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1.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1792159

ABSTRACT

South Asia is a hotspot of air pollution with limited resilience and hence, understanding the mitigation potential of different sources is critically important. In this context the country lockdown initiated to combat the COVID-19 pandemic (during March and April 2020 that is the pre-monsoon season) provides an unique opportunity for studying the relative impacts of different emission sources in the region. Here, we analyze changes in levels of air quality species across the region during selected lockdown periods using satellite and in-situ datasets. This analysis compares air quality levels during the lockdown against pre-lockdown conditions as well as against regional long-term mean. Satellite derived AOD, NO2, and CO data indicates an increase of 9.5%, 2%, and 2.6%, respectively, during the 2020 lockdown period compared to pre-lockdown over the South Asia domain. However, individual country statistics, urban site data, and industrial grid analysis within the region indicate a more varied picture. Cities with high traffic loads reported a reduction of 12–39% in columnar NO2 during lockdown, in-situ PM2.5 measurements indicate a 23–56% percent reduction over the country capitals and columnar SO2 has an approximate reduction of 50% over industrial areas. In contrast, pollutant emissions from natural sources e.g., from biomass burning were observed to be adversely affecting the air quality in this period potentially masking expected lockdown related air quality improvements. This study demonstrates the need for a more nuanced and situation specific understanding of sources of air pollutants (anthropogenic and natural) and for these sources to be better understood from the local to the regional scale. Without this deeper understanding, mitigation strategies cannot be effectively targeted, wasting limited resources as well as risking unintended consequences both for the atmosphere and how mitigation action is perceived by the wider public. © The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

2.
International conference on Sustainable Infrastructure Development: Innovations and Advances, ICSIDIA 2020 ; 199:31-38, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787747

ABSTRACT

Pandemic “COVID 19” is affecting almost all the countries across the globe. This spread through body fluids, hence people are advised to follow social distancing. As a result, most of the people are staying at homes and not visiting their places of work, markets, restaurants, public places, etc., resulting in slowing down of economy. Many people have migrated from urban to rural areas for employment. The current level of infrastructure, i.e. Transport, roads, parking, markets, cinema halls, restaurants/hotels, industries/factories, institutions, etc., is not required and only hospitals, police, communication, and essential services are required. Demand for Water/electricity/food and related paraphernalia has been reduced or finished. This trend is expected to continue for few more years, as more such virus attacks are expected in near future as well as due to low economic activities. This is resulting in a change in urban built environment as more urban spaces are becoming free. With this trend, future cities are going to be different than the present ones with less built-up spaces and less demand for urban infrastructure. An analysis of future urban built environment has been done in this paper. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

3.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science ; 42(3):1418-1426, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1782272

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effects of both natural and socio-economic factors, such as city size and healthcare capacity, on the spreading of COVID-19 in China's urban population from January 1 to March 5, 2020. Several statistical models and machine learning methods were used to identify the key determinants of the incidence rate of COVID-19. Based on the interpretable machine learning framework, possible nonlinear relationships between incidences and key impact factors were explored. The results showed that the incidence rate of COVID-19 in cities was influenced by several factors simultaneously. Among the factors, the population inflow rate from Wuhan was the factor that showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.43), followed by the population growth rate (0.38). Population migration size, city size and healthcare capacity were the key influencing factors. Nonlinear relationships existed between the key influencing factors and incidence rates. To be specific, the inflow rate from Wuhan had a S-shaped relationship and reaches an asymptote after 2%;the population density had an approximately linear relationship;the per capita GDP showed an evident inverted U curve with the per capita GDP over 100, 000yuan as the inflection point. City development needs to pay more attention to population density control and economic growth in order to bring more health benefits. © 2022, Editorial Board of China Environmental Science. All right reserved.

4.
Environmental Reviews ; 30(1):50-60, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1765138

ABSTRACT

Urban development is often confronted with a lack of available space. Brownfield sites offer great potential for sustainable urban planning because of their often-central location and the benefits associated with their redevelopment. Although the interest in brownfield regeneration has led to a lot of research on this topic, there is not yet a comprehensive review of brownfield research. In this review, we analyze the research on brownfields and provide a picture of the published case studies. We focus primarily on brownfields research in the United States, Europe, and People’s Republic of China. This exploratory research is based on an analysis of the published scientific literature available in the Web of Science database. Initially used in North America, the term “brownfield” quickly became popular in the rest of the world, particularly in Europe. However, with the exception of the United States, there is no specific legislation for these sites;their protection is often based indirectly on directives or laws related to soil pollution, biodiversity, or the environment. The perception of the potential use of brownfield sites varies considerably from one part of the world to another, and international collaborations among researchers from different parts of the world remain limited. Most of the described reuses of brownfield sites are forms of soft reuse (53%), and the type of reuse of a site depends more on the surrounding urbanization levels and the specific region than on the past use of a brownfield site. Despite the continued interest in the rehabilitation of these sites, especially due to the increasing demand for nature in the city following the COVID-19 crisis, many questions regarding the future of brownfield sites remain unanswered. The factors influencing their successful redevelopment are unclear, and further research is urgently needed to ensure a truly sustainable re-use of these sites. © 2021 The Author(s).

