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1.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346238

ABSTRACT

In July 2020, the UK government reduced the VAT rate on hospitality services from 20% to 5%, as response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We compile a novel dataset of detailed hotel room characteristics around this policy action in order to estimate how much the tax cut was passed on to consumers via a price reduction. We find a statistically significant contemporaneous pass-through to hotel room prices that varies between around 20% and 50%, with a peak effect on prices observed on the second week after the reform. However, the pass-through effect is short-lived and disappears two months after the policy introduction.

2.
3D Print Med ; 8(1): 29, 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilators are essential to patients who become critically ill with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and shortages have been reported due to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We utilized 3D printing (3DP) technology to rapidly prototype and test critical components for a novel ventilator multiplexer system, Vent-Lock, to split one ventilator or anesthesia gas machine between two patients. FloRest, a novel 3DP flow restrictor, provides clinicians control of tidal volumes and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), using the 3DP manometer adaptor to monitor pressures. We tested the ventilator splitter circuit in simulation centers between artificial lungs and used an anesthesia gas machine to successfully ventilate two swine. RESULTS: As one of the first studies to demonstrate splitting one anesthesia gas machine between two swine, we present proof-of-concept of a de novo, closed, multiplexing system, with flow restriction for potential individualized patient therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While possible, due to the complexity, need for experienced operators, and associated risks, ventilator multiplexing should only be reserved for urgent situations with no other alternatives. Our report underscores the initial design and engineering considerations required for rapid medical device prototyping via 3D printing in limited resource environments, including considerations for design, material selection, production, and distribution. We note that optimization of engineering may minimize 3D printing production risks but may not address the inherent risks of the device or change its indications. Thus, our case report provides insights to inform future rapid prototyping of medical devices.

3.
TURAN : Stratejik Arastirmalar Merkezi ; 14:527-538, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994614

ABSTRACT

Bu makale, koronavirüs krizinden etkilenen Avrupa Birliǧi ülkelerinin vergi oranlarındaki deǧişikliklere dikkat çekmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Analizin gerçekleştirildiǧi dönem Mart 2020 - Aralık 2020'dir. 28 Üye Devletin her biri ayrı ayrı Íncelenmekte ve bireysel sektörlerde KDV vergi oranındaki deǧişiklikler tespit edilmektedir. Toplanan verilere ve belirli bir döneme ilişkin analizlere göre, ülkelerin bir yandan krizden en çok etkilenen ekonomik sektörleri desteklemeye, diǧer yandan ekonomik istikrarlarını nispeten iyi sınırlar içinde tutmaya çalıştıkları görülmektedir. KDV, tahsilatı Avrupa Birliǧi'nin her Üye Devletinin bütçesinde önemli bir gelir kalemi olan çok aşamalı bir vergidir. Düzenleyici yapısındaki veya vergi oranındaki herhangi bir deǧişiklik, sırasıyla tahsilat ve bütçe üzerindeki mali etkisi olmak üzere vergilendirme yöntemlerine yansır. Bununla birlikte, koronavirüs krizi ve dükkan, restoran, otel ve diǧer gelir kaynaklarının kilitlenmesi, Avrupa Birliǧi'nin tüm ülkelerinde vergi mükelleflerinin üzerindeki vergi yükünün hafifletilmesini gerektirdi. Muafiyet, belirli ürünler ve ekonomik faaliyetler için vergi oranında bir indirimdir.Alternate :This article aims to point out the changes in the tax rates of the European Union countries affected by the coronavirus crisis. The period during which the analysis is carried out is March 2020 - December 2020. Each of the 28 Member States is examined separately and changes in the VAT tax rate are identified in individual industries. Based on the collected data and their analysis for the specific period, it is noticed that the countries try to support the most affected economic sectors from the crisis on the one hand, and on the other hand to keep their economic stability within relatively good limits. VAT is a multi-stage tax, the collection of which is a major revenue item in the budget of each Member State of the European Union. Any change in its regulatory nature or tax rate reflects on the methods of taxation, respectively its collection and financial effect on the budget. However, the crisis with the coronavirus and the lockdown of shops, restaurants, hotels and other sources of income has necessitated easing the tax burden on taxpayers in all countries of the European Union. The relief is a reduction in the tax rate for certain products and economic activities.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(13):7648, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934220

