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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(4): 232-235, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245497
2.
Health Place ; 83: 103051, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236059

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a political economy analysis of global inequities in access to COVID-19 vaccines, treatments, and diagnostic tests. We adapt a conceptual model used for analysing the political economy of global extraction and health to examine the politico-economic factors affecting access to COVID-19 health products and technologies in four interconnected layers: the social, political, and historical context; politics, institutions, and policies; pathways to ill-health; and health consequences. Our analysis finds that battles over access to COVID-19 products occur in a profoundly unequal playing field, and that efforts to improve access that do not shift the fundamental power imbalances are bound to fail. Inequitable access has both direct effects on health (preventable illness and death) and indirect effects through exacerbation of poverty and inequality. We highlight how the case of COVID-19 products reflects broader patterns of structural violence, in which the political economy is structured to improve and lengthen the lives of those in the Global North while neglecting and shortening the lives of those in the Global South. We conclude that achieving equitable access to pandemic response products requires shifting longstanding power imbalances and the institutions and processes that entrench and enable them.

3.
Med Law Rev ; 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233890

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccinations have been authorised worldwide. Whilst some vaccines are contraindicated for certain age groups or health conditions, there are often multiple clinically suitable authorised vaccine brands available. Few states have allowed recipients to choose amongst them, though there are multiple reasons why choice would be valued. We consider the policy justifications for state controls on recipient choice amongst COVID-19 vaccine brands, focusing on European countries and drawing on the UK context as an example. We contrast justifications for not offering choice at the height of the early pandemic crisis, and as some states seek to de-escalate their response and transition towards living with COVID-19. We argue that in the latter context public expectations of choice between available vaccine brands and platforms may rise, but that several considerations may justify continued restrictions on choice. A key factor which states should continue to take into consideration is the global nature of the pandemic. Insofar as offering recipient choice at a national level might exacerbate global inequity in vaccine distribution, states retain a normative and legal justification for restricting choice amongst available and clinically suitable vaccine brands.

4.
Semin Nephrol ; 42(5): 151318, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311244

ABSTRACT

The acute coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease globally and in low-income settings. Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of developing COVID-19 and COVID-19 causes acute kidney injury directly or indirectly and is associated with high mortality in severe cases. Outcomes of COVID-19-associated kidney disease were not equitable globally owing to a lack of health infrastructure, challenges in diagnostic testing, and management of COVID-19 in low-income settings. COVID-19 also significantly impacted kidney transplant rates and mortality among kidney transplant recipients. Vaccine availability and uptake remains a significant challenge in low- and lower-middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. In this review, we explore the inequities in low- and lower-middle-income countries and highlight the progress made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of patients with COVID-19 and kidney disease. We recommend further studies into the challenges, lessons learned, and progress made in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of patients with COVID-19-related kidney diseases and suggest ways to improve the care and management of patients with COVID-19 and kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Health Inequities
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations were initially shown to substantially reduce risk of severe disease and death. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) waning and rapid viral evolution degrade neutralizing antibody (nAb) binding titers, causing loss of vaccinal protection. Additionally, there is inter-individual heterogeneity in the strength and durability of the vaccinal nAb response. Here, we propose a personalized booster strategy as a potential solution to this problem. Our model-based approach incorporates inter-individual heterogeneity in nAb response to primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination into a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to project population-level heterogeneity in vaccinal protection. We further examine the impact of evolutionary immune evasion on vaccinal protection over time based on variant fold reduction in nAb potency. Our findings suggest viral evolution will decrease the effectiveness of vaccinal protection against severe disease, especially for individuals with a less durable immune response. More frequent boosting may restore vaccinal protection for individuals with a weaker immune response. Our analysis shows that the ECLIA RBD binding assay strongly predicts neutralization of sequence-matched pseudoviruses. This may be a useful tool for rapidly assessing individual immune protection. Our work suggests vaccinal protection against severe disease is not assured and identifies a potential path forward for reducing risk to immunologically vulnerable individuals.

6.
Global Biosecurity ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2278327

ABSTRACT

On July 30, 2021, the administration of a third (booster) dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was introduced to enhance immunity among vaccinated people. Many developed countries have introduced vaccine booster doses as additional protection for their population to mitigate the severity of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, this idea is currently being replicated by low-and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), where full vaccination coverage is, as of now, still below 45%, which is considerably lower than that of high-income countries (73%). This commentary focuses on the critiques of introducing booster dose strategy in low-income countries. We highlight different decolonizing global health perspectives, including vaccine equity, effective resource utilization, and priority setup, in this commentary. © 2022 The Author(s).