5.
CTBUH Journal ; 201(4):22-28, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1755357

ABSTRACT

Decentralization and the “15-minute city” are ideas that are currently being put forward to tackle urban challenges, but how will these issues be tackled in the design of tall buildings? What is the implication for these ideas in a future, pandemic-aware context? Can future vertical expansion be addressed through new models that take into account the same multiple and complex challenges currently being faced in the horizontal realm? It is time that we stop understanding vertical development in terms of autonomous single-program buildings, and instead approach it as the holistic extension of multiple urban systems along the vertical axis. © 2021, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. All rights reserved.

6.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM 2021 ; : 1721-1725, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1730995

ABSTRACT

Mortgage is an important part in the housing market, it cause a clear and strong relationship between monetary policies and housing market. The release of growing commodity causes the diversification of housing investment. Actually, the Financial Tsunami was cause by subprime-mortgage crisis in U.S. in 2007. A lot of models have been proposed to predict housing price over the course of decades of research, but some new models should be proposed to suitable the situation in the post era of financial tsunami and COVID-19. The subprime-mortgage crisis damaged the housing market of San Francisco, directly. The housing market in a port is different from in a city, shipping is an important factor to urban development, the paper build the system dynamic model of Kaohsiung housing market, which is a port the same as San Francisco, to predict Kaohsiung housing price. This study aims to extract the related factors to the housing prices of Kaohsiung by correlation analysis, find out the critical factors of the housing prices of Kaohsiung by regression analysis. © 2021 IEEE.

7.
Forest Chemicals Review ; 2021(September-October):922-927, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1728137

ABSTRACT

As the impact of COVID-19 continues, the "New infrastructure" initiative is stepping up, bringing both opportunities and challenges to smart city development. During the 14th Five-Year Plan period, the construction of smart city in China will be guided by the requirements of modernization of national governance, based on the needs, combined with the characteristics of urban capabilities, conform to the development trend of information technology, deepen digital infrastructure, improve service level, accelerate data governance, and build collaborative mechanism. © 2021 Kriedt Enterprises Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

8.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Computer Application, ICDSCA 2021 ; : 196-201, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699195

ABSTRACT

Urban vitality analysis is an important means to measure the attractiveness and cohesion of urban development, which is of great significance to urban operation situation awareness, fine governance and planning design. Taking China Singapore Tianjin Eco-city as the research area, based on multisource temporal-spatial data from January 2020 to February 2021 provided by the smart city data aggregation platform, such as the data of urban transportation, catering waste recycling volume, books borrowed and returned, this paper analyzed the urban vitality index from five aspects of society, transportation, commerce, culture-education and tourism. After spatializing data into geographic grids, method EW-TOPSIS (Entropy Weighted Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) has been utilized to calculate the comprehensive vitality index. The results showed that: from temporal perspective, the vitality of each index was significantly different due to the impact of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-I9) and seasons;the comprehensive vitality decreased sharply to the lowest at the beginning of the COVID-19 while it increased rapidly and then stabilized after the weakening of the prevention and control policies;the comprehensive vitality value of Eco-city reached the peak of the whole year during the National Day Golden Week affected by tourism vitality. From spatial perspective, the distribution of Eco-city vitality level is unbalanced, showing a trend of outward diffusion centered on the urban starting area and the main tourist attractions. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Journal of Geo-Information Science ; 23(2):222-235, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1634798

ABSTRACT

Based on the epidemiological investigation data of 545 COVID-19 cases and mobile phone trajectory data of 15 million users during the epidemic ( from 21 January, 2020 to 24 February, 2020 ), this paper analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of COVID-19 and the human mobility changes in Chongqing. Furthermore, the correlation relationship between them was explored to explain these characteristics and changes. The results show that: (1) The epidemic pattern in Chongqing can be divided into three stages ( i.e. imported cases stage, imported cases plus local cases stage, and local cases stage ) and the real time reproduction number (Rt) was high at early stage, but declined significantly after prevention and control measures were taken;The spatial distribution of cases presented a significant clustering, and the high clustering areas were mainly distributed in the northeastern and the southwestern of Chongqing;(2) After the epidemic, the total amount of human mobility decreased to 53.20% and the decrease was mainly concentrated in the main urban area, while that of in the suburbs and rural areas did not change, or even increased;(3) The relationship between human mobility and case occurrence lies in two aspects: The correlation coefficient between daily human mobility and Rt, daily increased number of cases after an average incubation period (7 d) were 0.98, 0.87, revealing the time correlation between human mobility and case growth;The correlation coefficient between total amount of human mobility and total number of cases, number of local cases in each street (township) were 0.40, 0.35, revealing the correlation between human mobility and spatial distribution of cases. The cases clustering area corresponds to the network community of human mobility, revealing the local clustering transmission is the major transmission model. By aggregating the big data and the epidemic data, we suggests that cutting off the connection between different human mobility network communities and blocking the local transmission inside the high risk communities is an effective measure for the prevention and control of epidemics in cities. 2021, Science Press. All right reserved.

10.
Journal of the American Planning Association ; 88(1):137-138, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1617056

ABSTRACT

For example, employment opportunities in construction and transport have expanded for low-income working-class urban residents, but high-paying employment opportunities are often linked to someone's education and social and professional networks, which are often available to upper-class urban residents. With a population of approximately 18 million, Dhaka is now experiencing "hyperurbanization" or "overurbanization", the phenomena mentioned by urban theorist Mike Davis in his book I Planet of Slums i ([1]). Dhaka's Changing Landscape: Prospects for Economic Development, Social Change, and Shared Prosperity: Rita Afsar and Mahabub Hossain (2020). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Journal of the American Planning Association is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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