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1.
International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances ; JOUR: 100107,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105096

ABSTRACT

Background At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, governmental responses varied worldwide, which resulted in healthcare professionals and organizations having different experiences. As threats of global infectious disease and disasters increase, it is important to examine the collective experiences of nurses to leverage support across international settings and systems and to tailor specific policies to their local nursing workforce. Objective To compare and contrast nurses' experiences working in hospitals at the onset of COVID-19 in South Korea and the United States Method This was a qualitative descriptive study. Nurses in South Korea and the United States were recruited through social media using snowball sampling between April and May 2020. Semi-structured telephone interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated as needed. The transcripts were analyzed thematically, and each theme was compared and synthesized using NVivo 12. Results A total of 43 nurses from South Korea (n = 21) and the United States (n = 22) participated in the study. The majority of the participants were female and working as staff nurses in both countries. The work settings were similar between the participants from two countries. However, the participants in South Korea provided less direct care to patients with COVID-19 compared to the participants in the United States. Despite cultural and infrastructure differences, the nurses shared similar experiences. Conclusion The overlapping similarities of nurses’ experience highlight the need for national and global policies for a safe work environment and psychological well-being. The differences between the two countries also emphasize that specific policies and practice implications for the local contexts are needed in addition to global policies.

2.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100338, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105786

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Ethiopian government had planned to vaccinate the total population and started to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine but, there is limited evidence about vaccine acceptance among pregnant women. Thus, this study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal care unit clinic in Eastern Ethiopia. Study design: A facility-based cross-sectional study. Methods: A study was conducted from June 01 to 30/2021 among systematically selected pregnant women. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, which was adapted from previous studies, through a face-to-face interview. Predictors were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model and reported using an adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than 0.05. Results: In this study, data from 645 pregnant women were used in the analysis. Overall, 62.2% of pregnant women were willing to be vaccinated if the vaccine is approved by the relevant authority. Fear of side effects (62.04%), a lack of information (54.29%), and uncertainty about the vaccine's safety and efficacy (25%) were the most common reasons for refusal to take the COVID-19 vaccine. The odds of unwillingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women were increased significantly among mothers who were able to read and write [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: (1.16, 7.23)], attain 9-12 grade level [AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: (2.1, 8.5)], lack information [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: (1.41, 3.57)], and having a history of chronic diseases [AOR = 2.52, 95% CI: (1.34, 4.7)]. Conclusion: Less than two-thirds of pregnant women were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Extensive public health information dissemination aimed at women with lower educational backgrounds and a history of chronic disease could be critical.

3.
J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096154

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has been overwhelming the healthcare system worldwide. A rapidly growing number of younger pediatric patients in Thailand necessitated the formulation of favipiravir, the most locally accessible antiviral agent against COVID-19, into a child-friendly dosage form as a safer alternative to a dispersion of crushed tablets in simple syrup. While striving to quickly develop a liquid formulation that is feasible for any local hospital production units, an oral solution was chosen due to its simplicity. Despite the large dose and poor aqueous solubility of favipiravir, a combination of pH control and use of poloxamer as a solubilizing agent has enabled us to streamline the manufacturing process of a 200 mg/15 mL oral solution for hospital compounding. To ensure its efficacy and safety, a specification for quality control was also established in accordance with the ICH quality guidelines and USP. The finished product stability was subsequently demonstrated under the conditions of 5°C ± 3°C, 25°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH, 30°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH, and 40°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH. The results indicated that our formulation can be stored at 30°C ± 2°C/75% RH for 30 days, which will very well serve the need to allow drug distribution and patient use during the crisis, while the shelf-life can be extended to 60 days when stored at 5°C ± 3°C. Thus, accessibility to an essential medical treatment has been successfully enhanced for pediatric patients in Thailand and neighboring countries during the COVID-19 outbreak.

