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1.
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies ; 9(3):483-515, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157700

ABSTRACT

Open‐air marketplaces are vital to food security, livelihoods, and the national economy in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Over the past 60 years, rapid growth of urban populations, changes in global commodity prices, and the decline in value of the PNG currency have stimulated demand for domestic fresh food. Selling fresh food in marketplaces has also become an attractive way to earn money for rural producers, whose returns on labour on their export crops have declined, and for urban residents struggling to make a living. This in turn has led to significant changes in PNGʼs marketplaces: spatial and temporal changes, changes in what is bought and sold, changes in who is selling, and changes in how food is transacted. In this paper, we bring together research on PNGʼs marketplaces from between 1961 and 2022 to document these changes and their causes, alongside important continuities, and to examine the implications and substantial gaps in our knowledge.

2.
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances ; : 100188, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082732

ABSTRACT

The major objective of this research analysis was to look into the intricacies that people in Saudi Arabian cities have had as a result of post Covid-19 infection. This study took place from December 1, 2021, to March 31, 2022, with a total of 1500 volunteers.The massive difference in P-esteem was obtained by using the Pearson's Chi-Square test for all surveys in order to break down the evaluation study. This research was a small step in directing such crucial preventive medicine evaluations.As a result, this study suggests that the generally positive report that the local area experienced a variety of entanglements as a result of Corona virus diseases was handled well with the necessary measures taken by medical care workers and administered by the public authority's responsive authorities.The p-esteem value for respiratory complications was 0.346% where as for the cardiac complications experience was 0.202% and the neurological complications was 0.09%.The least intricacies were recorded in the neurological complications and the maximum were due to respiratory complications.This review recommends that the in general acceptable report that thoughthe local area encountered an adaptable of entanglements post Corona virus diseases yet were handled well with the essential measures by the medical care laborers administerd by the responsive authorities of the public authority

3.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A412-A413, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064059

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of children and young people (CYP);with illness-related anxiety, social/physical distancing, mandatory quarantines, travel restrictions, school closures, isolation and family disruptions having a negative impact on mental wellbeing. While several reports have highlighted high rates of mental health problems and suicidal ideation, few studies have focused on self-harm related hospital attendances by CYP during the pandemic or provided reliable trend analyses in comparison with pre-pandemic data. Our objective was to compare pre-pandemic (2019) and pandemic (2020 and 2021) attendances to the emergency department by CYP, for mental health issues including overdose, self-harm, suicidal ideation/attempt. Methods * Single-centre observation study of CYP of age 8 years to 18 years, attending the emergency department (ED) for overdose, self-harm and suicidal ideation/attempt, from 01/ 01/2019 to 31/12/2021 (36 months). * Eligible patients were identified using discharge diagnostic coding and mental health services database review using search terms including 'overdose', 'deliberate self-harm', 'self-harm', 'self-injury', 'self-injured', 'hurt themselves', 'suicide', 'suicidal', 'suicidal ideation. Results * 1226 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. * Number of CYP attending ED in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were 374, 418 and 434 respectively. * Compared to 2019, in 2021 there is a 16% overall increase in the number of CYP attending ED for mental health issues (figure 1). Of note, 2021's analysis shows that the rate of ED attendance was greater in the first 6 months when compared to the latter 6 months. * The greatest increase from 2019 is seen in CYP attending with suicidal intent and overdose (figure 2). * We will be carrying out further data analysis on our inner-city population evaluating the disparities across age, gender and socio-economic status as well as the care journey of reattenders. In addition, data collection will continue in 2022 to evaluate if this trend continues or stabilises post-removal of pandemic restrictions Conclusion * Continuing incremental trend of ED attendances in 2021 despite the easing of pandemic restrictions in July 2021 and vaccine roll-out for 12-16-year-olds in September 2021 suggest a cumulative impact on mental health from the long course of the pandemic. As noted in figure 2, over 60% of the patients seen in 2021 were in the first half of the year, suggesting that continuing lockdowns may have had an impact in attendance. Further, UK youth surveys report that many CYP found the 2021 lockdown harder than the 2020 lockdowns, possibly due to the prolongation of uncertainty over the future.1 * The short and long-term mental health implications of the pandemic should be seen against the background of worsening mental health morbidity in CYP in the UK over the preceding few years, especially as our data shows a large increase in presentations with suicidal ideation/attempt. This calls for a systematic response to widen access to mental health services in the future. (Figure Presented).