ABSTRACT

Under the goal of a “new development pattern”, it is of great practical significance to accurately identify the economic growth effect of fiscal and tax policies. This paper constructs a TVP-FAVAR model to measure the economic effects of China’s fiscal and tax policies at the aggregate and structural levels. The results show that the reduction in total tax has a positive effect on real variables such as output and consumption;especially at the present stage, the promotion effect of total tax reduction on economic growth is relatively strong, but the stimulation effect on price is relatively weak. Further, the tax structure in which the ratio of direct tax to total tax increases and the ratio of indirect tax to total tax decreases is more conducive to the increase in output and consumption, and will not strongly stimulate the rise of price level. Therefore, at this stage, China should continue to vigorously implement the tax reduction policy and ensure the continuity of the tax reduction policy. At the same time, we should continue to optimize the tax structure and give better play to the regulatory role of fiscal and tax policies in income redistribution, so as to achieve the goal that fiscal and tax policies help build a “new development pattern” and promote high-quality economic development.

5.
Independent Journal of Management & Production ; 13(3):S145-S160, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879675

ABSTRACT

At the start of 2020, the world faced major challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. International institutions, governments and various organizations are forced to apply unprecedented restrictive measures in many areas of activity. The answer to these challenges by the governments of almost all countries of the world is actively manifested in tax measures aimed at supporting citizens and businesses. The article was devoted to the study of the level of taxation for certain taxes in Ukraine and EU countries in a crisis. The study proves the relevance of determining the optimal level of taxes to fill the budget. This study uses the method of comparative analysis, which compares the levels of tax rates in Ukraine and some EU countries. The optimal level of tax revenues to the state budget has been determined. The level of tax revenues to the Consolidated Budget of Ukraine has been analyzed and the main directions for improving the tax system of Ukraine have been identified. The necessity of focusing on the experience of highly developed EU countries in the field of taxation with the obligatory consideration of national characteristics is proved.

6.
The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing ; 37(7):1463-1474, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1853377

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Combining a conceptual framework with empirical evidence, this study aims to offer insights into why small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the business-to-business beauty sector switch suppliers, due to pricing considerations.Design/methodology/approach>Data gathered from 475 telephone surveys of Spanish hairdressers provide the input for discrete choice models for testing the proposed hypotheses.Findings>The SMEs that change suppliers tend to be sensitive to promotions, express less satisfaction with a current supplier’s offerings and serve fewer customers who buy professional products for their in-home use. If SMEs are satisfied with the supplier’s services though, they are less likely to change and more prone to negotiate with that supplier.Research limitations/implications>This study does not address why dissatisfied SMEs might remain with their current suppliers. Further research might replicate this study using additional pricing data from suppliers.Practical implications>Suppliers in business-to-business (B2B) sectors can leverage these findings to allocate their marketing budgets optimally and establish service strategies that will enable them to retain buyers and reduce their switching risk.Originality/value>As an extension of extant literature, this study specifies switching drivers for SMEs in the B2B beauty sector. The findings should apply throughout this worldwide service sector, as well as to similar markets such as health, beauty and personal care and well-being services.

7.
Ekonomia i Prawo ; 21(1):85-102, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848577

ABSTRACT

Motivation: VAT revenues are particularly vulnerable to economic turbulence, especially if the crisis directly affects private consumption or changes its structure. Even when consumption levels are relatively high, VAT revenues may be lower due to a shift in consumer spending to the most essential goods or services or an increase in public sector consumption. Because of the reduction in operation and the closure of many businesses, the Covid-19 crisis is likely to have an even greater impact on consumption than the previous financial crisis of 2008. Aim: The purpose of this article is to analyse VAT revenues in OECD countries over the period 2008–2020, identify general trends, and highlight similarities and differences in this regard between the 2008 financial crisis and the Covid-19 crisis. Results: Consumption taxes account for about 33% of all taxes collected in OECD countries, of which 20% is VAT. Covid-19 could change that in an important manner. After the 2008 global financial crisis, tax revenues, including VAT, returned to pre-crisis levels after an average of eight years. VAT revenues in relation to GDP peaked in 2016, and have been stable since then. Due to reduced operation and closure of businesses, the Covid-19 epidemic not only changed the structure of private consumption, but also significantly affected its level. In addition, government actions reducing certain rates have contributed to the decline in VAT revenues. As the survey results indicate, standard VAT rates between 2017 and 2020 were at record high levels, averaging 19.3%. With such high rates, in order to re-store VAT revenues after the crisis, governments may have to think about how to broaden the tax base (e.g., temporarily lower rates and stimulate consumption).