4.
PEC Innov ; 1: 100096, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095879

ABSTRACT

Objective: Assess potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on a subset of Post-9/11 U.S. Veterans included in a study of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Methods: Two measures were added to a structured health interview for Veterans during temporary pandemic research shutdown: a validated health questionnaire [1] previously completed by survey, and a semi-structured instrument developed to assess whether pandemic conditions affected responses to the health questionnaire and identify unique impacts. Interviews were conducted between August 2020 - February 2021. Scaled items were calculated and t-tests used to compare results. Open-ended items were coded using thematic analyses. Results: Veterans identified eight major areas of impact with negative and positive impacts: mental health, family, social, work/employment, access to resources, physical health, finances, and education. Innovation: The temporary shut-down of a large health study for Post-9/11 Veterans provided an opportunity to devise an instrument to assess COVID-19's impact on health and well-being. The instrument was accepted as of the first Veteran instrument in a pandemic SDOH research repository [2], and is being used in other studies. Conclusion: This study highlights the need to assess and understand interrelated relationships of factors impacting health and well-being, especially as COVID-19 moves from pandemic to endemic with reverberating effects across multiple social determinants of health (SDOH).

5.
American Economic Review-Insights ; JOUR(3):353-370, 4.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2089299

ABSTRACT

One-fifth of US high school students report being bullied each year. We use internet search data for real-time tracking of bullying pat-terns as COVID-19 disrupted in-person schooling. We first show that pre-pandemic internet searches contain useful information about actual bullying behavior. We then show that searches for school bul-lying and cyberbullying dropped 30-35 percent as schools shifted to remote learning in spring 2020. The gradual return to in-person instruction starting in fall 2020 partially returned bullying searches to pre-pandemic levels. This rare positive effect may partly explain recent mixed evidence on the pandemic's impact on students' mental health and well-being. (JEL H75, I12, I21, I28, I31)

6.
Polity ; JOUR(4):882-889, 54.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2087678

ABSTRACT

Trump's earlier statements about China and the US losing out on trade primed his supporters for the "China virus" narratives that epitomized Trump's references to the COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: Trump;China;victimhood;nationalism EN Trump China victimhood nationalism 882 889 8 10/04/22 20221001 NES 221001 This paper analyses the deployment of victimhood nationalism towards China by Donald Trump during his two presidential campaigns and presidency. [Extracted from the article]

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive. This discordance might be caused by delays in sampling. Respondents commonly reported close human‒animal contact and willingness to take measures to prevent transmission to their pets. Reported preventive measures showed a slightly protective but nonsignificant trend for both illness and seropositivity in pets. Sharing of beds and bowls had slight harmful effects, reaching statistical significance for sharing bowls and seropositivity.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2270-2280, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089723

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, different SARS-CoV-2 variants have been identified and associated with higher transmissibility than the ancestral nonvariant strain. During January 1, 2021-January 15, 2022, we assessed differences in clinical and viral parameters in a convenience sample of COVID-19 outpatients and inpatients 0-21 years of age in Columbus, Ohio, USA, according to the infecting variant, identified using a mutation-specific reverse transcription PCR assay. Of the 676 patients in the study, 17.75% were infected with nonvariant strains, 18.49% with the Alpha variant, 41.72% with Delta, and 16.42% with Omicron. Rates of SARS-COV-2/viral co-infections were 15.66%-29.41% and were comparable across infecting variants. Inpatients with acute Delta and Omicron infections had lower SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values and more frequent fever and respiratory symptoms than those with nonvariant strain infections. In addition, SARS-COV-2/viral co-infections and the presence of underlying conditions were independently associated with worse clinical outcomes, irrespective of the infecting variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Child , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2021, the United States implemented a new kidney allocation system (KAS250) for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), which eliminated the donation service area-based allocation and replaced it with a system on the basis of distance from donor hospital to transplant center within/outside a radius of 250 nautical miles. The effect of this policy on kidney discards and logistics is unknown. METHODS: We examined discards, donor-recipient characteristics, cold ischemia time (CIT), and delayed graft function (DGF) during the first 9 months of KAS250 compared with a pre-KAS250 cohort from the preceding 2 years. Changes in discards and CIT after the onset of COVID-19 and the implementation of KAS250 were evaluated using an interrupted time-series model. Changes in allocation practices (biopsy, machine perfusion, and virtual cross-match) were also evaluated. RESULTS: Post-KAS250 saw a two-fold increase in kidneys imported from nonlocal organ procurement organizations (OPO) and a higher proportion of recipients with calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) 81%-98% (12% versus 8%; P<0.001) and those with >5 years of pretransplant dialysis (35% versus 33%; P<0.001). CIT increased (mean 2 hours), including among local OPO kidneys. DGF was similar on adjusted analysis. Discards after KAS250 did not immediately change, but we observed a statistically significant increase over time that was independent of donor quality. Machine perfusion use decreased, whereas reliance on virtual cross-match increased, which was associated with shorter CIT. CONCLUSIONS: Early trends after KAS250 show an increase in transplant access to patients with cPRA>80% and those with longer dialysis duration, but this was accompanied by an increase in CIT and a suggestion of worsening kidney discards.