4.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S448-S449, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058306

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Constipation in children is a common presentation to Pediatric Emergency Department(ED). Previous studies on the prevalence of constipation ranged from 0.5-4% with most reports from large academic centers. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a reduced number of ED visits in the US. The impact of this pandemic on the prevalence of constipation in the ED is currently unknown. Objective(s): To evaluate the trend of constipation as the primary reason for ED visit and if there was any impact of COVID-19 on the prevalence of this presentation. Method(s): We reviewed the ED database at our urban community hospital to identify all children that presented to the ED for constipation during the years 2016-2020. We compared the number of visits during the 2016-2019 (pre-pandemic) period to the 2020 year (pandemic). We calculated prevalence Odds Ratio to evaluate for significance Results: A total of 54,611 pediatric (<18 years old) visits occurred during the study period, of which 920 visits were attributed to constipation as the primary reason for ED visits. There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of constipation in the year 2020 (POR =1.5 95% CI (1.24-1.82) p=<0.0001) compared to the pre-pandemic years. The yearly trend is shown in the table 1. Conclusion(s): The prevalence of constipation was 1.3%-2.1% during the study period. There is a significant increase in the prevalence of constipation presentation to the ED during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic period. (Table Presented).

5.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4 Suppl):S1-S106, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044623

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 201 s of papers presented at the conference. Topics discussed include: association between cannabis use and COVID-19 and distress among adolescent patients;COVID-19 exposure and care-seeking behaviors among vulnerable urban adolescents and young adults;assessment of a poverty simulation in medical education;prevalence of chronic pelvic pain by sexual orientation in a large cohort of young women in the USA;confidentiality and patient satisfaction in adolescent telehealth visits;predictors of adolescent telemedicine visit no-shows during the COVID-19 pandemic;simulation of contraceptive access for adolescents using a pharmacist-staffed e-platform;foster caregivers and their role in contraception decision-making for adolescents in care.

6.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009536

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in cancer treatment delivery among breast cancer patients in the U.S. However, it is currently unknown whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in cancer treatment disruptions among patients with breast cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We obtained data from the ASCO Survey on COVID-19 in Oncology Registry (March 2020-July 2021) describing breast cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 during their care treated at 46 practices across the US. Data included patient demographics, SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer characteristics, and modifications to cancer treatment plans. Breast cancer treatment delay or discontinuation (TDD) was defined as any treatment postponed more than two weeks from the originally scheduled date. We computed adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using multivariable logistic regression, accounting for non-independence of patients within hospitals to evaluate racial/ethnic disparities of TDD. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, number of comorbidities, cancer extent, ECOG performance score, pandemic period based on case peaks (< 06/2020, 06-12/2020, 01-07/2021), and COVID-19 severity (death/hospitalization/ICU admission/mechanical ventilation). Results: Breast cancer patients (n = 804) with SARS-CoV-2 were mostly aged 50 years and above (75%) and urban residents (83%). The racial/ethnic makeup of the sample included: 13.3% non-Hispanic Black/African American (NH-Black), 11.7% Hispanic/Latinx, 4.9% American Indian/Alaskan Native (NH-AI/ AN), 4.6% NH-Asian, and 65% NH-White. At SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, 736 patients (91%) were scheduled to receive drug-based therapy (78%), radiation therapy (8%), or surgery (6%), of whom 39% experienced TDD. Across treatment modalities, the most commonly reported TDD reason from the clinic perspective was the patient's COVID-19 disease (∼90%). Overall, NH-Black (62%), Hispanic/Latinx (44%), and NH-Asian (42%) adults with breast cancer and SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to experience TDD versus NH-White adults (34%) (p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, NH-Black cancer patients were more likely to experience TDD compared to NH-White patients (aOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.96-5.47). The data suggest Hispanic/Latinx (aOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.78-2.30) breast cancer patients may also experience TDD, although not statistically significant. No association was observed among NH-Asian (aOR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.50-2.73) or NH-AI/AN (aOR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.28-1.52) breast cancer patients with TDD. Conclusions: Black or African American breast cancer patients are more likely to experience cancer care disruptions during the pandemic. Future research should evaluate the long-term impacts of care disruptions on breast cancer outcomes among minoritized US communities.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009519

