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2.
Vaccine X ; 11: 100172, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914747

ABSTRACT

Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at occupational risk for acquisition of several vaccine-preventable diseases and transmission to patients. Vaccinations of HCP are justified to confer them immunity but also to protect susceptible patients and healthcare services from outbreaks, HCP absenteeism and presenteeism. Mandatory vaccination policies for HCP are increasingly adopted and achieve high and sustainable vaccination rates in short term. In this article we review the scientific evidence for HCP vaccination. We also address issues pertaining to vaccination policies for HCP and present the challenges of implementation of mandatory versus voluntary vaccination policies. Finally, we discuss the issue of mandatory vaccination of HCP against COVID-19.

3.
Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 18(4):196-206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1849201

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant recipients are at increased risk for infections from vaccine-preventable diseases. Gastroenterologists and hepatologists should assess patient immunization history, and necessary vaccinations should be given as soon as possible. Vaccines demonstrate superior immunogenicity when given earlier in the course of liver disease and prior to transplant. This article summarizes recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for vaccinations in patients with CLD and liver transplant recipients, and includes a discussion of the influenza, herpes zoster, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcal, human papillomavirus, and COVID-19 vaccines.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2052544, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782426

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, chronic diseases (noncommunicable diseases [NCDs]) cause 41 million (71%) deaths annually. They are the leading cause of mortality in India, contributing to 60% of total deaths each year. Individuals with these diseases are more susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and have an increased risk of associated disease severity and complications. This poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and economies, exemplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines are an effective strategy to combat these challenges; however, utilization rates are inadequate. With India running one of the world's largest COVID-19 vaccination programs, this presents an opportunity to improve vaccination coverage for all VPDs. Here we discuss the burden of VPDs in those with NCDs, the benefit of vaccinations, current challenges and possible strategies that may facilitate implementation and accessibility of vaccination programs. Effective vaccination will have a significant impact on the disease burden of both VPDs and NCDs and beyond.


What is already known on this topic?Annually, chronic or noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) cause >40 million deaths worldwide and 60% of all deaths in IndiaAdults with these diseases are more susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs); however, vaccine utilization is inadequate in this populationWhat is added by this report?We highlight the benefits of vaccination in adults with NCDs that extend beyond disease preventionWe discuss key challenges in implementing adult vaccination programs and provide practical solutionsWhat are the implications for public health practice?Raising awareness about the benefits of vaccinations, particularly for those with NCDs, and providing national guidelines with recommendations from medical societies, will increase vaccine acceptanceAdequate vaccine acceptance will reduce the VPD burden in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , India/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vaccination
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677720

ABSTRACT

The adult Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (aVHS) is valid and reliable for evaluating attitudes toward vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Italian version of the aVHS. After cross-cultural adaptation of the aVHS, internal consistency (IC), intra-class correlation (ICC), and content validity (S-CVI) were evaluated through a survey on 160 workers. Results of the ICC were analyzed on questionnaires administered twice at a distance of two months and revealed a satisfactory reproducibility (0.87). The IC of the aVHS was assessed by the Cronbach alpha coefficient test, with a result of 0.94, demonstrating an excellent IC reliability. The S-CVI calculated for the total scale was 0.97. The aVHS is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating vaccine hesitancy toward adult vaccinations. We suggest the use of this scale in upcoming surveys on opinions and perceptions of adult vaccinations.

7.
Anales de Pediatria ; 96(1):59.e1-59.e10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623299

ABSTRACT

After reviewing the best available scientific information, CAV-AEP publishes their new recommendations to protect pregnant women, children and adolescents living in Spain through vaccination. The same recommendations as the previous year regarding hexavalent vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of 13 serotypes, booster with tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis (Tdpa-IPV) at 6 years and with tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (Tdpa) at 12–14 years and pregnant women from week 27 (from week 20 if there is a high risk of preterm delivery). Also with rotavirus, tetraantigenic meningococcal B (2 + 1), meningococcal quadrivalent (MenACWY), MMR, varicella and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, for both genders. As novelties this year the CAV-AEP recommends:. Influenza vaccination from 6 to 59 months of age whenever feasible and does not harm the vaccination program aimed at people at higher risk. According to official national recommendations, the CAV-AEP recommends the systematic use of COVID mRNA vaccines since 5 years old.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4299-4327, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508315