7.
Public Health ; 217: 15-21, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Undocumented immigrants (UIs) have been reported to suffer from the unequal distribution of COVID-19 vaccination, but this inequality has never been quantified, and the associated factors have not been measured. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We interviewed 190 municipal offices throughout Japan about the access to COVID-19 vaccination for UIs and control group foreigners. Using logistic regression, we investigated the association between assured access and municipal characteristics. RESULTS: Out of the respondent municipalities, 57.5% answered that UIs can apply for a COVID-19 vaccination voucher. Additionally, 31.5% said they had received an inquiry about vaccines from UI individuals. Furthermore, only 23.2% of the municipalities responded that they had issued vouchers for UIs at least once. The control groups were reported to have been given more access to vouchers. Logistic regression showed that the foreign resident ratio, tertiary industry, and university graduation ratio were positively associated with vaccination access. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed for the first time that UIs are disproportionately marginalized compared with other visitors, implying that "illegality" plays an important role in the context of vaccination eligibility. The street-level vaccination desks of local governments may refuse to supply vaccines. Vaccine equity will be more readily achievable when vaccination access to all populations including UIs is ensured. Such access will also improve overall public health by increasing the vaccination rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Undocumented Immigrants , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
8.
mSystems ; 8(2): e0092722, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277728

ABSTRACT

Over the past 150 years, vaccines have revolutionized the relationship between people and disease. During the COVID-19 pandemic, technologies such as mRNA vaccines have received attention due to their novelty and successes. However, more traditional vaccine development platforms have also yielded important tools in the worldwide fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A variety of approaches have been used to develop COVID-19 vaccines that are now authorized for use in countries around the world. In this review, we highlight strategies that focus on the viral capsid and outwards, rather than on the nucleic acids inside. These approaches fall into two broad categories: whole-virus vaccines and subunit vaccines. Whole-virus vaccines use the virus itself, in either an inactivated or an attenuated state. Subunit vaccines contain instead an isolated, immunogenic component of the virus. Here, we highlight vaccine candidates that apply these approaches against SARS-CoV-2 in different ways. In a companion article (H. M. Rando, R. Lordan, L. Kolla, E. Sell, et al., mSystems 8:e00928-22, 2023, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00928-22), we review the more recent and novel development of nucleic acid-based vaccine technologies. We further consider the role that these COVID-19 vaccine development programs have played in prophylaxis at the global scale. Well-established vaccine technologies have proved especially important to making vaccines accessible in low- and middle-income countries. Vaccine development programs that use established platforms have been undertaken in a much wider range of countries than those using nucleic acid-based technologies, which have been led by wealthy Western countries. Therefore, these vaccine platforms, though less novel from a biotechnological standpoint, have proven to be extremely important to the management of SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE The development, production, and distribution of vaccines is imperative to saving lives, preventing illness, and reducing the economic and social burdens caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines that use cutting-edge biotechnology have played an important role in mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV-2. However, more traditional methods of vaccine development that were refined throughout the 20th century have been especially critical to increasing vaccine access worldwide. Effective deployment is necessary to reducing the susceptibility of the world's population, which is especially important in light of emerging variants. In this review, we discuss the safety, immunogenicity, and distribution of vaccines developed using established technologies. In a separate review, we describe the vaccines developed using nucleic acid-based vaccine platforms. From the current literature, it is clear that the well-established vaccine technologies are also highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 and are being used to address the challenges of COVID-19 globally, including in low- and middle-income countries. This worldwide approach is critical for reducing the devastating impact of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccine Development , Vaccines, Subunit , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines
9.
mSystems ; 8(2): e0092822, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277727

ABSTRACT

In the 21st century, several emergent viruses have posed a global threat. Each pathogen has emphasized the value of rapid and scalable vaccine development programs. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has made the importance of such efforts especially clear. New biotechnological advances in vaccinology allow for recent advances that provide only the nucleic acid building blocks of an antigen, eliminating many safety concerns. During the COVID-19 pandemic, these DNA and RNA vaccines have facilitated the development and deployment of vaccines at an unprecedented pace. This success was attributable at least in part to broader shifts in scientific research relative to prior epidemics: the genome of SARS-CoV-2 was available as early as January 2020, facilitating global efforts in the development of DNA and RNA vaccines within 2 weeks of the international community becoming aware of the new viral threat. Additionally, these technologies that were previously only theoretical are not only safe but also highly efficacious. Although historically a slow process, the rapid development of vaccines during the COVID-19 crisis reveals a major shift in vaccine technologies. Here, we provide historical context for the emergence of these paradigm-shifting vaccines. We describe several DNA and RNA vaccines in terms of their efficacy, safety, and approval status. We also discuss patterns in worldwide distribution. The advances made since early 2020 provide an exceptional illustration of how rapidly vaccine development technology has advanced in the last 2 decades in particular and suggest a new era in vaccines against emerging pathogens. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused untold damage globally, presenting unusual demands on but also unique opportunities for vaccine development. The development, production, and distribution of vaccines are imperative to saving lives, preventing severe illness, and reducing the economic and social burdens caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccine technologies that provide the DNA or RNA sequence of an antigen had never previously been approved for use in humans, they have played a major role in the management of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the history of these vaccines and how they have been applied to SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, given that the evolution of new SARS-CoV-2 variants continues to present a significant challenge in 2022, these vaccines remain an important and evolving tool in the biomedical response to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , mRNA Vaccines
10.
SSM Popul Health ; 22: 101366, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274730

