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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199530

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, there has been a large body of literature focusing on the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and young people. The purpose of this study is to explore the current research status and the specific mechanism of COVID-19's effects on young people based on related literature. This paper mainly used VOS viewer and CiteSpace software to conduct a scientometric analysis of 5,077 publications retrieved from the Web of Science database. The results show that the main contributors to the field were mainly from North America and Europe, and the trend of research focus was from shallow to deep. The five main research areas in the field were summarized by keyword clustering analysis as follows: lifestyle changes due to lockdown;changes in stress and emotions;psychological illness and trauma;risk perception and practice toward the epidemic;interventions and social support. Finally, they were linked by four pathways to form a framework that integrates the relationships between the five domains and between elements within each of them, revealing the mechanism of COVID-19's effect on young people. In addition, less studied but promising elements are also presented in the framework, such as research on special groups (disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and sexual minority youth) and extreme suicidal tendencies that deserve our further attention.

2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199523

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus elicited immense global interest in the development and distribution of safe COVID-19 vaccines by various governments and researchers, capable of stopping the spread of COVID-19 disease. After COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, several vaccines have been developed for emergency use authorization. The accelerated development of the vaccines was attributed to many factors but mainly by capitalizing on years of research and technology development. Although several countries tried to develop COVID-19 vaccines only a few countries succeeded. Therefore, we applied statistical methods to find factors that have contributed to the fast development of COVID-19 vaccines. All 11 countries that developed vaccines were considered and chose other 24 countries for comparison purposes according to different criteria of their R&D. Fourteen R&D indicator variables that are a measure of the R&D for all countries [World Development Indicators (WDI)] were obtained from the World Bank DataBank and data on the COVID-19 vaccine R&D were obtained from The Knowledge Portal of the Graduate Institute Geneva and Global Health Center. The World Bank records WDI yearly, and 2019 was chosen because of a few missing values. Also, different vaccine policies were adopted by different countries during the COVID-19 vaccination period, producing different impacts of vaccinations on the population. So, we applied the generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to find policies that contributed greatly to decreasing the spread of COVID-19 using data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) and age-specific vaccination data from the European Center for Disease and Prevention and Control. Logistic regression, two-sample t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test found scientific and technical journals, liability, and COVID-19 Vaccine R&D Funding (investment in pharmaceutical industry US$) are significantly associated with fast COVID-19 vaccine development. Vaccine prioritization and government vaccine financial support were significantly associated with COVID-19 daily cases. The impact of vaccination on lowering the rate of new cases is greatly observed among the mid-aged populations (25-64 years) and lower or non-significant among the younger (<25 years) and (>65 years) older populations. Therefore, these age-groups especially > 79 can be prioritized during vaccine roll-out.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10:1046634, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199520

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: On 9 April 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that only 19. 9% of United States (US) adults were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. In that same week, the Navajo Nation (NN) reported that 37.4% of residents were fully vaccinated, making the NN a leader in the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Despite high vaccination rates, vaccine hesitancy exists within the NN. The Diné (Navajo) Teachings and Public Health Students Informing Peers and Relatives about Vaccine Education (RAVE) intervention was designed to utilize trusted health messengers as an effective means to address adults' vaccine concerns and hesitancy. METHODS: The research team used COVID-19 vaccine materials developed in a previous collaboration with non-Navajo tribal communities and publicly available materials. Diné Traditional Knowledge Holders (TKHs) were interviewed to develop and incorporate Diné-specific information on individual and collective health behaviors into the RAVE materials. These drafted health education materials were presented to NN community health representatives (CHRs) and Diné public health students using a consensus panel approach. NN residents who participated in the intervention completed a 16-element retrospective pretest. RESULTS: The adaptation and tailoring process of materials yielded 4 health education materials. The students recruited 46 adults for health education sessions. These participants then completed the retrospective pretest. Changes in the 16 elements were in the desired direction, although only six were significant: four related to attitudes and two concerned with vaccination intention. Participants were more likely to consider vaccination and to try to get vaccinated after the education session. DISCUSSION: Trusted messengers and culturally centered materials have been identified as effective means of health behavior education with Native American audiences. RAVE applied these intervention elements by (1) training Diné College public health students to leverage their cultural knowledge and social relationships (cultural and social capital) to recruit vaccine-hesitant adults and provide education;(2) building on previous understanding of Native American communities' vaccine concerns;and (3) integrating Diné perspectives on individual and collective health into the adaptation of materials designed for general audiences;this knowledge was gained from interviews with TKHs.