10.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 34: 101102, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086316

ABSTRACT

Electronic health records (EHRs) have proven their effectiveness during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, successful implementation of EHRs requires assessing nurses' attitudes as they are considered the first line in providing direct care for patients. This study assessed Jordanian nurses' attitudes and examined factors that affect nurses' attitudes toward using EHRs. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenient sample of 130 nurses was recruited from three major public hospitals in Jordan. All Participants completed the Nurses' attitudes Towards Computerization (NATC) Questionnaire. The overall nurses' attitude was positive; the mean was 61.85 (SD = 10.97). Findings revealed no significant relationship between nurses' attitudes toward using EHRs and nurses' age, gender, education level, previous computer skills experience, years of work experience, and years of dealing with EHRs. However, the work unit was found to have a significant correlation with nurses' attitudes toward using EHRs. Therefore, nurse administrators should arrange for the conduct of educational workshops and continuous training programs considering the needs of the nurses.

11.
International Journal of Production Economics ; JOUR: 108685,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083142

ABSTRACT

This study examines how service-oriented business model diversification of manufacturing firms (i.e., servitization) has affected their organizational resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak. We investigate the impact of various types of servitization (i.e., product-oriented vs. customer-oriented services) on organizational resilience. Using secondary data collected from 1914 manufacturing firms that are listed in the US stock markets, we find that servitization is inversely related to organizational resilience during the COVID-19 disruption;that is, manufacturing firms with more revenue from service businesses endure more significant stock price loss and take longer to bounce back from the loss caused by the COVID-19 disruption. The impact is more pronounced for manufacturing firms providing product-related services (than customer-oriented services). This study extends the understanding of the dark side of servitization relating to organizational resilience during a major disruption.

12.
Zhurnal Novaya Ekonomicheskaya Assotsiatsiya-Journal of the New Economic Association ; JOUR(3): 102-138,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082899

ABSTRACT

This paper examines how regional disparities have evolved in Russia and how Russia's system of intergovernmental fiscal relations is managing these disparities. Regional disparities have fallen over the past two decades but remain relatively high. Socioeconomic outcomes remain worse in lagging regions despite faster growth and convergence in income levels. The twin shocks of COVID-19 and lower oil prices appear to have impacted richer regions disproportionately. Compared to other large countries with federal systems of government, Russia stands out with its high reliance on direct taxes as a revenue source for its regions. Russian policymakers have made efforts to reduce regional disparities by designing a federal transfer system that intends to close vertical imbalances, achieve redistribution, and insure regions against both common shocks ("stabilization") and idiosyncratic ones ("risk-sharing"). Transfers from the federal budget to the regions provide some redistribution by reducing the dispersion in real per capita fiscal spending, but also tend to be associated with lower growth. The Russian fiscal system offers degrees of redistribution and risk sharing of around 26 and 18%, respectively - with in-kind social transfers contributing the most. Finally, federal transfers in the aggregate tend to be procyclical and are also fairly unresponsive to shocks to regions' own revenues.

13.
Embase; 24.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346564

ABSTRACT

Introduction Some reports have suggested that as many as one-half of all hospital inpatients identified as COVID-19-positive during the Omicron BA.1 variant-driven wave were incidental cases admitted primarily for reasons other than their viral infections. To date, however, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of a representative panel of hospitals based on pre-established criteria for determining whether a patient was in fact admitted as a result of the disease. Materials and Methods To fill this gap, we developed a formula to estimate the fraction of incidental COVID-19 hospitalizations that relies upon measurable, population-based parameters. We applied our approach to a longitudinal panel of 164 counties throughout the United States, covering a 4-week interval ending in the first week of January 2022. Results Within this panel, we estimated that COVID-19 incidence was rising exponentially at a rate of 9.34% per day (95% CI, 8.93-9.87). Assuming that only one-quarter of all Omicron BA.1 infections had been reported by public authorities, we further estimated the aggregate prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first week of January to be 4.89%. During the same week, among 250 high-COVID-volume hospitals within our 164-county panel, an estimated 1 in 4 inpatients was COVID-positive. Based upon these estimates, we computed that 15.2% of such COVID-19-positive hospitalized patients were incidental infections. Across individual counties, the median fraction of incidental COVID-19 hospitalizations was 13.7%, with an interquartile range of 9.5 to 18.4%. Conclusion Incidental COVID-19 infections appear to have been a nontrivial fraction of all COVID-19positive hospitalized patients during the Omicron BA.1 wave. In the aggregate, however, the burden of patients admitted for complications of their viral infections was far greater. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license.