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe vaccine and booster uptake by neighborhood-level factors in California. Methods: We examined trends in COVID-19 vaccination up to September 21, 2021, and boosters up to March 29, 2022 using data from the California Department of Public Health. Quasi-Poisson regression was used to model the association between neighborhood-level factors and fully vaccinated and boosted among ZIP codes. Sub-analyses on booster rates were compared among the 10 census regions. Results: In a minimally adjusted model, a higher proportion of Black residents was associated with lower vaccination (HR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.96-0.98). However, in a fully adjusted model, proportion of Black, Hispanic/Latinx, and Asian residents were associated with higher vaccination rates (HR = 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03 for all). The strongest predictor of low vaccine coverage was disability (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.86-0.91). Similar trends persisted for booster doses. Factors associated with booster coverage varied by region. Conclusions: Examining neighborhood-level factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination and booster rates uncovered significant variation within the large and geographically and demographically diverse state of California. Equity-based approaches to vaccination must ensure a robust consideration of multiple social determinants of health.

11.
IJID Reg ; 6: 159-166, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261874

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The global reported cumulative case-fatality ratios (rCFRs) and excess mortality rates of the 20 countries with the highest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates, the rest of the world and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) were compared before and after the commencement of vaccination programmes. Methods: A time series model was used to understand the trend of rCFR over time, and a generalized linear mixed model was used to understand the effect of vaccination on rCFR. Results: By 31 December 2022, an average of 260.3 doses of COVID-19 vaccine per 100 population had been administered in the top 20 vaccinated countries, compared with 152.1 doses in the rest of the world and 51.2 doses in SSA. The mean rCFR of COVID-19 had decreased by 69.0% in the top 20 vaccinated countries, 26.5% in the rest of the world and 7.6% in SSA. Excess mortality had decreased by 48.7% in the top 20 vaccinated countries, compared with 62.5% in the rest of the world and 60.7% in SSA. In a generalized linear mixed model, the reported number of vaccine doses administered (/100 population) (odds ratio 0.64) was associated with a steeper reduction in COVID-19 rCFR. Conclusions: Vaccine equity and faster roll-out across the world is critically important in reducing COVID-19 transmission and CFR.

12.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272959

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, populations of color have been disproportionately impacted, with higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and mortality, compared to non-Hispanic whites. These disparities in health outcomes are likely related to a combination of factors including underlying socioeconomic inequities, unequal access to healthcare, higher rates of employment in essential or public-facing occupations, language barriers, and COVID-19 vaccine inequities. In this manuscript the authors discuss strategies of how one local health department responded to vaccine inequities to better serve historically excluded communities throughout the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. These efforts helped increase vaccination rates in marginalized communities, primarily in the Black or African American population in Durham County, North Carolina.

13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1087662, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267557

ABSTRACT

Equitable access and utilization of the COVID-19 vaccine is the main exit strategy from the pandemic. This paper used proceedings from the Second Extraordinary Think-Tank conference, which was held by the Health Economics and Policy Unit at the Kamuzu University of Health Sciences in collaboration with the Malawi Ministry of Health, complemented by a review of literature. We found disparities in COVID-19 vaccine coverage among low-income countries. This is also the case among high income countries. The disparities are driven mainly by insufficient supply, inequitable distribution, limited production of the vaccine in low-income countries, weak health systems, high vaccine hesitancy, and vaccine misconceptions. COVID-19 vaccine inequity continues to affect the entire world with the ongoing risks of emergence of new COVID-19 variants, increased morbidity and mortality and social and economic disruptions. In order to reduce the COVID-19 vaccination inequality in low-income countries, there is need to expand COVAX facility, waive intellectual property rights, transform knowledge and technology acquired into vaccines, and conduct mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Africa , Developing Countries
14.
J Migr Health ; 7: 100188, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263044