4.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199462

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe United States is home to 10.5 million undocumented immigrants, of which 5 out of 10 are Mexican or Central American. Their immigration status is an obstacle to secure employment that provides labor benefits such as sick leave and health insurance. Living through the global pandemic in the U.S. had a negative impact on this vulnerable population's mental and physical health. They avoided seeking primary or hospital care fearful that they were undocumented and uninsured. The services provided by the Ventanillas de Salud (VDS) "Health Windows" mitigated this pandemic's negative impact and have become an important source to support and increase access to health services among the immigrant community. MethodsDe-identified data from a database system called the Continuous Information System and Health Reports of Mexicans in the United States (SICRESAL-MX) to perform this secondary analysis. The descriptive analysis describes socio-demographic, epidemiological, and situational characteristics of COVID-19. ResultsBetween January 2020 and July 2021, the VDS and UMS provided 11.5 million individual services to just over 4.3 million people. The main health conditions are overweight and obesity, high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol and glucose levels. Between March 2020 to July 2021 a total of 2,481,834 specific services related to COVID-19 were offered. DiscussionThe Mexican migrant community in the United States is in a vulnerable situation, largely due to its immigration status which limits their access to health and human services, including primary health care services. Many of them have suffered from chronic diseases since before the pandemic, generating difficulties in monitoring the ailments and exacerbating their conditions.

5.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1033672, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198879

ABSTRACT

B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins are involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and are key modulators of cellular lifespan, which is dysregulated during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other viral infections, thereby increasing the lifespan of cells harboring virus, including the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Long-lived cells harboring integrated HIV-1 DNA is a major barrier to eradication. Strategies reducing the lifespan of reservoir cells could significantly impact the field of cure research, while also providing insight into immunomodulatory strategies that can crosstalk to other viral infections. Venetoclax is a first-in-class orally bioavailable BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3) mimetic that recently received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment in myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia. Venetoclax has been recently investigated in HIV-1 and demonstrated anti-HIV-1 effects including a reduction in reservoir size. Another immunomodulatory strategy towards reduction in the lifespan of the reservoir is Jak 1/2 inhibition. The Jak STAT pathway has been implicated in BCL-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression, leading to a downstream effect of cellular senescence. Ruxolitinib and baricitinib are FDA-approved, orally bioavailable Jak 1/2 inhibitors that have been shown to indirectly decay the HIV-1 latent reservoir, and down-regulate markers of HIV-1 persistence, immune dysregulation and reservoir lifespan in vitro and ex vivo. Ruxolitinib recently demonstrated a significant decrease in BCL-2 expression in a human study of virally suppressed people living with HIV (PWH), and baricitinib recently received emergency use approval for the indication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), underscoring their safety and efficacy in the viral infection setting. BCL-2 and Jak 1/2 inhibitors could be repurposed as immunomodulators for not only HIV-1 and COVID-19, but other viruses that upregulate BCL-2 anti-apoptotic proteins. This review examines potential routes for BCL-2 and Jak 1/2 inhibitors as immunomodulators for treatment and cure of HIV-1 and other viral infections.

6.
Environmental Policy and Law ; 52(5/6):463-471, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198479

ABSTRACT

. The current name of the game on climate action by the Global North is called "Backtracking" - backtracking on almost every commitment made by them at the various Conference of Parties (COP) held under the Unites Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This comes even as the UNFCCC turned 30 on 04 June 2022. The article seeks to place under scanner issues at stake that will impinge upon the future trajectory of the climate change regulatory regime.

7.
Emerging infectious diseases ; 29(2), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198462

ABSTRACT

Genomic data provides useful information for public health practice, particularly when combined with epidemiologic data. However, sampling bias is a concern because inferences from nonrandom data can be misleading. In March 2021, the Washington State Department of Health, USA, partnered with submitting and sequencing laboratories to establish sentinel surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 genomic data. We analyzed available genomic and epidemiologic data during presentinel and sentinel periods to assess representativeness and timeliness of availability. Genomic data during the presentinel period was largely unrepresentative of all COVID-19 cases. Data available during the sentinel period improved representativeness for age, death from COVID-19, outbreak association, long-term care facility-affiliated status, and geographic coverage;timeliness of data availability and captured viral diversity also improved. Hospitalized cases were underrepresented, indicating a need to increase inpatient sampling. Our analysis emphasizes the need to understand and quantify sampling bias in phylogenetic studies and continue evaluation and improvement of public health surveillance systems.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2), 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198458

