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1.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):288-299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067467

ABSTRACT

[...]we canvass those Nigerian banks should reduce dividend payouts and increase retained profits as a buffer against exposed risks. To ensure the healthiness of banks in the banking industry as well as facilitate international transaction, the central bank of ten countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the US) formed the committee of banking supervision in 1988 (the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision). Since the formation of this committee, it has undergone at least three stages called the Basel I, Basel II and Basel III. Premised on shock to the economy brought on by the coronavirus pandemic, with economic growth in 2020 expected to contract by as much as 4.4 percent to 8.94 percent, a drop in oil receipt and a devalued Naira in the range of 380-450 to US dollar, the capital adequacy of banks could be severely threatened, (Egba, 2020). [...]scholars have extensively shown that bank specific performance indicators and macroeconomic factors affected capital adequacy ratio. [...]this paper examined the effect of banks specific-performance indicators and macroeconomic factors on bank financing which is the minimum funds required for their short-term obligation or capital adequacy ratio.

2.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):33-42, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067466

ABSTRACT

A B S T R A C T The small business sector has been identified as an essential component of the global economy, especially in the developing economies, where it plays a significant role in addressing Job creation and poverty. Keywords: Immigrants, Immigrant-Entrepreneurs, COVID- 19 Bailout, Discrimination, Prejudice Introduction The incidence and subsequent rapid spread of the Coronavirus have devastated the world economy, nearly grounding it to a halt at the height of the pandemic, and the vestiges of this economic devastation remain in various countries to different extents. The small business sector has been identified as an important component of the global economy, especially in developing economies where it plays a significant role in addressing job creation and poverty. Immigrant entrepreneurship presents an important economic opportunity for South Africa in form of employment creation which has important implications for the reduction of poverty and inequality, as well as stimulation of economic growth in the country (Fatoki, 2014;Ngota et al., 2018).

3.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):350-361, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067462

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, commodity markets have been examined under the hypothesis of whether the prices exhibit recurrent patterns or follow the stochastic processes. In this study, we analyze both global energy markets and food markets to detect the presence of multiple equilibria, which may lead to higher spikes in prices and to the occurrence of intermittency. This study focuses on daily prices in Brent petrol and Natural gas markets from 23 May 2017 to 23 May 2022. This time interval covers the period where extraordinary economic and financial policies have been preferred in countries worldwide amid the Covid-19 pandemic crisis. On the other hand, the study investigates global Food index monthly data from 2007M11 to 2022M4. Similarly, the time interval under examination points out the effects of the 2008 global crisis where expansionary monetary policies have been implemented both by the Federal Reserve of the U.S and the European Central Bank. We employed the phase-space reconstruction method for the Crude oil Brent Europe and spot Natural gas prices series, and global Food index data respectively. The main findings of the study demonstrate that commodity markets do not converge to a unique equilibrium level, instead multiple equilibria persist and chaotic behavior occurs. The presence of multiple equilibria leads to an increase in complexity and recurrently causes volatility in commodity markets, which may have spillover effects on other financial markets. Our results suggest that these effects simultaneously increase global inflationary pressures. From the perspective of policy making, it is crucial to establish a strategy to eliminate multiple equilibria and prevent high price spikes. Our findings have important implications for Central bank policies in emerging markets and portfolio and risk management.

4.
Dusunen Adam ; 33(2):203-205, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067351

ABSTRACT

As fear and anxiety rates increase during the COVID-19 crisis, the need to study and screen and treat vulnerable populations is vitally important. Accordingly, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, a mental health screener of coronaphobia, has been created to aid this effort. The results of a replication analysis reported here support the diagnostic and psychometric properties of this pandemic-related mental health screener. Considerations of this scale's use are also discussed.