8.
16th International Scientific Conference on New Trends in Aviation Development, NTAD 2021 ; : 37-41, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831860

ABSTRACT

Supply chains are usually perceived as a stable environment where only local or regionalised disruptions may happen, thus this paper focuses on the unpreceded situation where cumulative impact of Brexit, Covid-19, and Suez Canal blockage on supply chains. Each event has been analysed from different angles to provide a wider view and depiction of complexity of modern supply chains as well as their vulnerability when it comes to cumulative impacts of major disruptions. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Environmental Research Letters ; 17(5):055012, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830922

ABSTRACT

Universal access to cleaner cooking fuels (including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) is a key target of Sustainable Development Goal 7. Currently, approximately 40 million Kenyans rely on polluting cooking fuels (e.g. charcoal, wood). While the Kenyan government aims to rapidly scale up use of LPG for cooking by 2030, COVID-19 restrictions and a 16% value added tax (VAT) re-introduced on LPG in 2021 have likely hampered progress in LPG uptake. We aimed to quantify the effect of these economic shocks on food and energy security in Langas informal urban settlement in western Kenya. We further evaluated whether households most adversely affected by COVID-19 restrictions were more likely to be socioeconomically impacted by the VAT re-imposition. A cross-sectional survey (n = 1542) assessed changes in cooking fuel patterns, food security and livelihoods of primary cooks due to these two economic shocks. While under COVID-19 restrictions, 75% (n = 1147) of participants reported income declines and 18% (n = 164) of participants using LPG (n = 922) switched their primary cooking fuel to charcoal, wood or kerosene. Households reporting lower income while under COVID-19 restrictions had 5.3 times (95% CI:[3.8,7.4]) the odds of experiencing food insecurity as those with no change in income. Unemployment and food insecurity under COVID-19 restrictions were substantially higher among informal sector workers (70% and 60%, respectively) compared with business/government employees (45% and 37%, respectively). Following the VAT re-introduction, 44% (n = 356) of households using LPG consumed less, and 34% (n = 276) cooked more frequently with polluting fuels. Individuals switching away from LPG under COVID-19 restrictions had 3.0 times (95% CI:[2.1,4.3]) the odds of reducing their LPG consumption due to the VAT re-introduction as those maintaining use of LPG. COVID-19 restrictions and the VAT re-introduction disproportionately negatively affected informal sector workers’ livelihoods. A zero-rating of VAT on LPG can help alleviate deepened inequities in LPG access in Kenya.

10.
Journal of African Economies ; : 30, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816135

ABSTRACT

There are substantial differences in the spread of the covid-19 pandemic and policy responses to it between high- and low-income countries. While evidence on the former is growing, there remain more unanswered questions on the latter. This paper addresses this gap by providing insights on the impact of the pandemic in Rwanda, based on firm-level administrative data from Value Added Tax (VAT) returns. We find that VAT sales in 2020 declined by 11.4 % compared to 2019. These losses are particularly associated with a lockdown imposed around April 2020, after which sales quickly rebounded to pre-crisis levels once restrictions were lifted. In absolute terms, the economic cost is concentrated among the largest firms. However, small firms have been most affected in proportional terms. Disaggregating our results further, we show that firms in accommodation and food, transport services, wholesale and retail trade, as well as those registered in the capital, have been particularly affected by the crisis. Overall, the decline in sales translated to a similarly large percentage loss in VAT revenue for the government.