ABSTRACT

We combined field-based data with mathematical modeling to estimate the effectiveness of smartphone-enabled COVID-19 exposure notification in Pennsylvania, USA. We estimated that digital notifications potentially averted 7-69 cases/1,000 notifications during November 8, 2020-January 2, 2021. Greater use and increased compliance could increase the effectiveness of digital notifications.

9.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198448

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the worldwide COVID- 19 pandemic triggered considerable attention to the emergence and evolution of novel human pathogens. Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first discovered in 2014 in Bourbon County, Kansas, USA. Since its initial discovery, several cases of BRBV infection in humans have been identified in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. BRBV is classified within the Thogotovirus genus;these negativestrand RNA viruses appear to be transmitted by ticks, and much of their biology remains unknown. In this review, we describe the emergence, virology, geographic range and ecology, and human disease caused by BRBV and discuss potential treatments for active BRBV infections. This virus and other emerging viral pathogens remain key public health concerns and require continued surveillance and study to mitigate human exposure and disease. Copyright © 2023 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

10.
Physical Culture and Sport ; 97(1):77-93, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198328

ABSTRACT

The spread of the COVID-19 virus significantly impacted the fitness industry with government restrictions including mandated closures. CrossFit, a major player in the global fitness industry, faced a new industry landscape and significant internal division while coping with the crisis. This study contributes to the literature on CrossFit coaches, who are important cultural figures in fitness services. This study investigated CrossFit coaches' perceptions of COVID-19 restrictions through semi-structured interviews with a diverse sample in Georgia and Florida, U.S. The coaches displayed CrossFit exceptionalism, believing that fitness facilities should have been treated differently, and CrossFit gyms in particular were distinctive enough to merit special consideration. Some coaches approved of the governmental response, but others disapproved, and many expressed gratitude that they were in states with short restriction periods. Their demonstration of uncertainty, however, somewhat conflicted with their exceptionalism. These perceptions may influence coaches' behaviors and impact CrossFit participants, which makes the topic worthy of additional study.

11.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 101(1):8-9, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198272

ABSTRACT

Anthony Fauci talks to Gary Humphreys about his achievements at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), his experiences advising seven consecutive United States presidents, and the challenges faced in communicating scientific evidence.

12.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 260(10):1144, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198262
13.
Journal of Information Ethics ; 31(2):102-117, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198217

ABSTRACT

This article examines the intersection of trust, authority, the COVID-19 infodemic, and what this convergence may suggest for the growing emphasis on social justice in American libraries. It considers the library as an honor system-or, more accurately, a trust system-both in its essential character and its operations. It begins with the proposition that libraries are and will remain trusted institutions, and that they have an instrumental and intellectual role to play in combating the ill effects of the pandemic through blunting the impact of the infodemic. However, even if libraries are positioned to help provide clarity and direction, they face distinct challenges in delivering services to a public that is increasingly skeptical of their role as a traditional authority in providing information, stewarding culture, and representing community interests. Incorporating concepts from John Rawls' framework for social justice, this article seeks to explore the notions of interpersonal and institutional trust as requirements for democratic stability and a just society. Specifically, it seeks to analyze some of the ethical dilemmas that this post-trust era presents to librarians, their institutions, and the communities they serve. How might libraries contribute to re-establishing and sustaining interpersonal and institutional trust at the community and societal level?

14.
Journal of Information Ethics ; 31(2):38-47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198216

ABSTRACT

At present, economic inequality is one of the most pervasive social justice issues. Income inequality and disparities in wealth, in the U.S. and the world, are well-documented. Data also indicate the U.S. is an exception as a country where upward mobility is declining (Foroohar). This discussion takes place in the context of a U.S. society, which has been described as a meritocracy. Despite the fact that the Coronavirus pandemic has both revealed and heightened economic and other disparities in society, research indicates the widespread perception that attaining "the American Dream" is based solely on hard work and commitment. Similarly, public perceptions appear to be affecting recruitment in skilled, blue-collar occupations, which have, historically, provided access to the middle class for many people. In this context, Dirty Jobs television host Mike Rowe described the value of "a workforce that's trained for jobs that actually exist" (Caprino). A key aspect of the development of the public library in the U.S. is related to fostering access to information to support individuals' full participation in society. This informational and educational role of the library has been key in supporting societal engagement and upward mobility over time, including in increasing awareness of and preparation for employment opportunities.