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many cancer practices adopted telehealth, including telephone and video appointments. Following a period of initial expansion that began in March 2020, sustained telehealth integration has emerged across the Mayo Clinic Cancer Practice (MCCP) in 2021. The primary objective of this study was to identify factors associated with utilization of telehealth appointments. Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-site, retrospective analysis was conducted across MCCP - a multisite, multiregional cancer practice with tertiary referral campuses in Minnesota, Florida, and Arizona, as well as rural, community-based hospitals and clinics throughout the Upper Midwest. Multivariable models were used to examine the association of patient- and provider-level variables with telehealth utilization. Results: Outpatient appointments conducted in July - August 2019 (n = 32,932) were compared with those from 2020 (n = 33,662) and 2021 (n = 35,486). The rate of telehealth appointment utilization increased from <0.01% in 2019 to 11.0% in 2020 and 14.0% in 2021. The strongest provider-level predictor of telehealth utilization was female physician provider type (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11;P = 0.0297), a trend consistently observed across career stages, practice locations and settings in 2020 and 2021. Additionally, while the rate of telehealth utilization was not significantly different at referral and community-based campuses in 2020, providers at referral campuses were significantly more likely to utilize telehealth than community-based campuses in 2021 (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12;P = 0.0289). Regarding patient-level factors, rural residence (defined by Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes), which accounted for 44.2% of the patient population, was significantly associated with lower telehealth utilization as compared to patients with urban residences, particularly for video appointments (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07;P < 0.0001). Notably, the disparity in telehealth utilization between rural and urban populations was found to be less pronounced in 2021 as compared to 2020. Conclusions: Multivariable analysis across a multi-site, multi-regional cancer practice identified several factors associated with increased telehealth utilization. These included female physician provider type, referral-based campuses, and patients residing in urban settings. A detailed understanding of the factors that influence telehealth utilization - a method of care delivery which represents a “new normal” across many cancer practices - will be essential to enable continued equitable access to high-quality, high-impact, patient-centered cancer care.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1681, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020. METHODS: A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54; a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone. RESULTS: Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including "blaming", "social discrimination", "dishonor label", "interpersonal contact", and "retribution and requital attitude". The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile: 22, 75the percentile: 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant's stigma score. CONCLUSION: We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:53-54, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006915

