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1.
Public Health ; 204:84-86, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1839224

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We explored the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing reinfection in the Republic of Cyprus. Study design: This was a matched case-control study (1:2).

2.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 119:184-186, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1838872

ABSTRACT

• Development of varicella-zoster virus meningitis after the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. • Varicella-zoster virus meningitis occurred in an immunocompetent patient. • This is one of few cases reported worldwide posing a possible link between the varicella-zoster virus and the vaccine. We present, to our knowledge, the second case report of a 46-year old female who developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV) meningitis after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The patient is immunocompetent and has no known predisposing risk factors for developing VZV meningitis. The patient received acyclovir therapy and subsequently had a complete recovery. We describe possible mechanisms of VZV meningitis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Infectious Diseases is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:173-182, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838864

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics of adverse events (AEs) after COVID-19 vaccination in patients in South Korea. Design: Data from the Korean Disease Control and Prevention Agency on AEs from 4 COVID-19 vaccines, including AZD1222, BNT162b2, JNJ-78436735, and mRNA-1273, from February 26, 2021, to August 21, 2021, were assessed. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, severity, complications, and mortality were descriptively analyzed.

4.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:150-154, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838855

ABSTRACT

Background: At present, it is unclear whether the extent of reduced risk of severe disease seen with SARS-Cov-2 Omicron variant infection is caused by a decrease in variant virulence or by higher levels of population immunity.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:169-172, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838852

ABSTRACT

This is the case report of an 84-year-old man affected by COVID-19 between the 2 doses of vaccination, with negative exitus. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples of viral RNA collected during the disease and nasopharyngeal and lung samples collected postmortem by reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) PCR and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). NGS results were analyzed with different bioinformatic tools to define virus lineages and the related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Both lung and nasopharyngeal samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-LAMP. Through bioinformatic analysis, 2 viral RNAs from the nasal swabs, which belonged to the B.1.1.7 lineage, and 1 viral RNA from the lung sample, which belonged to the B.1.533 lineage, were identified. This genetic observation suggested that SARS-CoV-2 tends to change under selective pressure. The high mutation rate of ORFa1b, containing a replicase gene, was a biological image of a complex viral survival system.

7.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:89-94, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838844

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe breakthrough COVID-19 infection in patients who needed hospitalization and the factors associated with poor outcomes.

8.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 118:34-43, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838841

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We analysed hepatitis A (HepA) notifications and hospitalisations in Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden for available periods between 1995 and 2014. We aimed to investigate whether decreasing HepA incidence is associated with increasing age at infection and worsening HepA presentation and to identify groups at risk of severe disease.

9.
European Journal of Cancer ; 162:182-193, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1838736

ABSTRACT

Taking into account higher risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 or death among patients with cancer, as well as impaired immunogenicity after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in addition to waning immunity, booster dosing appears mandatory in this patient population. This review sought to provide reasonable evidence so as to assist oncologists in their daily practice, helping them decide when an anti-SARS-Cov2 antibody (Ab) dosage should be scheduled after a full two-dose vaccination and, if necessary, propose an early third dose (D3). Such D3 could apply to non-responder patients with anti-Spike (S) Abs titres <40 binding Ab unit (BAU)/mL. For lowresponder patients with anti-S Ab titres between 40 BAU/mL and 100/260 BAU/mL (suggested area of uncertainty), an early D3 may similarly be proposed. Nevertheless, this D3 could be administered in a less urgent manner, taking into account associated comorbidities and regional epidemic incidence rates. This latter strategy may comprise a monthly dosage of anti-S titres so as to better assess the kinetics of waning immunity. For responder patients with anti-S titres above 260 BAU/mL, we suggest to follow the recommendations outlined for the general population. Given this context, patients with anti-S titres above 1000 BAU/mL should be given the possibility to undergo anti-S titre control after three months, designed to assess rapid humoral waning immunity. We strongly recommend that patients with cancer be included into observational serological monitoring studies or clinical trials that are dedicated to severe immunocompromised patients without any humoral seroconversion after D3.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 172:159-161, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1838525

ABSTRACT

[...]we still have some other concerns that were not analyzed in these systematic reviews: the risk difference between BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 and the increased risk of acute myocarditis in the young population, especially after the second dose in male teenagers.1,2 However, several articles regarding this topic have been published since the database search of these systematic reviews. [...]we have increased the number of studies and added a subanalysis of the incidence of acute myocarditis by the types of vaccine administered and in young males who received the second dose of the mRNA vaccine. In this situation, elevated risk of myocarditis after mRNA vaccine should be known to recipients, but it should be also noted that the benefit-risk analysis performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shown a positive balance of vaccination for all age groups of both genders. [...]studies that focus on evaluating risk factors and mechanisms of developing acute myocarditis are needed, especially among young male recipients, as mRNA vaccine will become more widely available in young children.Disclosures The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