15.
JMIR Research Protocols ; 11(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198171

ABSTRACT

Background: Automated and data-driven methods for screening using natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning may replace resource-intensive manual approaches in the usual care of patients hospitalized with conditions related to unhealthy substance use. The rigorous evaluation of tools that use artificial intelligence (AI) is necessary to demonstrate effectiveness before system-wide implementation. An NLP tool to use routinely collected data in the electronic health record was previously validated for diagnostic accuracy in a retrospective study for screening unhealthy substance use. Our next step is a noninferiority design incorporated into a research protocol for clinical implementation with prospective evaluation of clinical effectiveness in a large health system. Objective: This study aims to provide a study protocol to evaluate health outcomes and the costs and benefits of an AI-driven automated screener compared to manual human screening for unhealthy substance use. Methods: A pre-post design is proposed to evaluate 12 months of manual screening followed by 12 months of automated screening across surgical and medical wards at a single medical center. The preintervention period consists of usual care with manual screening by nurses and social workers and referrals to a multidisciplinary Substance Use Intervention Team (SUIT). Facilitated by a NLP pipeline in the postintervention period, clinical notes from the first 24 hours of hospitalization will be processed and scored by a machine learning model, and the SUIT will be similarly alerted to patients who flagged positive for substance misuse. Flowsheets within the electronic health record have been updated to capture rates of interventions for the primary outcome (brief intervention/motivational interviewing, medication-assisted treatment, naloxone dispensing, and referral to outpatient care). Effectiveness in terms of patient outcomes will be determined by noninferior rates of interventions (primary outcome), as well as rates of readmission within 6 months, average time to consult, and discharge rates against medical advice (secondary outcomes) in the postintervention period by a SUIT compared to the preintervention period. A separate analysis will be performed to assess the costs and benefits to the health system by using automated screening. Changes from the pre- to postintervention period will be assessed in covariate-adjusted generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results: The study will begin in September 2022. Monthly data monitoring and Data Safety Monitoring Board reporting are scheduled every 6 months throughout the study period. We anticipate reporting final results by June 2025. Conclusions: The use of augmented intelligence for clinical decision support is growing with an increasing number of AI tools. We provide a research protocol for prospective evaluation of an automated NLP system for screening unhealthy substance use using a noninferiority design to demonstrate comprehensive screening that may be as effective as manual screening but less costly via automated solutions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03833804;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03833804 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/42971

16.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 8(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198136

ABSTRACT

Background: The shortage of medical resources in rural China reflects the health inequity in resource-limited settings, whereas telemedicine could provide opportunities to fill this gap. However, evidence of patient acceptance of telemedicine services from low- and middle-income countries is still lacking. Objective: We aimed to understand the profile of patient end-user telemedicine use and identify factors influencing telemedicine service use in rural China. Methods: Our study followed a mixed methods approach, with a quantitative cross-sectional survey followed by in-depth semistructured interviews to describe telemedicine use and its associated factors among rural residents in Guangdong Province, China. In the quantitative analysis, explanatory variables included environmental and context factors, household-level factors, individual sociodemographic factors, access to digital health care, and health needs and demand factors. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses using Firth logistic regression to examine the correlations of telemedicine uptake. A thematic approach was used, guided by the Social Cognitive Theory for the qualitative analysis. Results: A total of 2101 households were recruited for the quantitative survey. With a mean age of 61.4 (SD 14.41) years, >70% (1364/2101, 72.94%) of the household respondents were male. Less than 1% (14/2101, 0.67%) of the respondents reported experience of using telemedicine. The quantitative results supported that villagers living with family members who had a fever in the past 2 weeks (adjusted odds ratio 6.96, 95% CI 2.20-21.98;P=.001) or having smartphones or computers (adjusted odds ratio 3.71, 95% CI 0.64-21.32;P=.14) had marginally higher telemedicine uptake, whereas the qualitative results endorse these findings. The results of qualitative interviews (n=27) also supplemented the potential barriers to telemedicine use from the lack of knowledge, trust, demand, low self-efficacy, and sufficient physical and social support. Conclusions: This study found extremely low use of telemedicine in rural China and identified potential factors affecting telemedicine uptake. The main barriers to telemedicine adoption among rural residents were found, including lack of knowledge, trust, demand as well as low self-efficacy, and insufficient physical and social support. Our study also suggests strategies to facilitate telemedicine engagement in low-resource settings: improving digital literacy and self-efficacy, building trust, and strengthening telemedicine infrastructure support.