5.
Clinical Medicine ; 22(5):416-422, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067213

ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS: clinical trial, public knowledge, recruitment Introduction Over the past 3 decades, researchers have consistently documented disparities in clinical trial participation.1,2 For instance, clinicatl trials that have been used to support the US Food and Drug Administration approval of drugs have shown an underrepresentation of Black / African American and Hispanic/Latinx participants.3,4 Representative participation in clinical trials is necessary to inform the development of medical treatments and interventions that can translate into effective use in diverse populations and address health inequalities.5,6 Prior research suggests that clinical trial knowledge may play a key role in clinical trial participation and help to address longstanding disparities in clinical trial participation.7,8 Recent studies show that clinical trial knowledge is low globally. A survey of 12,427 individuals across 68 countries in 2017 found that more than half of participants were unsure about where clinical trials were conducted.9 The COVID-19 pandemic provided a key opportunity to educate the public about clinical trials, given the numerous ongoing trials to support vaccine and treatment development.10 A few studies have started to explore clinical trial knowledge during the COVID-19 pandemic.1,11,12 However, there has been limited study nationally to assess clinical trial knowledge or trusted sources of information for clinical trials. [...]it is timely to assess clinical trial knowledge among a representative sample of US adults. Demographics and other covariates Respondents' age In years (18-49, 50-64 or 65+), sex (men or women), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic or other), education (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, college or higher), marital status (married, divorced/widowed/separated or single), annual family Income (less than $20,000, $20,000 to <$35,000, $35,000 to <$50,000, $50,000 to <$75,000 or $75,000+), employment (employed or not employed), census region (northeast, midwest, south, west), health Insurance (yes or no), general health (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor), chronic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease or cancer) and number of visits to provider (0, 1-2, 3-4 or 5+) were Included as covariates. Due to the small sample size and missing responses, multivariable models to examine Information sources and motives of clinical trial participation were not Included. [...]we only report the bivariate associations between the level of clinical trial knowledge, Information source and clinical trial participation motives.

6.
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development ; 12(1):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067032

ABSTRACT

Across the country, hospitals are buying more sustainable food and passing internal policies in support of sustainable food procurement. This reflective essay describes the results of the sustainable procurement goals and policy of the University of California's five health systems from 2009 to 2021. Based on my observations as a staff person in the University of California and my participation in internal meetings with foodservice and sustainability staff, I discuss the evolution of the University of California's sustainable food procurement policy goals and its definition of "sustainable." I describe staff and programmatic support for purchasing environmentally sustainable food and beverages and the growth of the University of California's sustainable food purchases as a percentage of its hospitals' food budgets. This essay also explores staff debates about the sustainability of sourcing poultry with the label of "no antibiotics ever" after a 2020 COVID-19 outbreak at a poultry processing facility in California that led to the deaths of several workers. These debates about labor and working conditions in poultry supply chains from the five University of California health systems offer insights into ongoing challenges and opportunities for institutional food procurement and policy to change the food system utilizing existing supply chains and third-party certifications and label claims. The University of California's experiences also illustrate the ongoing need for farm-to-institution and farm-to-hospital efforts to better integrate values around working conditions in supply chains into sustainable procurement goals.

7.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):12985-13000, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067019

ABSTRACT

The South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), which includes the city of Los Angeles and is home to more than 15 million people, frequently experiences ozone (O3) levels that exceed ambient air quality standards. While strict regulation of O3 precursors has dramatically improved air quality over the past 50 years, the region has seen limited improvement in O3 over the past decade despite continued reductions in precursor emissions. One contributing factor to the recent lack of improvement is a gradual transition of the underlying photochemical environment from a VOC-limited regime (where VOC denotes volatile organic compound) towards an NOx-limited one. The changes in human activity prompted by COVID-19-related precautions in spring and summer of 2020 exacerbated these existing changes in the O3 precursor environment. Analyses of sector-wide changes in activity indicate that emissions of NOx decreased by 15 %–20 % during spring (April–May) and by 5 %–10 % during summer (June–July) relative to expected emissions for 2020, largely due to changes in mobile-source activity. Historical trend analysis from two indicators of O3 sensitivity (the satellite HCHO/NO2 ratio and the O3 weekend/weekday ratio) revealed that spring of 2020 was the first year on record to be on averageNOx-limited, while the “transitional” character of recent summers became NOx-limited due to COVID-19-related NOx reductions in 2020. Model simulations performed with baseline and COVID-19-adjusted emissions capture this change to an NOx-limited environment and suggest that COVID-19-related emission reductions were responsible for a 0–2 ppb decrease in O3 over the study period. Reaching NOx-limited territory is an important regulatory milestone, and this study suggests that deep reductions in NOx emissions (in excess of those observed in this study) would be an effective pathway toward long-term O3 reductions.