11.
JAMA ; 327(16):1540, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1838097

ABSTRACT

Two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were more effective for reducing infections with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 than the Omicron variant, a multi-institution study showed. Adolescents also received greater protection from vaccination than younger age groups. Between Jul 25, 2021, and Feb 12, 2022, the study investigators administered weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing to 1364 individuals aged 5 to 15 years regardless of symptoms. They also tested participants when they developed symptoms. Vaccinated and unvaccinated youth participated at sites in Arizona, Florida, Texas, and Utah.

12.
JAMA ; 327(16):1611, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1838095

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has limited SARS-CoV-2 spread and prevented major illness and death during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, certain adverse events, such as an increased incidence of myocarditis, particularly in young men, have been associated with vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). On July 30, 2021, the Israeli Ministry of Health approved the administration of a third vaccine dose for the general population in response to increasing numbers of COVID-19 cases. Here, Friedensohn et al assessed whether a third vaccine dose was associated with the risk of myocarditis. The risk of underascertainment is likely low because awareness of postvaccination myocarditis was high as a result of media coverage and because all suspected myocarditis cases were referred for hospital assessment.

13.
JAMA ; 327(16):1610, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1838094

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 Omicron variant has spread rapidly throughout the world, including in countries such as Norway with 90% primary vaccination and increasing booster vaccination coverage. To enable alignment of infection control measures with the risk posed by the new variant and avoid excessive strain on health systems, estimates of the transmissibility of the Omicron variant are needed. Here, Jorgensen et al assessed the secondary attack rate of Omicron and B.1.617.2 Delta variants in households in Norway.

14.
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association ; 327(4):341-349, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1838085

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Administration of a BNT162b2 booster dose (Pfizer-BioNTech) to fully vaccinated individuals aged 60 years and older was significantly associated with lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness. Data are lacking on the effectiveness of booster doses for younger individuals and health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of a BNT162b2 booster dose with SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thiswas a prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. The study cohort included 1928 immunocompetent health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, and had enrolled between August 8 and 19, 2021, with final follow-up reported through September 20, 2021. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed every 14 days. Anti-spike protein receptor binding domain IgG titers were determined at baseline and 1 month after enrollment. Cox regression with time-dependent analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infection between booster-immunized status and 2-dose vaccinated (booster-nonimmunized) status. EXPOSURES: Vaccination with a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among 1928 participants, the median age was 44 years (IQR, 36-52 years) and 1381 were women (71.6%). Participants completed the 2-dose vaccination series a median of 210 days (IQR, 205-213 days) before study enrollment. A total of 1650 participants (85.6%) received the booster dose. During a median follow-up of 39 days (IQR, 35-41 days), SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 44 participants (incidence rate, 60.2 per 100 000 person-days);31 (70.5%) were symptomatic. Five SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in booster-immunized participants and 39 in booster-nonimmunized participants (incidence rate, 12.8 vs 116 per 100 000 person-days, respectively). In a time-dependent Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for booster-immunized vs booster-nonimmunized participants was 0.07 (95%CI, 0.02-0.20). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among health care workers at a single center in Israel who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, administration of a booster dose compared with not receiving one was associated with a significantly lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection over a median of 39 days of follow-up. Ongoing surveillance is required to assess durability of the findings.

15.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

16.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837855

ABSTRACT

The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer are rising among young women in Japan. In November 2021, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare reinstated the active recommendation for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which was discontinued in June 2013 due to reports of adverse reactions, including chronic pain and motor dysfunction, following vaccination. However, vaccine hesitancy among the younger generation remains, and it is essential to identify the barriers in vaccination uptake. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a randomized study using different methods of providing educational contents to improve health literacy regarding cervical cancer and HPV vaccination among female students in Japan. Here, we present the results of our preliminary report and discuss current topics related to HPV vaccination in Japan. Data were collected from 27 female students—divided into three groups: no intervention, print-based intervention, and social networking service-based intervention—using the health literacy scale and communicative and critical health literacy scale. Our primary results indicate that participants’ knowledge and health literacy improved post-intervention. Therefore, medical professionals must provide accurate scientific knowledge regarding routine HPV vaccination and the risk of cervical cancer to young women to improve their health literacy and subsequently increase the HPV vaccination rates.