17.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 8(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198118

ABSTRACT

Background: Major sports events are the focus of the world. However, the gathering of crowds during these events creates huge risks of infectious diseases transmission, posing a significant public health threat. Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the epidemiological characteristics and prevention measures of infectious diseases at major sports events. Methods: The procedure of this scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's five-step methodological framework. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, were searched systematically. The general information (ie, publication year, study type) of each study, sports events' features (ie, date and host location), infectious diseases' epidemiological characteristics (ie, epidemics, risk factors), prevention measures, and surveillance paradigm were extracted, categorized, and summarized. Results: A total of 24,460 articles were retrieved from the databases and 358 studies were included in the final data synthesis based on selection criteria. A rapid growth of studies was found over recent years. The number of studies investigating epidemics and risk factors for sports events increased from 16/254 (6.3%) before 2000 to 201/254 (79.1%) after 2010. Studies focusing on prevention measures of infectious diseases accounted for 85.0% (238/280) of the articles published after 2010. A variety of infectious diseases have been reported, including respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal infection, vector-borne infection, blood-borne infection, and water-contact infection. Among them, respiratory tract infections were the most concerning diseases (250/358, 69.8%). Besides some routine prevention measures targeted at risk factors of different diseases, strengthening surveillance was highlighted in the literature. The surveillance system appeared to have gone through three stages of development, including manual archiving, network-based systems, and automated intelligent platforms. Conclusions: This critical summary and collation of previous empirical evidence is meaningful to provide references for holding major sports events. It is essential to improve the surveillance techniques for timely detection of the emergence of epidemics and to improve risk perception in future practice.

18.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 8(12):e24938, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Web-based resources and social media platforms play an increasingly important role in health-related knowledge and experience sharing. There is a growing interest in the use of these novel data sources for epidemiological surveillance of substance use behaviors and trends.

19.
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation ; 13:127-138, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197712

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The opioid overdose crisis has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives in the United States in the last decade, with overdose numbers continuing to climb. At the same time, the role of the pharmacist in combating the opioid crisis continues to evolve. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE that incorporated both MeSH terms and keywords to describe two concepts: the opioid epidemic and pharmacists/pharmacies. The search was limited to articles published after 2010 through the end of 2021 and returned 196 articles that were analyzed thematically. Results: Thematic analysis revealed the following themes: prevention, interventions, public health role of the pharmacist, pharmacists in multiple roles, barriers, pharmacist and healthcare provider attitudes, educational initiatives for pharmacists and student pharmacists, and future research. Discussion: While a great deal of progress has been made in the role of the pharmacist in supporting individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) in the last two decades, pharmacists must seek to invest time and resources into practices with a strong evidence base to better mitigate the growing, devastating impact of the opioid crisis. Pharmacists must be willing to embrace new and non-traditional roles in patient care, service and research, and seek to advance evidence-based knowledge and practice. Conclusion: Pharmacy practice has expanded greatly in the past decade with pharmacists taking on new and creative approaches to addressing the opioid crisis. Collaborative and interdisciplinary approaches to addressing the root causes of opioid misuse and opioid overdose are still desperately needed. These include attention to the critical roles of social determinants of health, stigma elimination, legislative advocacy for patients with OUD, and focused education for providers, pharmacists, and the community. Recognition and support of the value of collaboration to both improve public health and individual patient care, continued investments in pharmacy practice advancement in OUD treatment and harm reduction, and the creation of workflows and prescribing algorithms to assist in dosing medications to prevent withdrawal symptoms and achieve improved pain control are desperately needed.

20.
American Journal of Public Health ; 113(1):9-11, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2197628

ABSTRACT

The author comments on recommendation of the Institute of Medicine that undergraduates should have access to education in public health. Topics discussed include reason the recommendation is aspirational, key to the entry of undergraduate public health majors into the governmental public health workforce, and future of undergraduate public health education.

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