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: Rapid, scalable point-of-care COVID-19 testing at community-level may hold the key towards diagnosis and control in resource-limited settings. Our initial door-to-door symptom-based strategy yielded low COVID-19 cases. We therefore investigated COVID19 case detection using a strategy of community hubs in a peri-urban community (~27,000) with high TB/HIV prevalence in Zambia. Methods: COVID19 screening was delivered using “community hubs”, walk-in testing locations staffed by 2 Community Health Workers serving 3000 to 4000 people. Between May-October 2021 4 hubs were operated in high-risk transmission hotspots changing location weekly. All persons attending the hubs were offered COVID-19 testing (Panbio-AgRDT and a PCR (Cepheid-Xpert-Xpress TM or VitaPCRTM RT-PCR assay (Credo Diagnostics Biomedical, Singapore), depending on availability) and symptoms screening;TB/HIV screening and testing;counselling and linkage to routine care. Qualitative methods included: mystery shoppers, focus group discussions with different groups and observations. Results: Over 6 months, 2956 people were screened at the hubs, 1724 (58%) males with median age 30 years. Prevalence of COVID19 suggestive symptoms was 18.3% (540/2956). A total of 2938 antigen tests were done and 168 (5.7%) were positive. For PCR testing, by Xpert Xpress 370/1270 (29.1%) were positive and 113/951 (11.9%) by VitaPCR;157 (5.3%) were positive on both. Test positivity was strongly associated with being symptomatic (p<0.001). Antigen test positivity rate was 1.6% in asymptomatic versus 24.2% in symptomatic;for Xpert-Xpress 20.6% versus 46.5% and for Vita PCR 4.2% versus 30.4% respectively. Qualitative results are available. Impact: This study aims to generate and evaluate models of community-based COVID-19 services to improve the trace-screen-test- isolate cascade and management by overcoming barriers, reducing stigma, and enabling communities to access rapid-testing. Rapid dissemination of key findings will mitigate the impact of the SARS-CoV2 epidemic and to help increase the knowledge. Conclusion: Delivering COVID-19 case-finding using mobile community hubs is feasible and acceptable and contributed towards the district and national COVID19 response in Zambia. Symptomatic persons have a significant higher chance of being detected with SARS-COV-2.

10.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:13-14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006782

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: As of March 2021, the Africa CDC had reported 4,159,055 cases of COVID-19 and 111,357 deaths among the 55 African Union Member States;however, no country has published a nationally representative serosurvey. Such data are vital for understanding the pandemic's progression on the continent, evaluating containment measures, and policy planning. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, nationally representative, age-stratified serosurvey in Sierra Leone in March 2021 by randomly selecting 120 Enumeration Areas throughout the country and 10 randomly selected households in each of these. One to two persons per selected household were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographics, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, exposure history to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, and history of COVID-19 illness. Capillary blood was collected by fingerstick, and blood samples were tested using the Hangzhou Biotest Biotech RightSign COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette. Total seroprevalence was estimated after applying sampling weights. Results: The overall weighted seroprevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 1.9-3.4). This was 43 times higher than the reported number of cases. Rural seropositivity was 1.8% (95% CI 1.0-2.5), and urban seropositivity was 4.2% (95% CI 2.6-5.7). Stratifying by age group and weighting, 1.7% (95% CI 0.2-3.2) of participants age 5-9 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as did 2.6% (95% CI 0.8- 4.2) of those 10-19, 1.2% (95% 0.2-2.3) of those 20-39, 4.4% (95% CI 2.4-6.4) of those 40-59, and 3.6% (95% CI 1.6-5.6) of those 60 and above. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between rural/urban populations (Rao-Scott Chi-square p=0.002). Impact: This has ramifications for the country's third wave, where the average number of daily reported cases was 87 by the end of the Jone 2021-this could potentially be on the order of 3,700 actual infections, calling for stronger containment measures in a country with only 0.2% of people fully vaccinated. Conclusion: Overall seroprevalence was low compared to countries in Europe and the Americas (suggesting relatively successful containment in Sierra Leone). The results may reflect significant underreporting of incidence and mortality across the continent.

11.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:1235-1239, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), as well as pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection, continues to spread around the world, but the epidemiological situation is not the same in different countries. AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiological situation of coronavirus infection and pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of the incidence of coronavirus infection and pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection in the republic according to official statistical reporting, as well as a statistical analysis of discharge records of patients diagnosed with coronavirus infection (no virus identified) in a small town of Karaganda region was carried out. RESULTS: An increase in cases, sick persons, recovered persons, and lethal cases in population with positive PCR for COVID-19, as well as pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection in the Republic of Kazakhstan was registered for the period from January 8, 2020, to December 31, 2021. The number of cases of coronavirus increased in 10.93 times those who recovered – in 15.78 times and deaths – in 16.4 times, respectively. The increase in the number of cases of pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection also increased in 16.24 time, the number of those who recovered at the beginning of the observation was not established, by the end the number of recovered was 76,989 people, the number of deaths increased in 173.83 time. CONCLUSION: An analysis of the discharge records of patients with pneumonia with signs of coronavirus infection revealed that 54.2% of the patients were females and 45.8% were males. The disease was registered in 21.8% of patients older than 60 years in the presence of concomitant diseases. Concomitant diseases were represented in 42% by arterial hypertension, in 26% by ischemic heart disease, and in 14% by pyelonephritis. The same percentage of cases (12%) was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and iron deficiency anemia, 11% – diabetes mellitus. Among all patients, 69.4% were urban residents and 30.6% were rural areas.