8.
Water ; 14(19):3009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066634

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants leading to severe worldwide health problems. Chlorination, a widely used procedure, was extensively explored as one of the main methods to remove ARB and ARGs in recent years. In this study, to enrich the analyses of chlorination, several comprehensive effects of the chlorine disinfection system on ARB and their conjugative transfer ability were explored. The results presented that the low dose of chlorine (<3-log inactivation rate) had little influence on the survival of bacteria in terms of their capacity for conjugative transfer and antibiotic resistance. The high dose of chlorine (>3-log inactivation rate) triggered cell membrane changes, with little influence on the bacteria in terms of their antibiotic resistance. However, their capacity for conjugative transfer sharply decreased. Minor consumption of chloramphenicol was achieved with the chlorine dose applied in the disinfection system. Monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) had limited effects on the frequency of conjugative transfer, indicating that the existence of MCAN would not aggravate the dissemination of ARGs by conjugative transfer. The overall impacts of the chlorine disinfection system with different containments on antibiotic resistance need further investigation.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12873, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066474

ABSTRACT

Guided by the socio-ecological model, the aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strengths of individual, social, and physical environmental factors toward different intensities of physical activity (PA;vigorous PA, moderate PA, walking) and sedentary behavior (SB) among college students. A cross-sectional research design was used. There were 287 college students (Mage = 20.75 ± 2.91;54% female) recruited from a public research university in the Southwestern United States. Participants completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their PA, SB, and perceptions of self-efficacy, social support, and physical environment variables. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the associations and the relative contributions of those individual, social, and physical environmental factors to PA and SB, respectively. The findings indicated that self-efficacy, social support from friends, and convenience of using exercise facilities were positively correlated with vigorous PA. Self-efficacy and physical environmental factor such as convenience of using exercise facilities were significantly associated with students’ moderate PA. Physical environmental factors, including convenience of using exercise facilities, satisfaction with neighborhood services, ease of walking to public transportation stop, and detached single-family residence were significantly related to walking, while only detached single-family residence was associated to SB. The results highlight PA interventions may do well to focus on the promotion of individual and environmental variables to increase PA in college students. More evidence is needed to determine the relationships between social ecological factors and SB.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12864, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066471

ABSTRACT

The agricultural futures market plays an extremely important role in price discovery, hedging risks, integrating agricultural markets and promoting agricultural economic growth. China is the largest apple producer and consumer in the world. In 2017, Chinese apple futures were listed on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) as the first fruit futures contract globally. This paper aims to study the efficiency of the apple futures market by using the Wild Bootstrapping Variance Ratio model to estimate the price discovery function, the ARIMA-GARCH model to estimate the risk-hedging function, and the ARDL-ECM model to estimate the cointegration relationship of the futures and spot market. Experimental results firstly demonstrate that the apple futures market conforms to the weak-form efficiency, which indicates that it is efficient in price discovery. Secondly, the apple futures market is not of semi-strong efficiency because it generated abnormal profit margins amid China–US trade friction, climate disaster, and COVID-19;in terms of the degree of impact, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact, followed by the rainstorm disaster and trade friction. Thirdly, the results of this study indicate that the cointegration relationships exist between the futures market and the spot markets of the main producing areas. This paper is not only conducive to sustainable development of the global fresh or fruit futures market, but also has potential and practical importance for China in developing the agricultural futures market, strengthening market risk management and promoting market circulation.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12851, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066470

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to examine the responses of commercial real estate markets to COVID-19 and the implications for post-pandemic cities. Using data of Florida’s metropolitan areas in a fixed effect regression model, we find that sales volumes of retail properties decline instantly under the shock of COVID-19 but are followed by a strong recovery after one quarter. Meanwhile, COVID-19 depresses the growth rate of rent for office property, but the impact is short-term, and the office rental market bounces back to about 70 percent one quarter later. In comparison, industrial properties witness a rise in the growth rate of sales and rent price. Results indicate that urban planners may consider adjusting the amount of lands allocated to different usages to meet the evolving demands of urban space in the post-pandemic era.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12811, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066465

