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1.
Heliyon ; 8(12): e11901, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506363

ABSTRACT

In this research, turbulent flow numerical models in a wavy channel were investigated. The studied channel is simulated in two dimensions and symmetrically in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re=10,000 to 80,000. The significant cause of this research is to investigate and determine the appropriate method for estimating the behavior of turbulent flow in a wavy channel. In this research, the behavior of turbulent flow in a wavy channel will be simulated in 7 different ways, which are k-ω SST, k-ϵ RN, k-ϵ Realizable, k-ϵ Standard, k-ω Standard, Reynolds stress and Spalart-Allmaras. The findings of this research show that the impacts of the presence of flow viscosity (friction) and the presence of adverse pressure gradients are factors that strongly affect the velocity profiles in the upstream areas of the corrugated section. Among the studied models, due to better compatibility and guessing of flow and hydrodynamic properties, k-ω SST methods and Reynolds and Spalart-Allmaras stress are introduced as the best methods for such geometries. On the other hand, increasing the accuracy of other turbulence methods is related to the flow physics and geometric structure of each problem. In this research, the hydrodynamic parameters of the flow such as pressure drop, skin friction factor, and dynamic pressure drop coefficient and vortex contours, and pressure are plotted and described.

2.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(9)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141100

ABSTRACT

Scholars usually ignore the non-equilibrium condensing effects in turbulence-model comparative studies on supersonic steam ejectors. In this study, a non-equilibrium condensation model considering real physical properties was coupled respectively with seven turbulence models. They are the k-ε Standard, k-ε RNG, k-ε Realizable, k-ω Standard, k-ω SST, Transition SST, and Linear Reynolds Stress Model. Simulation results were compared with the experiment results globally and locally. The complex flow phenomena in the steam ejector captured by different models, including shock waves, choking, non-equilibrium condensation, boundary layer separation, and vortices were discussed. The reasons for the differences in simulation results were explained and compared. The relationship between ejector performance and local flow phenomena was illustrated. The novelty lies in the conclusions that consider the non-equilibrium condensing effects. Results show that the number and type of shock waves predicted by different turbulence models are different. Non-equilibrium condensation and boundary layer separation regions obtained by various turbulence models are different. Comparing the ejector performance and the complex flow phenomena with the experimental results, the k-ω SST model is proposed to simulate supersonic steam ejectors.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(47): 71857-71870, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606579

ABSTRACT

Rotating packed bed (RPB) is a promising technology which can be used to intensify mass transfer in absorption processes. A better understanding of fluid dynamics is crucial to fill the gap in fundamental knowledge. Raising awareness on new technology and creating rules for process design and control are also very important. The experimental investigation of fluid in rotating beds is a very complex and difficult issue. What is more, the knowledge of the phase behavior in an RPB device is still insufficient. Therefore, an CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation is proposed as a tool for the study of gas phase flow inside porous packing. This study presents a three-dimensional numerical model for two fluid models: k-ε and RNG k-ε, for predicting dry pressure drop. The obtained simulation outcome was compared with the experimental results. The experimental dry pressure drop for porous packing was investigated for rotational speed in the range from 150 rpm to 1500 rpm and compared to the results from the CFD model. The comparison between the experimental and simulation results indicates very good consistency for the entire range of the rotational speed of interest. CFD modelling is recognised as an adequate tool leading to the better understanding of gas phase behaviour inside an RPB, filling an essential gap in our knowledge of the hydrodynamics of rotating packing, which allows to improve the design and performance of the process in RPB in terms of minimizing energy and material consumption.

4.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105959, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324962

ABSTRACT

Airflow and aerosol deposition in the human airways are important aspects for applications such as pulmonary drug delivery and human exposure to aerosol pollutants. Numerical simulations are widely used nowadays to shed light in airflow features and particle deposition patterns inside the airways. For that purpose, the Euler/Lagrange approach is adopted for predicting flow field and particle deposition through point-particle tracking. Steady-state RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) computations of flow evolution in an extended lung model applying different turbulence models were conducted and compared to measurements as well as high resolution LES (large-eddy simulations) for several flow rates. In addition, various inlet boundary conditions were considered and their influence on the predicted flow field was analysed. The results showed that the mean velocity field was simulated reasonably well, however, turbulence intensity was completely under-predicted by two-equation turbulence models. Only a Reynolds-stress model (RSM) was able predicting a turbulence level comparable to the measurements and the high resolution LES. Remarkable reductions in wall deposition were observed when wall effects were accounted for in the drag and lift force expressions. Naturally, turbulence is an essential contribution to particle deposition and it is well known that two-equation turbulence models considerably over-predict deposition due to the spurious drift effect. A full correction of this error is only possible in connection with a Reynolds-stress turbulence model whereby the predicted deposition in dependence of particle diameter yielded better agreement to the LES predictions. Specifically, with the RSM larger deposition is predicted for smaller particles and lower deposition fraction for larger particles compared to LES. The local deposition fraction along the lung model was numerically predicted with the same trend as found from the measurements, however the values in the middle region of the lung model were found to be somewhat larger.


Subject(s)
Lung , Models, Biological , Aerosols , Computer Simulation , Humans
5.
Pharm Res ; 38(2): 277-288, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to investigate the impact of adding a grid to a two-inlet dry powder inhaler (DPI). The purpose of the paper is to show the importance of the correct choice of closure model and modeling approach, as well as to perform validation against particle dispersion data obtained from in-vitro studies and flow velocity data obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. METHODS: CFD simulations are performed using the Ansys Fluent 2020R1 software package. Two RANS turbulence models (realisable k - ε and k - ω SST) and the Stress Blended Eddy Simulation (SBES) models are considered. Lagrangian particle tracking for both carrier and fine particles is also performed. RESULTS: Excellent comparison with the PIV data is found for the SBES approach and the particle tracking data are consistent with the dispersion results, given the simplicity of the assumptions made. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows the importance of selecting the correct turbulence modelling approach and boundary conditions to obtain good agreement with PIV data for the flow-field exiting the device. With this validated, the model can be used with much higher confidence to explore the fluid and particle dynamics within the device.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols/chemistry , Dry Powder Inhalers , Equipment Design , Powders/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Computer Simulation , Hydrodynamics , Models, Chemical , Particle Size , Rheology
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