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1.
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Antimicrobial Agents ; 40(1):1-12, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20243226

ABSTRACT

Background: A significant portion of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have persistent COVID-19 symptoms after recovery. Symptoms may be new or persistent from the initial illness, which could cause both psychological and physical difficulty to the patients. These symptoms are collectively known as "long COVID-19 syndrome". There is limited information about this syndrome in the Thai population. Objectives: We aimed to describe and evaluate the risk for post COVID-19 symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a university hospital. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was conducted on symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted in Ramathibodi Hospital from July 1 to September 10, 2021. All surviving COVID-19 patients received a telephone assessment every month until 3 months after discharge and electronic medical records were reviewed. Information collected included symptoms, severity, treatment, duration of symptom, complication of COVID-19 and treatment. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification was used to categorized severity of dyspnea. Results: Among 253 evaluable patients, 57.3% were female and the mean age was 59.3 years old. Of these, 66% and 24.1% had moderate (pneumonia and SpO2 90%) and severe COVID-19 (pneumonia with severe respiratory distress and SpO2 90%), respectively. Almost all patients were inadequately vaccinated (unvaccinated 53.3%, partially vaccinated 41.9%). Overall, complete resolution of symptoms before 1 month after onset were noted in 47 patients (18.5%) and 72 (28.5%) patients had at least one persistent symptom at three months. The most common symptom is sleep disturbance (11.9%);29.2% remain in NYHA II and 0.8% in NYHA III and IV each. Female gender (OR 1.94;[95% CI 1.09-3.48], p=0.024), history of receiving dexamethasone (OR 1.04;[95% CI 1.01-1.08], p=0.004) and length of hospitalization (OR 1.04;[95% CI 1.00-1.08], p=0.034) were associated with being in NYHA II. Additionally, 5.9% had bacterial infection, and most were urinary tract infection and pneumonia, respectively. The risk factor associated with post-COVID-19 bacterial infection is bed ridden status (OR 23.3;[95% CI 5.79-93.72], p=<0.001). Conclusions: A significant number of COVID-19 patients had residual COVID-19 symptoms and still not fully functional at least 3 months after recovery. A major limitation of this study is obtaining information by telephone interview since hospital visit were not encouraged to limit mobility of people during pandemic, which may have led to a recall bias.

2.
Ernahrung ; 47(1):12-14, 2023.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20242212

ABSTRACT

The People's Republic of China has the largest population in the world, making it both one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding import markets for food and beverages as well as one of the most difficult. The Chinese market is appealing to foreign food producers because of the country's high per capita income and quick urbanization. The Agriculture Chapter addressed fundamental trade barriers and will support a significant increase in the export of food, agricultural, and seafood products from the United States, boosting farm and fishery revenue, stimulating rural economies, and fostering employment growth. Numerous non-tariff barriers to the export of U.S. agricultural and seafood products are discussed, including those relating to rice, dairy, infant formula, horticulture products, animal feed and feed additives, pet food, and agricultural biotechnology products, as well as meat, chicken, and seafood. The U.S. has achieved significant export successes thus far, despite the pandemic. Decrees 248 and 249, which take effect on January 1, 2022, mandate that foreign suppliers of particular food products to China register with the GACC before presenting their goods for customs clearance. Several Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) reports on GACC Decrees 248 and 249 have been published by FAS offices in China. For the most recent information on whether their business has to register, whether it can self-register, or if it needs to be recommended for registration by a U.S. competent body, U.S. exporters should examine the GAIN system, which offers points of contact at the GACC. According to Euromonitor, urban Chinese customers who are short on time choose shopping near residential areas, especially in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak. During the crisis, consumers grew accustomed to shopping in their immediate areas. As a result, many major modern grocery chains have used a multi-format strategy and constructed smaller-format stores. Freshippo, Yonghui, and Carrefour are all opening smaller, more neighborhood-focused stores that place an increased emphasis on fresh foods. Some of these shops also act as e-commerce order warehouses and offer prompt home deliveries. Particularly Yonghui has opened Yonghui Mini Stores quickly as an addition to its hypermarket and major supermarket operations. The food processing sector in China has been expanding steadily in recent years. According to the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), sales, production, and income in the sector rose in 2020. The total profits of China's largest food processing firms reached 620.66 billion yuan (about US$97 billion) in 2020, an increase of 6.8% over the same period in 2019. According to MIIT, these businesses' profit growth was 3.1% higher than the average for all industrial sectors.