17.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5737, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837788

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is defined as a delayed in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccination services. This multinational study examined user interaction with social media about COVID-19 vaccination. The study analyzed social media comments in 24 countries from five continents. In total, 5856 responses were analyzed;83.5% of comments were from Facebook, while 16.5% were from Twitter. In Facebook, the overall vaccine acceptance was 40.3%;the lowest acceptance rates were evident in Jordan (8.5%), Oman (15.0%), Senegal (20.0%) and Morocco (20.7%) and the continental acceptance rate was the lowest in North America 22.6%. In Twitter, the overall acceptance rate was (41.5%);the lowest acceptance rate was found in Oman (14.3%), followed by USA (20.5%), and UK (23.3%) and the continental acceptance rate was the lowest in North America (20.5%), and Europe (29.7%). The differences in vaccine acceptance across countries and continents in Facebook and Twitter were statistically significant. Regarding the tone of the comments, in Facebook, countries that had the highest number of serious tone comments were Sweden (90.9%), USA (61.3%), and Thailand (58.8%). At continent level, serious comments were the highest in Asia (58.4%), followed by Africa (46.2%) and South America (46.2%). In Twitter, the highest serious tone was reported in Egypt (72.2%) while at continental level, the highest proportion of serious comments was observed in Asia (59.7%), followed by Europe (46.5%). The differences in tone across countries and continents in Facebook and Twitter and were statistically significant. There was a significant association between the tone and the position of comments. We concluded that the overall vaccine acceptance in social media was relatively low and varied across the studied countries and continents. Consequently, more in-depth studies are required to address causes of such VH and combat infodemics.

18.
Irish Medical Journal ; 114(10), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1837745

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Understanding the immune memory of individuals who have naturally contracted SARS CoV-2 versus naive individuals might help to optimise the vaccination campaigns. Here we describe the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG response induced by the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine in both naive individuals and those with prior confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also look at the durability of that response over a six-month period.

19.
Pediatria de Atencion Primaria ; 24(93):e171-e182, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837639

ABSTRACT

There has been an extraordinary effort, technical as well as economic to produce effective vaccines. The vaccines with known effectivity data are those that have published phase 3 results. The most relevant data of these clinical trials are resumed here grouped by type of vaccine. While data on effectivity are obtained from clinical trials, the effectiveness must be measured in real life, considering that vaccines have been implemented in Spain since December 27, 2020. The vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections seem safe and effective, with a moderate quality of the evidence. Currently, the adult population has been vaccinated (first age group with evidence of effectivity and safety) with the available vaccines and according to risk groups established by the Health Ministry, afterwards other groups have been added such as pregnant women and adolescents, and recently the schoolers 5 to 11 years after the publication of effectivity and safety in this age group of one of the vaccines authorized in the European Union. Despite the limitations of the published clinical trials, the current pandemic situation means a great public health threat and an enormous loss of lives due to SAS-Cov-2, which makes the risk benefit balance favorable to vaccination. © 2022, Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics. All rights reserved.

20.
Foods ; 11(9):1365, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837497

ABSTRACT

Healthy diets promote immune functions and have been shown to reduce COVID-19 severity. In 2021, COVID-19 vaccines have become available to the general public. However, whether vaccination status could affect individual and populational health behaviors is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of vaccination status and confidence on dietary practices. An online survey was conducted in August 2021. We collected data on dietary intake, diversity and behaviors, vaccination status and confidence and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 5107 responses received, a total of 4873 study participants were included in the final analysis. Most of our participants aged between 18 and 45 years and 82% of them were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Household level dietary diversity was found to be higher among people who were fully vaccinated (β = 0.321, 95%CI: 0.024 to 0.618) or who were more confident in the protectiveness of the vaccine (β for tertile 3 comparing with lowest tertile = 0.544, 95%CI: 0.407, 0.682). Vaccination promoted the intake of seafood, but it was also positively associated with the consumption of sugar, preserved, fried and barbequed foods and reduced vegetable intake. Higher vaccination confidence was associated with increased consumption of seafood, bean, fruits and vegetables and reduced fat intake. Changes in dietary behaviors compared with early 2021 (when vaccination was not common) were observed and differed by vaccination status and confidence level. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination status and confidence had varied, and possibly negative, impacts on dietary intake and behaviors. Our results suggest that vaccination status and confidence might be significant influencing factors affecting people’s health behaviors and highlight that healthy eating should be consistently promoted to prevent poor dietary practices during global health crisis.

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