14.
30th International Cartographic Conference (Icc 2021), Vol 4 ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072058

ABSTRACT

This study examines the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates across the counties in the conterminous US in the first 604 days of the pandemic. The dataset was acquired from Emory University, Atlanta, United States, which includes socio-economic variables and health outcomes variables (N=3106). OLS estimates accounted for 31% of the regression plain (adjusted R2= 0.31) with AIC value of 9263, and Breusch-Pagan test for heteroskedasticity indicated 472.4, and multicollinearity condition number of 74.25. This result necessitated spatial autoregressive models, which were performed on GeoDa 1.18 software. ArcGIS 10.7 was used to map the residuals and selected significant variables. Generally, the Spatial Lag Model (SLM) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) models accounted for substantial percentages of the regression plain. While the efficiency of the models is the order of SLM (AIC: 8264.4: BreucshPagan test: 584.4;Adj. R2 = 0.56)> SEM (AIC: 8282.0;Breucsh-Pagan test: 697.2;Adj. R2 = 0.56). In this case, the least predictive model is SEM. The significant contribution of male, black race, poverty and urban and rural dummies to the regression plain indicated that COVID-19 transmission is more of a function of socio-economic, and rural/urban conditions rather than health outcomes. Although, diabetes and obesity showed a positive relationship with COVID-19 incidence. However, the relationship was relatively low based on the dataset. This study further concludes that the policymakers and health practitioners should consider spatial peculiarities, rural-urban migration and access to resources in reducing the transmission of COVID-19 disease.

15.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071077

ABSTRACT

This mixed-methods study investigated the learning and shifts in teaching practices that educators reported after participating in a trauma-informed schools professional development intervention. Training participants were 61 educators at a suburban U.S. elementary school. The year-long intervention included three after-school trainings, classroom coaching for a subset of teachers, and evaluation of school policies with administrators. Interview (n = 16) and survey (n = 22) data were collected. Quantitative results indicated that educators reported substantial shifts in their thinking and teaching practices. Almost half reported that their thinking shifted a lot and 55% reported that their practices shifted somewhat. Qualitative themes demonstrated increased understandings of trauma and secondary traumatic stress;increased empathy for students, families, colleagues, and compassion for self;enacting proactive strategies;reappraising interactions with students;increased collaboration with colleagues;and enacting self-care strategies as a result of participating in the professional development intervention. Results have implications for policy and practice, particularly the need for implementation and evaluation of trauma-informed approaches during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Malaysian Journal of Pathology ; 44(2):177-185, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070810

ABSTRACT

The availability of COVID-19 vaccines and mass vaccination programmes in adults have significantly reduced the case attack rates and disease burden. COVID-19 vaccination successfully decreases the population at risk of infection, allowing for the safer re-opening of economies and reducing the pandemic's crippling impact on healthcare systems. However, the rapidly mutating severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 poses challenges in diminishing vaccine-induced immunity and vaccinating a significant proportion of adults to achieve herd immunity. These challenges necessitated adolescent vaccination. With the recent emergence of the highly transmissible Omicron variant and the increasing COVID-19 hospitalisation rates of children below 12 years old, many countries opted to also vaccinate younger children. Phase II/III clinical trials and real-world experience demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccinations are effective and safe for younger children and adolescents. Before Malaysia introduced its national COVID-19 vaccination programme for children 5-11 years old (which ran between March and June 2022), an expert advisory statement was issued by the College of Paediatrics, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia, to highlight the benefits and importance of vaccinating children. The advisory statement included clarifications about vaccine-related side effects such as post-vaccination myocarditis and allergic reactions to encourage informed decision making by healthcare providers and parents. This paper, which was prepared based on the critical appraisal of the current evidence, evaluation of the international experiences and the positive impact of COVID-19 vaccination in children, collectively sums up the rationale to support and ensure the success of the nationwide vaccination programme for children. Hence, the College recommends COVID-19 vaccination for children in Malaysia.