3.
Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership ; 15(2):35-48, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20241462

ABSTRACT

Outdoor Recreation (OR) provides the benefits of physical activity and traditional leisure placed in an outdoor environment. Motivation, self-efficacy, and autonomy can increase depending on the physical and social environment. This study explored the relationship between self-efficacy and autonomy on OR behaviors and identified barriers and facilitators to OR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey information was collected from 995 U.S. adults (93.6% white, 64.0% female) regarding OR behaviors, changes in OR during COVID-19, and OR self-perceptions. Significant positive correlations existed between autonomy and self-efficacy (r = 0.138, p < 0.01), and self-efficacy and pre/post pandemic OR behaviors 2020 (r = 0.158, p < 0.01), (r = 0.129, p < 0.01) respectively. Qualitative data implied barriers and facilitators to OR as: social, mental health, and increased or changed OR/physical activity. Implications from this research are beneficial to OR and health professionals to promote overall physical and mental well-being for OR participants.

4.
Tourism Economics ; 29(3):643-663, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20240744

ABSTRACT

Understanding what factors play a role in people's decisions to travel during a pandemic is important to public health officials and to stakeholders in the travel and tourism industry in the United States (US) and worldwide. This study examines factors influencing people's decisions to cancel/postpone recreational travel within the US amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Our conceptual framework extends the Expected Utility model, commonly used in economics to model decisions under risk and uncertainty, to incorporate subjective norms and perceived behavioral control from the Theory of Planned Behavior. Our results suggest that risk perceptions, subjective norms, and concerns over transmitting COVID-19 to others play a significant role in the decision to cancel and postpone recreational travel. Results also suggest that perceived behavioral control may be less relevant to travel decisions when traveling involves elevated health risks.

5.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):21-34, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20240509

ABSTRACT

This research determines the impacts of COVID-19 US on crawfish production and consumption for 2020 and 2021 using an Equilibrium Displacement Model. In the US, crawfish is one of the seafood commodities where most production is consumed by domestic consumers (7% of domestic consumption is from imports). Crawfish and rice are complementary. Therefore, the impacts of COVID-19 on crawfish consumption simultaneously influence rice production and crawfish producers and consumers. In the first year of COVID-19 (2020), the reduction in crawfish retail demand caused negative effects on final consumers and producers. However, crawfish consumption recovered significantly in the second year (2021), which could compensate for the loss in 2020. Overall, consumer and producer gains ranged from $549 to $626 million if the COVID-19 pandemic only impacted retail consumption. However, in 2021, the increase in production costs due to higher oil/diesel prices and other input prices caused the farm supply to decrease. As a result, total welfare gains ranged from $200 to $228 million. If the demand in 2021 did not increase, but the crawfish farm supply decreased, consumer and producer losses ranged from $929 to $1045 million. Overall, the total effects of COVID-19 on consumers and producers for 2020 and 2021 depend on its effects in 2021. If the demand in 2021 increased following the decrease in farm supply, consumers and producers would benefit from the shocks of COVID-19 due to higher post-COVID-19 demand.

6.
Silent superbug killers in a river near you: how factory farms contaminate public water courses on three continents 2021 39 pp ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239768

ABSTRACT

Water downstream from factory farms harbours an invisible threat to people's health which could eclipse the COVID-19 crisis. The threat? Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) which are driving antimicrobial resistance the world's superbug crisis - projected to kill up to 10 million people annually by 2050. This publication reports the presence of ARGs in animal waste discharged from industrial farms into public waterways or onto soil (or crops) in four countries. Gauge community impact and sentiment regarding the issue was also highlighted. The water and sediment from public water courses connected to effluent discharges from 6-10 pig farms were tested in each of four countries (Canada, Spain, Thailand and the USA).

7.
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens ; 3(3):349-356, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239418

ABSTRACT

Whether or not primates are behaviorally affected by the presence of visitors in a zoo setting is a question of great relevance to zoo animal well-being. The situation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic provided an unusual opportunity to examine how the absence of visitors impacts behavior. We took advantage of this opportunity to study the behavior of a gorilla troop during periods of no-visitors compared to our long-term database on gorilla behavior during normal zoo operations. While there were notable individual differences in response to visitors, we found no significant relationship between presence of visitors and behavior. These results suggest that the presence of visitors does not have a significant impact on behavior and well-being of zoo-housed gorillas.