ABSTRACT

Although the needs for sustainable urban infrastructure systems are increasingly being recognized and addressed, the same is not true for Native American communities, where existence, condition, and access to a collection of infrastructure systems is often lagging behind urban and non-native communities. To date, there has been a quite limited number of studies exploring Native American perspectives on infrastructure challenges and how to build sustainable and resilient infrastructure systems in their communities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the challenges and opportunities for building sustainable infrastructure systems for Native American communities in Southern California and investigate how those communities experience, understand, and apply engineering practice in the context of their community and culture. Drawing from six group interviews, our study highlights challenges and opportunities for building sustainable and resilient infrastructure systems on tribal reservations in San Diego County, California, from the perspectives offered by Native Americans themselves. We focus on infrastructure systems fundamental to well-being: built environment, water/wastewater, telecommunications, transportation, energy, human capital, and education. Our research participants emphasized the importance of their cultures, sovereignty, and care for the welfare of their communities in innovating sustainable and resilient infrastructure. To accomplish this, a key priority should be to train native engineers, who are best positioned to understand the infrastructure needs and opportunities in their own communities.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12794, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066463

ABSTRACT

Consumption is an important concept in economics and many social sciences. The aim of the study is to compare consumption in European households in the years 2004–2020 and to identify groups of countries with similar consumption–expenditure structures. Statistical methods were used: trend analysis, cluster analysis. Between 2004 and 2019, the consumption expenditures of European households gradually increased. In all countries, spending on categories such as food, housing maintenance, and food and accommodation rose. Most countries also saw an increase in spending on other categories of consumer goods and services, although there were also countries where some types of spending decreased during the period under study. Our research grouped countries according to their consumption structure in 2004, 2019 and 2020. In Europe, several groups of countries can be distinguished according to their consumption structure. Similarities between EU countries’ consumption change through time. Ward’s clustering and k-means methods allowed to reduce a large number of countries to a few basic groups, which can be perceived as the subject and direction of further analysis.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12358, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066404

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates and compares the export competitiveness of rare-earth products from China, the US, Russia, and India between 2006 and 2020 using the CMS model and the WRCA index. The results show that (1) the competitiveness of the four countries’ rare-earth products has changed differently. The overall competitiveness of rare-earth products of China, the US, and India has decreased, whereas the competitiveness of Russia’s rare-earth products has increased. (2) The factors inhibiting the development of the competitiveness of rare-earth products in the four countries are different. In China and India they are market factors and product factors, in the US it is the overall market share factor, and in Russia it is the market factor. (3) The competitiveness of rare-earth products varies greatly among the four countries. China has the highest rare-earth export competitiveness, whereas the US has significantly lower export competitiveness of rare-earth products than China. Russia and India do not have comparative advantages. (4) The four countries have different trends in the evolution of the competitiveness of rare-earth products. The export competitiveness of rare-earth products of China and India tends to decline, whereas that of the United States and Russia tends to rise. Based on the above findings, the paper puts forward corresponding policy recommendations.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12356, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066403

ABSTRACT

This article investigates the connection between US logistics companies’ commitment to environmental, social and fair governance (ESG) strategy and their performance on the US stock market during the 2007–2022 period. The research considers historical data analysis, CAPM and a comparison of optimised portfolios. According to the results of the analyses, ‘green’ logistics stocks are less volatile, and hence less risky, and more profitable compared to ‘non-green’ logistics stocks. The Great Recession (2007–2009) and the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) had the greatest impact on stock volatility, in terms of the US stock market. Optimised during the time of the Ukrainian crisis, green logistics portfolios were shown to have higher returns, but also risks and Sharpe ratios, than ‘non-green’ ones. The results confirm there to be a connection between companies’ commitment to ESG strategy and enhanced stock performance, which contributes to the importance of the ESG agenda.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11956, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066380