17.
Open Philosophy ; 5(1):636-649, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070805

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 unemployed millions of Americans, many of whom already lacked the financial ability to withstand an economic crisis. Mid-quarantine, politicians began to grapple on what protections for renters would stay in place as the assistance bills came to an end. The COVID-19 rent crisis raised significant moral questions to the American populace - namely, that of the State's responsibility to care for its citizens. This article examines rent strikes in the context of care ethics. Care ethics contends that our actions have moral weight. What we do matters. Rent strikes sit at the intersection of political practice and care ethics. This article contends that rent strikes provided care when the State did not, and that this lack of care highlights the need for solidarity.

18.
INFORMS Journal on Applied Analytics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070713

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced universities to upend their class scheduling. At Clemson University, the administration implemented hybrid schedules for fall 2020, in which students attend classes partly online and partly in person. To limit exposures of COVID-19 in the classroom, we propose two rotational attendance models (the three-cohort model and the once-a-week model) that aim to allow in-person classroom time and minimize exposure between students. In a baseline strategy, students would interact with an average of 84 students per week and attend class in person 2.6 days a week. By contrast, the three-cohort model and once-a-week model achieve about 57 and 83 student interactions per week and 1.6 and 1.9 in-person student attendance days a week, respectively. Although these figures of merit may imply that the three-cohort model is preferable, it achieves its results by forcing about 1,600 of the 21,000 students who want to attend courses in person to participate online instead and forcing courses that meet twice a week to be attended twice in a three-week rotation. Considering the tradeoffs between the figures of merit related to student interaction and anticipated implementation challenges, Clemson University implemented the once-a-week model for fall 2020 and spring 2021.

19.
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development ; 12(1):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067032

ABSTRACT

Across the country, hospitals are buying more sustainable food and passing internal policies in support of sustainable food procurement. This reflective essay describes the results of the sustainable procurement goals and policy of the University of California's five health systems from 2009 to 2021. Based on my observations as a staff person in the University of California and my participation in internal meetings with foodservice and sustainability staff, I discuss the evolution of the University of California's sustainable food procurement policy goals and its definition of "sustainable." I describe staff and programmatic support for purchasing environmentally sustainable food and beverages and the growth of the University of California's sustainable food purchases as a percentage of its hospitals' food budgets. This essay also explores staff debates about the sustainability of sourcing poultry with the label of "no antibiotics ever" after a 2020 COVID-19 outbreak at a poultry processing facility in California that led to the deaths of several workers. These debates about labor and working conditions in poultry supply chains from the five University of California health systems offer insights into ongoing challenges and opportunities for institutional food procurement and policy to change the food system utilizing existing supply chains and third-party certifications and label claims. The University of California's experiences also illustrate the ongoing need for farm-to-institution and farm-to-hospital efforts to better integrate values around working conditions in supply chains into sustainable procurement goals.

20.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):12985-13000, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067019

ABSTRACT

The South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), which includes the city of Los Angeles and is home to more than 15 million people, frequently experiences ozone (O3) levels that exceed ambient air quality standards. While strict regulation of O3 precursors has dramatically improved air quality over the past 50 years, the region has seen limited improvement in O3 over the past decade despite continued reductions in precursor emissions. One contributing factor to the recent lack of improvement is a gradual transition of the underlying photochemical environment from a VOC-limited regime (where VOC denotes volatile organic compound) towards an NOx-limited one. The changes in human activity prompted by COVID-19-related precautions in spring and summer of 2020 exacerbated these existing changes in the O3 precursor environment. Analyses of sector-wide changes in activity indicate that emissions of NOx decreased by 15 %–20 % during spring (April–May) and by 5 %–10 % during summer (June–July) relative to expected emissions for 2020, largely due to changes in mobile-source activity. Historical trend analysis from two indicators of O3 sensitivity (the satellite HCHO/NO2 ratio and the O3 weekend/weekday ratio) revealed that spring of 2020 was the first year on record to be on averageNOx-limited, while the “transitional” character of recent summers became NOx-limited due to COVID-19-related NOx reductions in 2020. Model simulations performed with baseline and COVID-19-adjusted emissions capture this change to an NOx-limited environment and suggest that COVID-19-related emission reductions were responsible for a 0–2 ppb decrease in O3 over the study period. Reaching NOx-limited territory is an important regulatory milestone, and this study suggests that deep reductions in NOx emissions (in excess of those observed in this study) would be an effective pathway toward long-term O3 reductions.

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