8.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 261(4):480-489, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US. ANIMALS: 204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021. PROCEDURES: Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners. RESULTS: Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVlD-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following expo- sure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Iberoamerica (Russian Federation) ; - (1):78-101, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238205

ABSTRACT

The paper analyzes the transformation of the US migration policy towards Latin American and Caribbean immigrants and refugees. This policy is treated within the framework of the closeness/security – openness / fairness. Currently, the Mexican-American border has become the epicenter of the migration crisis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, sanitary measures reinforced negative trends in dealing with potential asylum seekers. A new feature of the crisis has become the descent diversity of migrants trying to cross the border barrier, it blurred the usual regional context of the problem and affected the nature of the border states migration policy. The article concludes that on the background of the acute migration crisis, the J.Biden administration's attempts to shift the regulatory measures towards liberalization and greater openness remained ineffective. © 2023, Iberoamerica (Russian Federation). All Rights Reserved.

10.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):53-67, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20236650

ABSTRACT

The upheaval wrought on the U.S. beef industry by the global COVID-19 pandemic carried with it several lessons that might help improve resiliency should there be a reoccurrence. First, the futures market for fed cattle fell well before cash prices, which sent a signal to market cattle early, and those who did so benefited. Second, the decline in futures anticipated the closure of slaughter plants and provided an opportunity to purchase and store beef primals in anticipation of future scarcity. Third, the beef industry has ways of slowing or stopping the pipeline of animals destined for feed yards and can "store" these animals in background feeding facilities or on pasture or rangeland. Producers who waited to sell feeder cattle benefited from higher feeder cattle prices once the processing facilities reopened. Fourth, cow slaughter plants responded to the pandemic and subsequent scarcity of labor much better than large fed-cattle plants. Cow plants are not as sophisticated and complex as fed-cattle plants. This relative simplicity may help explain the superior performance of these plants during the crisis. Sixth, the academic work on the value of building smaller plants as a response against concentration provides mixed results-these plants require more labor per animal and can be even more susceptible to labor scarcity. Seventh, the observed increase in boxed beef prices, even as fed cattle prices fell, demonstrates the risk-mitigating impact of producer ownership of downstream activities in the value chain.

11.
Education Sciences ; 13(5), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20236258

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic forced a rapid transition of K-16 education to remote and online learning in the final quarter of the 2019–2020 school year. The disruption was extreme for all teachers in K-12 but particularly for teachers involved in pilot programs, such as the NSF-funded Engineering for Us All (e4usa) project. This paper reports the key findings obtained through systematic data collection from a pilot cohort of high school teachers who adapted a brand-new engineering curriculum during the COVID-19 pandemic, students who experienced the adapted curriculum, and a new cohort of teachers who were tasked with teaching the updated curriculum. © 2023 by the authors.

12.
Understanding Post-COVID-19 Social and Cultural Realities: Global Context ; : 13-26, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20234733

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) is one of the biggest dangers humanities has faced so far in the twenty-first century. Big international actors, militarily-powerful and economically-vibrant nations across the globe have fallen prey to an unprecedented human tragedy. The world community continues to be engaged in protecting its citizens as the top most priority using every possible means. In the meantime, the pandemic has added new dimensions, altering the international order both economically and strategically. The pandemic may well be remembered as the turning point of the end of an American-led global system that has paved way for the arrival of an Asian century with two Asian giants and emerging global powers, China and India, at the forefront. This chapter, at the outset, dilates upon various dimensions of the pandemic. This chapter foresees big power rivalry in the world stage. While the state of affairs during and following the pandemic will prompt USA to make earnest efforts in resurrecting its lost power, position and preponderance in the global corridor, the chapter argues, Russia will not leave any stone unturned to regain its lost name, fame and glory. Besides, China would make earnest efforts to position itself as a power to reckon with as it has done in the last one decade or so. The paper argues further that amidst struggle for power among big powers, traditional powers from Europe (Great Britain, France and Germany), Asia (India and Japan), Latin America (Brazil) and Australia will have leverage in the new global order that marks the beginning of a new saga of multipolar world. The chapter argues that with the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) loosing its significance, important regional organizations like Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), G-20 and BRICS will come forward for a far bigger role in international affairs. However, the paper ends with a positive note that competition among global and emerging powers will continue in a healthy manner, and in case of any conflict or confrontation, strong cooperation will be the only way to achieve peace and stability across the world. This chapter offers a balanced overview of the global order (some may call it disorder) before the pandemic occurred, during and the post-pandemic period, where many a factors and actors play their respective roles. Further, this qualitative study will add significantly and give a varied dimension to the existing researches on the international political and economic order. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022, corrected publication 2022.