12.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 79(4):S101, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996904

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a critical strategy to prevent COVID-19. We describe the effects of a vaccine drive implemented in Emory Dialysis centers on COVID-19 vaccine uptake, infection rates and outcomes. Emory Dialysis, serving an urban population, conducted a COVID-19 vaccination drive (i.e. vaccine education and onsite vaccine administration) across its 4 dialysis centers (~750 patients) from March—April 2021. Monthly COVID-infection and vaccination rates were tracked from March 2020—September 2021. We assessed the effect of the drive on the COVID-19 vaccine uptake, infection rates and outcomes including hospitalizations and 30-day mortality. Patients were included if they were diagnosed with COVID-19, 14 days after the vaccination drive (to reflect fully vaccinated status). Patients were stratified by vaccination status and descriptive statistics were performed. From March 2020–April 2021, monthly COVID-19 infection rates were 0.41—4.97% and vaccination rates were 0–6%. From May–September 2021 (post-vaccination drive), the monthly COVID-19 infection rates ranged from 0–2.50% and vaccination rates were 67.4–76.1%. In the post-vaccination period, 34 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19;26 were fully vaccinated and 8 were unvaccinated. Among the 34 patients, the median age was 57 years [interquartile range (IQR) 47–73], 29% were female and 79.4% were Black. Compared to unvaccinated group, the vaccinated group was older (62 years [IQR 50-73] vs. 50 years [IQR 41-60], p=0.06), and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (46.2% vs. 25.0%, p=0.62);otherwise, patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Twelve patients (48.1%) in the vaccinated group vs. 6 patients (75.0%) in the unvaccinated group were hospitalized for COVID-infection (p=0.26). Three patients (11.5%) in the vaccinated group vs. 2 patients (25%) in the unvaccinated group (p=0.35) died within 30-days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Providing vaccinations at dialysis centers may improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake and outcomes. Studies evaluating the long-term effects of vaccination programs in dialysis centers are needed.

13.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 79(4):S61-S62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996893

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that older pts adapt better to dialysis than younger pts. We investigated in response by age to various stressors encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic in a population of inner-city dialysis patients. A survey was conducted in a random sample of 32 dialysis patients. Patients were asked about their fluid intake, general attitudes towards medical recommendations, and changes in their wellbeing due to COVID19. The PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) and KAS-R (Kim Alliance Scale Revised) were also used. Mean age was 56.8 ± 18.2 years. 15 pts (46.9%) were <60 yrs (younger) and 17 (53.1%) were ≥60 yrs (older). Mean dialysis time was 88.0 ± 104.0 months. There were 20 (62.5%) male, 29 (90.6%) identified as black, 18 (56%) had a high school diploma or less, and 14 (44%) completed some college or more. 7% (1) of older and 46% (6) of younger pts reported “some of the time” or “never” rather than "most of the time" when asked how often they followed the fluid restriction recommendations (p=0.034). 29% (4) of younger pts reported fluid restrictions were difficult to follow, vs. none of the older pts (p=0.037). 33% (5) of younger pts reported “poor” or “average” when asked about wellbeing prior to the pandemic and 100% (15) of older patients reported “good” (p=0.05). When asked to rate their stress level over the last year, 64% (9) of younger pts reported being somewhat or very stressed and 79% (11) of older pts reported not at all or a little stressed (p=0.015). 29% (4) of younger pts stated they sometimes work well with their provider and 100% (15) of older patients stated always (p=0.026). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for sex, race, or education. In our population during the pandemic: 1. Younger pts were less adherent to fluid restriction and found them more difficult to follow. 2. Older pts were more likely to report feeling good prior to the pandemic and were less stressed following it. 3. Older pts were more likely to report a good relationship with their provider. 4. Younger pts may need more support through the pandemic as they appear to be coping less well, feel less connected, and are less able to follow important dietary restrictions. (Table Presented) This case highlights the uncommon sequelae of untreated primary hyperparathyroidism which is rare since the introduction of automated chemistry analyzers [2]. Pancreatitis is reported in < 3% of patients with hyperparathyroidism and is seldom seen in current practice. Nephrocalcinosis and pancreatitis are rare complications of untreated hyperparathyroidism and could have been averted with the definitive treatment of parathyroidectomy.