11.
CIRIEC - Espana ; - (104):233-266, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811196

ABSTRACT

La covid-19 planteó varios retos a todas las organizaciones en general y, especialmente, a las cooperativas de solidaridad social. Sin embargo, los desafíos que enfrentan estas cooperativas tienen características únicas que provienen de las características especiales en comparación con el otro tipo de cooperativas. Por lo tanto, es vital estudiar estos desafíos y los impactos de covid-19. Este estudio tiene como objetivo principal entender esos retos e impactos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio realizando 11 entrevistas a 11 cooperativas de solidaridad social. Las cooperativas fueron elegidas por ser heterogéneas entre las cooperativas existentes en Portugal. Este estudio corresponde a la primera fase de un proyecto que aún está en marcha. Este artículo presenta los principales resultados del análisis de contenido de los datos recogidos con las entrevistas. Los datos muestran que las cooperativas pudieron adaptarse rápidamente y continuar con su misión bajo la presión de la pandemia, a pesar de las primeras dificultades presentadas en una situación nueva y desconocida, mostrando una capacidad de adaptación y de servicio a sus socios. Sin embargo, estos socios también se vieron sometidos a varios retos nuevos y crecientes. Las adaptaciones fueron posibles gracias a los cambios legales en la ley de organización del trabajo, desde el despido hasta el teletrabajo, al apoyo gubernamental que implica programas financieros, al IVA y a la flexibilización de otros impuestos, así como a la reorganización de los recursos humanos y a la actitud positiva del personal de las cooperativas ante las dificultades (tanto de los dirigentes como de los trabajadores en general). Las diferencias entre las cooperativas de solidaridad social estudiadas en relación con las tecnologías digitales mostraron que las que ya contaban con alguna infraestructura tuvieron pequeñas dificultades para adaptarse.Alternate :Covid-19 posed several challenges to all organisations in general and to social solidarity cooperatives in particular. However, the challenges faced by these cooperatives have unique features arising from their special characteristics compared to other types of cooperatives. Therefore it is vital to study these challenges and the impacts of covid-19. This study has as main goal to understand those challenges and their impact. An exploratory study was undertaken by applying 11 interviews to 11 social solidarity cooperatives. The cooperatives were chosen to be heterogeneous among the existent cooperatives in Portugal. This study corresponds to the first phase of a project that is still underway. This article presents the main results of the content analysis of the data collected from the interviews. Data show cooperatives could promptly adapt and continue their mission under pressure from the pandemic despite the first difficulties encountered in a new and unknown situation, showing a capacity to adapt and serve their members. However, these members were also submitted to several increasing and new challenges. The adaptations were possible due to legal changes in the work organisa- tion law, from layoff to telework, government support involving financial programs, VAT, and other tax relaxation, as well as due to human resources reorganisation and the cooperatives' staff positive attitude towards the difficulties (both leaders and general workers). Differences between the social solidarity cooperatives under study concerning digital technologies showed that those already having some infrastructure had minor adapting difficulties.

12.
Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings ; : 195-204, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1777219

ABSTRACT

In the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, citizens' health is among the key goals of every government and as a public good must be ensured through an accessible, functional, and effective public health system. Taxation policy measures give taxation benefits for health services provided related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, Council Directive (EU) 2021/1159 of 13 July 2021 amending Directive 2006/112/EC as regards temporary exemptions on importations and on certain supplies was brought in in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (OJ L 250, 15. 7. 2021.). In this paper, the stated Directive (which is being applied in the Republic of Croatia) will be analysed from a legal perspective, as well as other legislative taxation measures undertaken at European Union related to the COVID-19 disease. Also, cases of the illegal use of VAT taxation exemptions (fraud) related to providing medical services for COVID-19 because the fact should not be overlooked that, according to European Commission Reports, member states have recorded losses in VAT taxation revenue estimated at 140 042 billions of Euros representing a total revenue loss of 11% at European Union level.

13.
Laws ; 11(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715504

ABSTRACT

E-commerce has progressed within Europe before, on the basis of the pre-pandemic raise, with COVID-19 determining an explosion of its evolution. The European e-commerce market is very important, linking together more than 500 million consumers. This paper presents the results of assessing the guidelines and trends observed in the European regulatory process in the current period, when e-commerce is developing appreciably, studying the applicable legal norms and their effects on facilitating the control of remote payments. Compliance with the VAT (value-added tax) regime is addressed in the context described by the two important categories of active legal rules: the rules for consumer protection and the rules related to ensuring data protection. The investigation of the legal framework in this regard started from the presupposition that the necessary changes in regulation for facilitating e-commerce are capable to determine indirect changes in many aspects of financial rules and taxation. While analyzing the regulation of online trade, the various measures undertaken recently in respect to European sources of law and their implications for national legal framework opened additional directions of investigation. This paper points out the indirect effect of e-commerce development on the regulatory framework, both in the area of consumer protection and in line with the difficult balance between the right to information and protection of data. The fiscal effects of e-commerce payments and the challenges for the value-added tax regime are also addressed, both from a theoretical point of view and with input from the Court of Justice of the European Union’s jurisprudence. The analyzed documents show that, in this respect, the legal reform will go deeper and will continue with the rhythm of the development of the online activities.