ABSTRACT

Developing physical activity guidelines based on the life cycle concept is conducive to accelerating the realization of the goal of “all-round, full-cycle maintenance and protection to greatly improve people’s health” in the Healthy China 2030 Planning Outline. Based on a policy tools perspective, this study uses the text analysis method to collect and analyze physical activity guidelines based on the life cycle concept from five economically developed countries: the USA, Japan, Canada, Australia, and the UK. The policy tools, country data, and stages of the life cycle were used to develop physical activity guidelines in China to accelerate the realization of the Healthy China 2030 strategy based on the following principles: (1) Strengthen sectoral cooperation and establish a system of policy instruments;(2) increase publicity and scientific awareness of physical activity and exercise;(3) focus on talent cultivation and improve guideline research and development;and (4) mobilize the power of all sectors to promote the implementation of physical activity guidelines.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11949, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066379

ABSTRACT

The refurbishment of building facilities needs to incorporate end-user engagement to ensure refurbished building facilities outcomes that include user-responsive learning spaces and satisfy users’ learning needs. However, existing refurbishment design process frameworks neglect to show the engagement process. A new framework for engaging end users in the refurbishment design of building facilities in higher education is presented. A qualitative research methodology was employed to obtain and analyse interview data from twenty-one design team stakeholders involved in two cases of refurbished building facilities in higher education institutions in Australia and New Zealand. The findings revealed four core themes which indicate the context and phases in the refurbishment design process where end-user engagement should be taken seriously. They are the higher education context, early design, user engagement in the design process and post-design phases. In addition, the findings revealed six specific strategies for end-user engagement in the refurbishment design of building facilities in higher education institutions. They are identifying stakeholder value systems, capturing end-user needs, communicating and integrating. Others are the setting of engagement boundaries and surveying of end users. This study modified the project heartbeat originally developed by Stanford University in 2010 for the refurbishment design process in a higher education context. The new framework bridges the gaps in the current literature between stakeholder theory and refurbishment design, and, by incorporating the refurbishment design processes, the framework can be employed in wider education and other project contexts to facilitate the balanced involvement of end users.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11886, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066375

ABSTRACT

Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) has become essential for corporate sustainability. Among ESG activities, we focus on governance structure since firms can properly engage in activities related to environmental and social responsibility only when their corporate governance structures are well established. Outside directors play an important role in governance structure since they monitor the management and provide expertise to the board of directors. In this study, we pay particular attention to the compensation of outside directors, which reflects the effort, expertise, and independence of outside directors. Based on data from listed firms on the Korea Stock Exchange in South Korea between 2014 and 2020, we examine the association between outside directors’ compensation and ESG performance in certain firms with unique governance structures, namely, chaebols (or family firms). We find that the compensation of outside directors is positively associated with ESG performance, implying that outside directors’ compensation motivates effective monitoring and advisement of management and has an incremental effect on ESG performance. We suggest that the compensation of outside directors is one of the key factors that can significantly affect ESG performance. Therefore, investors and policymakers may evaluate whether a firm is doing well in terms of ESG activities by examining the compensation of outside directors.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11874, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066374

ABSTRACT

The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework;(2) Methods: This study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000–2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production);(3) Results: It was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on the short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities;(4) Conclusions: There is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.

20.
Journal of Advanced Transportation ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064340

ABSTRACT

Bike-sharing holds promise for available and healthy mobility services during COVID-19 where bike sharing users can make trips with lower health concerns due to social distancing compared to the restricted transportation modes such as public transit and ridesharing services. Leveraging the trip data of the Divvy bike-sharing system in Chicago, this study exploresspatially heterogeneous effects of built environment on bike-sharing usage under the pandemic. Results show that the average weekly ridership declined by 52.04%. To account for the spatially heterogeneous relationship between the built environment and the ridership, the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and the semiparametric GWR (S-GWR) model are constructed. We find that the S-GWR model outperforms the GWR and the multiple linear regression models. The results of the S-GWR model indicate that education employment density, distance to subway, COVID-19 cases, and ridership before COVID-19 are global variables. The effects between ridership and the built environment factros (i.e., household density, office employment density, and the ridership) vary across space. The results of this study could provide a useful reference to transportation planners and bike-sharing operators to determine the high bike-sharing demand area under the pandemic,thus adjusting station locations, capacity, and rebalancing schemes accordingly.

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