14.
New Labor Forum ; 30(3):20-28, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1986665

ABSTRACT

We are in the midst of cascading political, economic, health, and environmental crises. Perhaps most evident is the Republican Party's introduction of over 360 legislative bills primarily aimed at making it harder for people of color and urban residents to vote. Meanwhile, we are slowly emerging from the Covid-19 pandemic that exacerbated the pre-existing economic crisis stemming from out of control wealth inequality. All of these problems have common origins in elite control of an economy organized around capital accumulation, and popular racism cultivated over centuries by elites to divert white workers away from multi-racial solidarity with workers of color.

15.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986487

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to societal factors in the US, racial/ethnic minority adults are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly those with existing comorbid conditions such as cancer. It is currently unknown whether disparities exist in cancer treatment delivery among racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Data were obtained from the ASCO COVID-19 and Cancer Registry (March 2020-July 2021), including data from cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 during their care (n=3193) at 60 practices across the US. Data included patient demographics, SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and treatment, cancer clinical characteristics, and modifications to cancer treatment plans. Cancer treatment delay or discontinuation (TDD) was defined as any treatment postponed more than two weeks from the original scheduled date. We descriptively evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics, compared disparities in TDD by race/ethnicity and urban/rural residency, and evaluated reasons for TDD as reported by the clinics. We computed adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using multivariable logistic regression, accounting for non-independence of patients within hospitals to evaluate racial/ethnic disparities of TDD. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, number of comorbidities, cancer type, cancer extent, cancer status at SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (progressing/stable) and SARS-CoV-2 severity (death/hospitalization/ICU admission/mechanical ventilation). Results: Cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2were mostly female (57%), urban residents (84%), and NH-White (66%);49% were 65+ years old. Most patients had solid tumors (75%). At SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, 2403 patients (76%) were scheduled to receive drug-based therapy (69%), radiation therapy (7%), surgery (4%), or transplant (0.7%), of whom 49% experienced TDD. The most reported TDD reason from the clinic perspective was the patient's COVID-19 disease (90%). Overall, NH-Black (64%) and Hispanic (57%) with SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to experience TDD versus NH-White adults (46%) (p<0.001). This disparity was also observed across urban residing adults (p<0.001). Among rural adults, NH-AI/AN (75%) and NH-Black (61%) were more likely to experience TDD versus NH-White patients (39%). In multivariable analyses, disparities persisted, by NH-Black cancer patients with 92% (aOR:1.92, 95% CI:1.24-2.96) and Hispanic patients with 41% (aOR:1.41, 95% CI:1.03-1.91) higher odds of experiencing TDD. We observed consistent results among urban and rural subgroups. Conclusion: Racial/ethnic disparities exist in TDD among cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 in urban and rural care settings. Future studies should evaluate the impacts of delays to cancer treatment delivery on cancer outcomes among minoritized communities in the US.