13.
Tourism Economics ; 29(4):906-928, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20233904

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of COVID-19-induced uncertainty on the overall stock market and the stock performance of the tourism and hospitality industry and its subsectors utilizing a novel time-varying robust Granger causality test. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic-induced uncertainty has an adverse impact on the overall economy, tourism and hospitality industry, and subsectors of tourism and hospitality. However, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic-induced uncertainty is more significant in the tourism and hospitality industry and its subsectors. In particular, hotels sector has experienced the largest impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by restaurants and airline sectors, respectively. Research and practical implications are discussed.

14.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):1-9, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20232327

ABSTRACT

Seafood is the food group with the highest share traded, and the U.S. is the world's largest seafood importer, importing 79% of the seafood consumed. Hence, a study examining the impacts of the measures to contain COVID-19 on U.S. seafood imports will not only show how U.S. seafood availability has been affected, but will also give strong indications of how resiliently the global seafood markets have worked through the pandemic. We find that U.S. imports of seafood actually increased in 2020 and 2021, suggesting supply chains were able to adapt to potential disruptions. Moreover, for the 14 largest product forms imported to the U.S., there are no strong price movements. Given that there is a global market for most species groups, this adaption also suggests that the markets have worked quite well beyond the U.S. Hence, while there have undoubtedly been market shocks associated with the COVID-19 measures such as the reduction in demand from the restaurant sector and the increased sales in the retail sector, opportunities seem to balance out challenges, and the supply chains for seafood to the U.S. have been highly resilient.

15.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 35(4):1149-1583, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231631

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 17 articles addressing knowledge gaps in the tourism and hospitality literature regarding the sharing economy and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The articles provide systematic literature syntheses, seminal theory-building efforts and creative endeavors that unveil novel findings related to the sharing economy's evolution in the post-pandemic era.

16.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):1-98, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231626

ABSTRACT

This special issue consists of seven articles examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the markets of selected commodities, including: seafood, lumber, crawfish, cattle/beef, fruits and vegetables in the USA, cotton and garments in Bangladesh, and fuel oil globally.

17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 17(4): 102760, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the present study the research output of the South Asian region (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, and Bhutan) in endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism (EDM) is highlighted. It was compared with five scientifically advanced countries i.e. USA, UK, Italy, Japan and China. METHODS: On September 13, 2022, the data was retrieved from the Scopus database. The analysis focused on the number of publications, total citations (TC), citations per paper (CPP), field-weighted citations impact (FWCI), and degree of international collaboration. RESULTS: In South Asia, India produced the highest number of publications (n = 7048), followed by Pakistan (n = 799), Bangladesh (n = 345), Sri Lanka (n = 256), Nepal (n = 144), Maldives (n = 12) and Bhutan (n = 4). The highest CPP (n = 19.4) and FWCI (n = 1.18) was recorded for Sri Lanka. Furthermore, USA (n = 64022), China (n = 23991), UK (n = 21449), Italy (n = 18884), and Japan (n = 12875), published the highest number of documents with the highest citations and FWCI in the world. It was noted that India published the highest number of documents (n = 47.28%) in the quartiles (Q) 6 and Q7. Pakistan produced the highest number of documents (n = 64.22%) in the top 50% of journals (Q1 to Q5). South Asian countries produced 8332 publications, with 130382 TC, 15.6 CPP and 1.06 FWCI. Importantly 46.50% of documents from South Asian countries were published in Q6 and Q7 journals. In contrast USA, UK, Italy, Japan and China published 77% documents in top 50% journals. CONCLUSIONS: Although the South Asian research publications have increased yearly (from 2012 to 2021), but approximately 50% of the South Asian output were in the lower quartile journals. Consequently, significant measures are needed to improve the quantity and quality of EDM research produced in South Asian coutries.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Asia, Southern , Developed Countries , India , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
18.
COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies: Volume 1 ; 1:889-905, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326566

