity markets using wavelet coherence and a general stock market-related Google Search Trends (GST)-based index to proxy for uncertainty. GST reflect stock market uncertainty over short-, medium- and long-term horizons and periods of association between GST and the VIX, a widely used proxy for stock market uncertainty, coincide with economic, financial, and geopolitical events. We show that the association between the VIX and GST has grown over time. In line with economic psychology, this implies that during times of heightened uncertainty investors increasingly search for stock market-related information. Our analysis further reveals that some commodities are more susceptible to uncertainty spillovers from stock markets, most notably energy commodities. We go onto demonstrate how GST may be used to isolate the impact of specific events and show that COVID-19 had a disproportionate impact on commodity price volatility. We also find that energy, livestock and precious metals are increasingly integrated with stock markets. Spillover analysis repeated using the VIX produces similar results and reflects information that is also reflected in GST, confirming an uncertainty narrative. The use of wavelet analysis and GST to proxy for general and event specific uncertainty offers an alternative perspective to traditional econometric approaches and may be of interest to econometricians, analysts, investors and researchers broadly.

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