16.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 22(1):603-608, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1980678

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in Wuhan city (China) in patients with severe respiratory disorders and the disease which it cause named scientifically as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since, its discovery, more than 1,338,604 of COVID-19 case was confirmed between Iraqi peoples a while 30 June 2021 with nearly 17,156 death cases. In order to detect the association of COVID-19 with elevated IL-6 and others blood parametres as D-dimer, C-reactive protein, Ferritin and Lactate dehydrogenase and some other risk factors as age, gender, smoking and place of residence, the study conducted 70 people were devided into three groups. Under 30 year, between 30 to 40 year and above 40 year and also 20 healthy subject were taken as a control group. Levels of IL-6 and the other hematological parameters were estimeated using Automated fluorescent immunoassay system (AFIAS-6) technique. The result showed a significant increase in the level of IL-6 and the other hematological parameters studied in all age groups of COVID-19 patients in comparison with the healthy subjects group. The results also showed that patients with blood group type (o+) were the most frequent in the disease in the study by percent (35.71%) followed by patients with AB+, A+ and B+ and A- blood group type and amounted (25.71%, 18.57%, 14.9% and 5.72%), respectively. Results also showed that the age groups above 40 years were most frequent with the disease in comparison with group of between 30 to 40 and group of under 30 year. The disease was more common in males compared to females in this study and also was more common among non-smokers and between urban residents more than among city residents.

17.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(7):2675-2684, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1979736

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, Indonesian people were still shaken by the corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic. The government is trying to deal with this outbreak. So far, the emergency public activity restrictions (PPKM Darurat), level 1-4 has been extended several times. The number of positive COVID-19 patients is still relatively high, although the number continues to decline, so that anxiety among the public is still visible. It affects people's mental health. The Banyumas Regency Government has made every effort to overcome this problem, but has not succeeded because there are still a lot of people who do not care about handling COVID-19. This studyaims to (a) map interaction problems in dealing with the corona virus, (b) social solidarity and (c) strategies taken to maintain mental health. The method of the research is qualitative with an embedded-case study, female informants from dasa wisma (a group consisting of 10-20 family heads that are close together), people infected with the corona virus, neighborhood unit (RT) officers. The informant collection technique is purposive sampling, data was taken by in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation, while the analysis used is interactive analysis. The results show that the social interactions of rural and urban communities in responding to neighbors who are positively infected with COVID-19 are different. Rural communities tend to "isolate" people affected by COVID-19 because they still have a relatively low understanding of COVID-19, while urban communities tend to be more open. In general, thesocial solidarity that is built is relatively the same, namely mechanical solidarity with different technicalities according to the situation and conditions of the surrounding community. Social solidarity built on “jogo roso and jogo tonggo” (neighbors respect and care for one another), the strong role of dasa wisma and PKK (Family Welfare Movement) women team in neighborhood unit level (RT). The strategies taken to maintain the mental health of people affected by COVID-19 and the surrounding community in general are taking a religious approach, getting closer to God, watching YouTube videos, reading the Quran, listening to religious lectures on TV, readingbooks about COVID-19, drinking herbal ingredients and thinking positively. To support the health workers, the women from dasa wisma are trained and equipped with the basic skills of checking temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and supervision. The implications and roles of RT and RW (community units) administrators are further enhanced in socializing the understanding of the corona virus by implementing crisis management.

18.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26164, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964578

ABSTRACT

Introduction Physicians' scope of practice (SoP) depends on clinical settings and is related to how motivated they feel. The clarification and differences in the SoP in each clinical setting are necessary for physicians' careers. This study aimed to investigate how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected physicians' SoP. Methods This serial cross-sectional study compares the differences in physicians' SoP among Japanese rural community hospitals between 2018 and 2020. The participants were admitted patients in the internal medicine wards of the two community hospitals in urban and rural districts in the rural prefecture (Shimane) of Japan from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020. We calculated the number of health problems among the highest 50% of all health problems for each physician (SoP-50%) and used it as an indicator of the comprehensiveness of clinical practice. Results The study found that SoP-50% was significantly higher in rural districts in 2018 (p = 0.0209). This trend remained unchanged even during the COVID-19 in 2020 (p = 0.0441). While there was a significant regional difference in the SoP, pre and post-COVID-19 analysis of the SoP in each region did not show any significant change. Conclusion This is the first study to indicate that greater comprehensiveness of clinical practice is required in the districts of rural Japan. The findings can be helpful for physicians' medical education and career choices.