ABSTRACT

Background: Racialized, low-income, and migrant populations experience persistent barriers to vaccines against COVID-19. These communities in East and Northeast Calgary were disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, yet faced vaccine access barriers. Diverse multi-stakeholder coalitions and community partnerships can improve vaccine outreach strategies, but how stakeholders perceive these models is unknown. Methods: We conducted a formative evaluation of a low-barrier, community-engaged vaccine outreach clinic in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on June 5-6, 2021. We delivered an online post-clinic survey to clinic stakeholders, to assess whether the clinic achieved its collectively derived pre-specified goals (effective, efficient, patient-centered, and safe), to asses whether the clinic model was scalable, and to solicit improvement recommendations. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Overall, 166/195 (85%) stakeholders responded. The majority were from non-healthcare positions (59%), between 30 and 49 years of age (87/136; 64%), and self-identified as racialized individuals (96/136; 71%). Respondents felt the clinic was effective (99.2%), efficient (96.9%), patient-centered (92.3%), and safe (90.8%), and that the outreach model was scalable 94.6% (123/130). There were no differences across stakeholder categories. The open-ended survey responses supported the scale responses. Improvement suggestions describe increased time for clinic planning and promotion, more multilingual staff, and further efforts to reduce accessibility barriers, such as priority check-in for people with disabilities. Conclusion: Diverse stakeholders almost universally felt that this community-engaged COVID-19 vaccine outreach clinic achieved its goals and was scalable. These findings support the value of community-engaged outreach to improve vaccine equity among other marginalized newcomer communities.

15.
Dev World Bioeth ; 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263090

ABSTRACT

What has the past reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic taught us? We have seen that many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) still lack access to vaccines, and it seems little progress has been made in the last few months and year. This article discusses whether the current strategies, most notably, vaccine donations by the international community and the COVID-19 global access facility COVAX, offer meaningful solutions to tackle the problem. At the centre of our analysis, we compare the concepts of "donations" and "charity" with "vaccine equity" and the "empowerment" of poorer countries. We suggest that the achievement of fair global vaccine production requires that our global approach is supportive of the idea of empowerment. We, therefore, need structural reforms, which would most importantly include capacity building, to positively impact this goal and to take the interests of the global poor seriously.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1087138, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240415

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A majority of low-income (LIC) and lower-middle-income countries (LMIC) were unable to achieve at least 10% population coverage during initial vaccine rollouts, despite the rapid development of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Nearly three years into this pandemic, evaluating the impact of inequities in vaccine access, uptake, and availability is long overdue. We hypothesized that a delay in receiving COVID-19 vaccines was associated with an increased toll on cumulative cases and mortality. Furthermore, this relationship was modified by the size of a country's economy. Methods: We performed an ecological study assessing these relationships, in which a country's economic standing was assessed by world bank income classification, gross domestic product based on the purchasing power parity (GDP PPP) per capita category, and crude GDP PPP. Results: Countries with the smallest economies reported first vaccination much later than larger economies on all three rankings, as much as 100 days longer. Among low-income countries, a one-day increase until the first vaccination was associated with a 1.92% (95% CI: 0.100, 3.87) increase in cumulative cases when compared to high-income countries (p = 0.0395) when adjusting for population size, median age, and testing data availability. Similarly, among the lowest GDP PPP countries a one-day increase until the first vaccination was associated with a 2.73% (95% CI: 0.100, 5.44) increase in cumulative cases when compared to the highest GDP PPP countries (p = 0.0415). When modeling cumulative mortality, effects in the same direction and magnitude were observed, albeit statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Economic standing modified the effects of delayed access to COVID-19 vaccination on cumulative cases and mortality, in which LMICs tended to fare worse in outcomes than high-income countries despite the eventual rollout of vaccines. These findings highlight the importance of prioritizing equitable and timely access to COVID-19 vaccines across all countries, irrespective of economic size. Future studies should examine the impacts that vaccine inequities had on local transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developing Countries , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229281