14.
Eur J Radiol ; 145: 110031, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess prognostic value of body composition parameters measured at CT to predict risk of hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: 177 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and with abdominopelvic CT were included in this retrospective IRB approved two-institution study. Patients were stratified based on disease severity as outpatients (no hospital admission) and patients who were hospitalized (inpatients). Two readers blinded to the clinical outcome segmented axial CT images at the L3 vertebral body level for visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), muscle adipose tissue (MAT), muscle mass (MM). VAT to total adipose tissue ratio (VAT/TAT), MAT/MM ratio, and muscle index (MI) at L3 were computed. These measures, along with detailed clinical risk factors, were compared in patients stratified by severity. Various logistic regression clinical and clinical + imaging models were compared to discriminate inpatients from outpatients. RESULTS: There were 76 outpatients (43%) and 101 inpatients. Male gender (p = 0.013), age (p = 0.0003), hypertension (p = 0.0003), diabetes (p = 0.0001), history of cardiac disease (p = 0.007), VAT/TAT (p < 0.0001), and MAT/MM (p < 0.0001), but not BMI, were associated with hospitalization. A clinical model (age, gender, BMI) had AUC of 0.70. Addition of VAT/TAT to the clinical model improved the AUC to 0.73. Optimal model that included gender, BMI, race (Black), MI, VAT/TAT, as well as interaction between gender and VAT/TAT and gender and MAT/MM demonstrated the highest AUC of 0.83. CONCLUSION: MAT/MM and VAT/TAT provides important prognostic information in predicting patients with COVID-19 who are likely to require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Hospitalization , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 702506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376698

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a proinflammatory pathology that leads to the specific destruction of insulin producing ß-cells and hyperglycaemia. Much of the knowledge about type 1 diabetes (T1D) has focused on mechanisms of disease progression such as adaptive immune cells and the cytokines that control their function, whereas mechanisms linked with the initiation of the disease remain unknown. It has been hypothesized that in addition to genetics, environmental factors play a pivotal role in triggering ß-cell autoimmunity. The BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) and LEW1.WR1 rats have been used to decipher the mechanisms that lead to virus-induced T1D. Both animals develop ß-cell inflammation and hyperglycemia upon infection with the parvovirus Kilham Rat Virus (KRV). Our earlier in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that KRV-induced innate immune upregulation early in the disease course plays a causal role in triggering ß-cell inflammation and destruction. Furthermore, we recently found for the first time that infection with KRV induces inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) detectable as early as day 1 post-infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. The proinflammatory response in VAT is associated with macrophage recruitment, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine upregulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress responses, apoptosis, and downregulation of adipokines and molecules that mediate insulin signaling. Downregulation of inflammation suppresses VAT inflammation and T1D development. These observations are strikingly reminiscent of data from obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in which VAT inflammation is believed to play a causal role in disease mechanisms. We propose that VAT inflammation and dysfunction may be linked with the mechanism of T1D progression.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/immunology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/virology , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Humans , Parvovirus/immunology , Rats
17.
Econ Anal Policy ; 69: 253-264, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974012

ABSTRACT

Value added tax (VAT) reduction is an important tool for cultivating new driving forces for economic development, and it has had a notable impact on local fiscal pressure. Taking the 2018-2019 VAT rate reduction in China as an example, this paper uses a CGE model to estimate the impact of the VAT reduction policy on local fiscal pressure in China in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that local fiscal pressure increased from 0.342 to 0.435, an increase of 27.08%. The study provides policy implications on optimizing tax structure and alleviating local fiscal pressure.

18.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(2): 818-825, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691818

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT) estimates at abdominopelvic CT in COVID-19 patients with different severity, and analyze Body Mass Index (BMI) and CT estimates of fat content in patients requiring hospitalization. METHODS: In this retrospective IRB approved HIPPA compliant study, 51 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with abdominopelvic CT were included. Patients were stratified based on disease severity as outpatient (no hospital admission) and patients who were hospitalized. Subset of hospitalized patient required mechanical ventilation (MV). A radiologist blinded to the clinical outcome evaluated single axial slice on CT at L3 vertebral body for VATL3, SATL3, TATL3, and VAT/TATL3. These measures along with age, gender, and BMI were compared. A clinical model that included age, sex, and BMI was compared to clinical + CT model that also included VATL3 to discriminate hospitalized patients from outpatients. RESULTS: There were ten outpatients and 41 hospitalized patients. 11 hospitalized patients required MV. There were no significant differences in age and BMI between the hospitalized and outpatients (all p > 0.05). There was significantly higher VATL3 and VAT/TATL3 in hospitalized patients compared to the outpatients (all p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) of the clinical + CT model was higher compared to the clinical model (AUC 0.847 versus 0.750) for identifying patients requiring hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Higher VATL3 was observed in COVID-19 patients that required hospitalization compared to the outpatients, and addition of VATL3 to the clinical model improved AUC in discriminating hospitalized from outpatients in this preliminary study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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