19.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):37S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination is safe in pregnancy and has been recommended to reduce severe maternal and fetal morbidity;however, hesitancy still exists. We sought to investigate perceptions and acceptance of vaccination among pregnant patients. METHODS: Pregnant patients were recruited during telehealth visits in a prospective, cross-sectional manner. Participants received an online survey using a health belief model framework to understand factors that predict COVID-19 vaccination acceptance in pregnancy. Perceptions of barriers to and benefits of vaccination as well as susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 disease during pregnancy were sought. The primary outcome was vaccine acceptance rate pre- and post-recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians (ACOG) and Gynecologists and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Secondary outcomes were perceptions of barriers to and benefits of vaccination. RESULTS: We received 238 responses out of 1,291 (18.4%) from May to November 2021. Among unvaccinated patients, 92.5% stated they would not accept vaccination during pregnancy. There was no difference when ACOG/SMFM recommendations were considered (94.1% pre versus 89.1% post, P=.4). During this period, more patients were fully vaccinated prior to pregnancy post recommendations (46.7% versus 18.8%, P<.01). Post recommendations, study participants had more confidence in the personal and fetal protective effects of vaccination (personal, 53.5% versus 33.7%, P<.01;fetal, 46.5% versus 23.5%, P<.01). However, there was no change in perception of vaccine harm to the pregnancy (30.7% versus 39.8%, P=.1). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates remained unchanged among unvaccinated pregnant patients following national recommendations. Approximately one third of patients consider the vaccine harmful to their pregnancy. Counseling regarding vaccine safety prior to and during pregnancy is crucial to improve acceptance rates.

20.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology ; 29(SUPPL 1):i148-i149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915581

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Unhealthy behaviours can be amplified during lockdown and organisations, like WHOand CDC, campaign on how to stay healthy at home. Lifestyle choices are of paramount importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Northern Greece was forcefully hit by the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and a hard lockdown was implemented in November 2020. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the (un)healthy behaviours of patients with CVDs during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Northern Greece and to compare the urban with the rural population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional short questionnaire telephone-based survey conducted in February 2021. Responders with known CVDs were primarily questioned (using a Likert-like scale) about smoking, diet and physical activity, along essential medical history. Beliefs about COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination were also considered. Sociodemographic details were noted. Patients who were placed under quarantine were excluded in this analysis. Results: The response rate was high (438 out of 700 calls, 62.6%) with the majority of the participants willing to speak for longer time than initially estimated. In total, answers by 395 patients (216 urban and 179 rural) (female 252/63.8%, mean age 57.3 years old) were incorporated. There were 200 active smokers questioned (urban: 119, 55.1% - rural: 81, 45.3%). More urban residents increased smoking (56, 47.1%) than rural ones (24, 29.6%). Of note, the majority of the rural patients reported smoking similarly than before the lockdown. Unfortunately, none of the questioned participants attempted to quit smoking. The mean BMI of the urban patients was 27.5 ± 4.3 kg/m2 (vs. 26.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2 before lockdown) corresponding to a mean weight gain of about 2 kg. The rise in mean BMI could be explained, partly, by the increased eating as reported by almost half of the urban participants (121, 56.0%). There was a smaller increase in mean BMI of the rural sample (from 26.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2 to 26.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2) corresponding to a mean weight gain of less than 1 kg. The limited weight gain is represented by the majority of the rural patients reported that they didn't change their eating habits. The vast minority of the urban and the rural participants answered that they increased exercising in comparison to their pre-lockdown habits (39, 18.1% vs 37, 19.4%, p>0.05), Contrary to that, more than half of the rural patients had maintained similar levels of physical activity (109, 57.1%). Conclusion: The hard lockdown in Greece during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied with an aggravation of unhealthy choices by patients with CVDs. This observation was more apparent in the urban population. Further research is warrant to assess the clinical impact of these behaviours. Public campaigns are anxiously needed to promote healthy behaviours. (Figure Presented).

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