ABSTRACT

With nearly 11 billion doses of the COVID-19 vaccine being administered, stark differences in the vaccination rates persist. Vaccine distribution initiatives such as COVAX and African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT) were formed to ensure equitable vaccine delivery. This review evaluates the initial COVID-19 vaccination efforts and the impact of different vaccine distribution initiatives on equitable vaccination coverage in the early phase. We conducted a descriptive and trend analysis with sub-groups by various context parameters of data on COVID-19 vaccination from December 2020 till February 2022, from four public databases including UNICEF, WHO, COVID-19 Task Force and Our World in Data to examine COVID-19 vaccine distribution progress and the contributions of vaccine procurement initiatives. We found that High Income Countries (HICs) had much higher vaccination rate (78.4%) than Lower-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) (55.5%) and Low-Income Countries (LICs) (10.9%). Large differentials (>80% to <10%) in the vaccination rates of eligible population of adults in LMICs and LICs existed. Differentials in the total vaccine doses delivered to each country ranged from 355.6% to 4.8% of the total population. In LICs, 53.3% of the total doses were obtained via COVAX, 30.9% by bilateral/multilateral agreements, 6.5% by donations and 3.8% by AVAT. In LMICs, 56.4% of total vaccines procured were via bilateral/multilateral agreements, 21.4% by COVAX, 4.2% by donations and 0.5% by AVAT. COVAX delivered 1 billion doses by January 2022 which constituted 53.2% and 21.4% of procured doses in LICs and LMICs. In LICs and LMICs, 6.5% and 4.2% of total doses were acquired through donations while 30.9% and 56.4% of doses were purchased. Despite global efforts, significant disparities were present in COVID-19 vaccination efforts amongst countries of different income groups. Future efforts should focus on addressing vaccine inequities explicitly and in improving global vaccine distribution.

18.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Communities of color have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. We explored barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake among African American, Latinx, and African immigrant communities in Washington, DC. METHODS: A total of 76 individuals participated in qualitative interviews and focus groups, and 208 individuals from communities of color participated in an online crowdsourcing contest. RESULTS: Findings documented a lack of sufficient, accurate information about COVID-19 vaccines and questions about the science. African American and African immigrant participants spoke about the deeply rooted historical underpinnings to their community's vaccine hesitancy, citing the prior and ongoing mistreatment of people of color by the medical community. Latinx and African immigrant participants highlighted how limited accessibility played an important role in the slow uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in their communities. Connectedness and solidarity were found to be key assets that can be drawn upon through community-driven responses to address social-structural challenges to COVID-19 related vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS: The historic and ongoing socio-economic context and realities of communities of color must be understood and respected to inform community-based health communication messaging to support vaccine equity for COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.

19.
PNAS Nexus ; 1(1): pgab004, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222690

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies were designed to reduce COVID-19 mortality, morbidity, and health inequities. To assess the impact of vaccination strategies on disparities in COVID-19 burden among historically marginalized populations (HMPs), e.g. Black race and Hispanic ethnicity, we used an agent-based simulation model, populated with census-tract data from North Carolina. We projected COVID-19 deaths, hospitalizations, and cases from 2020 July 1 to 2021 December 31, and estimated racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes. We modeled 2-stage vaccination prioritization scenarios applied to sub-groups including essential workers, older adults (65+), adults with high-risk health conditions, HMPs, or people in low-income tracts. Additionally, we estimated the effects of maximal uptake (100% for HMP vs. 100% for everyone), and distribution to only susceptible people. We found strategies prioritizing essential workers, then older adults led to the largest mortality and case reductions compared to no prioritization. Under baseline uptake scenarios, the age-adjusted mortality for HMPs was higher (e.g. 33.3%-34.1% higher for the Black population and 13.3%-17.0% for the Hispanic population) compared to the White population. The burden on HMPs decreased only when uptake was increased to 100% in HMPs; however, the Black population still had the highest relative mortality rate even when targeted distribution strategies were employed. If prioritization schemes were not paired with increased uptake in HMPs, disparities did not improve. The vaccination strategies publicly outlined were insufficient, exacerbating disparities between racial and ethnic groups. Strategies targeted to increase vaccine uptake among HMPs are needed to ensure equitable distribution and minimize disparities in outcomes.

20.
Public Adm Dev ; 42(5): 293-304, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173352

ABSTRACT

This paper explores whether inequities in access to COVID-19 vaccines can be attributed to governance deficits, particularly for developing and emerging countries where poor governance is widespread, but also for developed countries, where governments' performance fell short of expectations. These shared performance deficits beg questions about the impact of governance quality as well as the interplay of ethics in governance when life-or-death decisions must be made. It also explores the impact of COVID-19 on development, especially in the areas of poverty and employment. The findings of the paper show that there is a positive correlation between vaccine equity and good governance, meaning that countries with higher scores in governance rankings have more access to vaccines and have vaccinated most of their populations. Similarly, countries with relatively lower scores in governance rankings have poor access to and distribution of vaccines and have only covered a limited number of their people. The paper further points to disastrous societal impacts of COVID-19 vaccine inequity on poverty and employment, which have hindered global development.

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