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis significantly shifted our regular behavior patterns and reflected on our relationships with people and other built environment elements. This chapter describes these spatial stories inside our domestic spaces from the perspective of six female architecture students. They made mappings of their everyday activities from mid-March until the end of 2020 of COVID quarantine. They created plan drawings, diagrams, collages, and other visuals and narratives that explain how their spatial activities transformed throughout these quarantined times inside their domestic spaces as well as seasonal changes from the spring to the winter months. These future architects came from diverse backgrounds;all attend the School of Architecture and Urban Planning (SARUP) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM). They worked on these spatial documentations as part of class assignments in designing and planning built environments where they mapped their observations, behavior patterns, and actions during this pandemic. Despite the difference in their life circumstances and spatial conditions, their emotions often intersected at several common points through pandemic anxieties, displacement, social isolation, maintaining physical distances, and lack of personal boundaries. A common point of their narratives describes their agency to feel better by coming in close contact with nature by going out for a walk regularly or adding house plants and pet animals as part of their everyday living. Their spatial documentation also mentioned the physical presence of at least one family member, relationship partner, or close friend in their spatial territories to whom they could easily connect and find solace from pandemic anxieties. All participants also described feeling better and adjusting to the norms of physical distances and social isolation along with the pandemic, from the Spring to the Fall months. The participants analyzed and explained their regular spatial activities and emotions and their spatial strategies to release their pandemic anxieties to meet the larger research question of this research: how has the COVID-2019 pandemic influenced women's everyday socio-spatial activities and their perceptions towards the surrounding built environment?. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

19.
COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies: Volume 1 ; 1:2003-2020, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326042

ABSTRACT

In early January 2020, the World Health Organization announced that a mysterious pneumonia like illness. It was first observed in Wuhan China and was likely caused by a previously unknown coronavirus. By late January, cases of the unknown virus had been detected in several countries throughout the world. In March of that year, the WHO officially declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. After overtaking many countries throughout the world in terms of number of cases and deaths, a national emergency was declared in the United States. Schools began closing, parks were empty, restaurants vacant, businesses closed, churches posted notices that in-person services were ‘canceled until further notice, ' stringent stay at home orders were imposed and the streets were deserted. As someone who has been taking pictures of street life for many years, the usual hustle and bustle of the street was eerily disconcerting. This photo-essay provides a glimpse of the responses, realities, silences, and reactions to COVID-19 on the landscape. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

20.
Educational Research for Policy and Practice ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2325315

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that the digital divide affects students' educational achievement across racial and ethnic groups. In light of this, the study investigates the effect of technology access at home on student learning hours during the COVID-19 pandemic and across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. The Household Pulse Surveys (HPS), conducted by the United States Census Bureau and administered from August 19, 2020, to March 29, 2021, were used for the analysis. We compute a composite index of technology access using the principal component analysis (PCA). And for the empirical model, the study employed a Tobit regression model. The result shows that the estimated index of technology access based on PCA for the whole sample is about 0.92, indicating a higher level of access. However, the breakdown by race/ethnicity shows an average of about 0.93, 0.89, 0.90, 0.94, and 0.89 for students representing White, Black, Hispanic, Asia, and other races, respectively. This means the intensity at which households in the sample have access to technology is higher among the Asian and White students, followed by Hispanic, Black, and other races in that order. The estimated effect of technology access on the student learning hours during COVID-19 based on the Tobit regression model shows about a 3.1 unit points increase over the whole sample. And further analysis reveals variation at which access to the technology impacts learning hours across race and ethnicity groups. For example, we find that access to technology significantly increased learning hours by about 3.5, 1.6, 2.2, and 3.4 unit points among White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian students, respectively. The observed differing effect of access to technology on learning hours further highlights the racial disparities in American society's digital divide, which reveal how access to technology disproportionately impacts student learning hours during the COVID-19 pandemic across race and ethnicity.

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