ABSTRACT

TIPiCO is an annual expert meeting and workshop on infectious diseases and vaccination. The edition of 2020 changed its name and format to aTIPiCO, the first series and podcasts on infectious diseases and vaccines. A total of 13 prestigious experts from different countries participated in this edition launched on the 26 November 2020. The state of the art of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the responsible pathogen, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the options to tackle the pandemic situation were discussed in light of the knowledge in November 2020. Despite COVID-19, the status of other infectious diseases, including influenza infections, respiratory syncytial virus disease, human papillomavirus infection, measles, pertussis, tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, and pneumococcal disease, were also addressed. The essential lessons that can be learned from these diseases and their vaccines to use in the COVID-19 pandemic were also commented with the experts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Travel Med ; 28(8)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is a notifiable disease within Australia. Although studies in endemic regions give an indication of acquisition risk, many countries lack reliable data, and little is known of the absolute or relative risk in Australian travellers. By combining notified case data with travel statistics provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the aim of this study was to give an indication of risk for typhoid acquisition among Australian travellers. METHODS: Australian typhoid notifications between 1st January 2010 and 30th June 2017 were grouped by country of acquisition and age category (<15 or ≥15 years). Australian travel data were used to inform time at risk and incidence rate of Australian typhoid notifications pertaining to country and region of acquisition. Salmonella Paratyphi infections, though notifiable, were excluded as the focus was vaccine preventable illness. Data from New South Wales and Victoria were used to examine the incidence in those acquiring infection in their country of birth (COB) against travellers who did not. RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-three cases of typhoid were notified over the period of review, 96% of which were acquired overseas. The greatest determinant of risk was travel destination, with countries in south Asia associated with highest crude incidence rate (252 per 100 000 person-years), particularly Bangladesh. Younger age and immigrants returning to their COB were generally associated with higher risk of acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of typhoid fever in Australian travellers to endemic regions is considerable. Immigrants returning to their COB appear to be at higher risk and it is likely that this risk extends to their traveling dependents. These findings help clinicians and public health officials to plan and advise pre-travel vaccination strategies with at-risk individuals and groups. Additional sociodemographic data collection with Australian typhoid notifications would enhance the surveillance of differing international travel risk groups leaving Australia.


Subject(s)
Typhoid Fever , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines , Adolescent , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Travel , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4934-4940, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434323

ABSTRACT

The effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on routine vaccination in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. The current pandemic has disrupted routine immunization globally. We aimed to analyze the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunizations practice in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted. The data were extracted from the immunization registry in order to assess the disruption in routine immunization coverage during 5 months of the lockdown period. We compared 5 months post lockdown against the baseline period of 5 months preceding lockdown. To broaden the horizon of our research we also collected data of vaccination from rural areas within the country. The results of the current study showed that on average, there was a disruption in routine immunization by 36% during lockdown when compared with the prepandemic period. The largest decline was observed for measles vaccination with a decline of 48%. In rural areas there was a lower decline in vaccination coverage with the highest decline noted for rotavirus vaccination of 15%. This monthly decrease in routine vaccination continued to be at a decline for several months during lockdown; however, it slightly increased post lockdown. In conclusion, on average, there was more than 30% declined in routine vaccination during the lockdown period, while somewhat improved post lockdown, i.e. 12%. Thus, this ongoing pandemic is a reminder for the national immunization programs to consider to tackle the disruption in routine immunization, otherwise, this continued disruption may lead to secondary outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases amongst the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Med J Aust ; 215(9): 427-432, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination by vaccine type, age group eligibility, vaccination strategy, and population coverage. DESIGN: Epidemiologic modelling to assess the final size of a COVID-19 epidemic in Australia, with vaccination program (Pfizer, AstraZeneca, mixed), vaccination strategy (vulnerable first, transmitters first, untargeted), age group eligibility threshold (5 or 15 years), population coverage, and pre-vaccination effective reproduction number ( R eff v ¯ ) for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant as factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infections; cumulative hospitalisations, deaths, and years of life lost. RESULTS: Assuming R eff v ¯ = 5, the current mixed vaccination program (vaccinating people aged 60 or more with the AstraZeneca vaccine and people under 60 with the Pfizer vaccine) will not achieve herd protection unless population vaccination coverage reaches 85% by lowering the vaccination eligibility age to 5 years. At R eff v ¯ = 3, the mixed program could achieve herd protection at 60-70% population coverage and without vaccinating 5-15-year-old children. At R eff v ¯ = 7, herd protection is unlikely to be achieved with currently available vaccines, but they would still reduce the number of COVID-19-related deaths by 85%. CONCLUSION: Vaccinating vulnerable people first is the optimal policy when population vaccination coverage is low, but vaccinating more socially active people becomes more important as the R eff v ¯ declines and vaccination coverage increases. Assuming the most plausible R eff v ¯ of 5, vaccinating more than 85% of the population, including children, would be needed to achieve herd protection. Even without herd protection, vaccines are highly effective in reducing the number of deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1814-1816, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206821

ABSTRACT

While vaccination remains the cornerstone of controlling vaccine-preventive diseases (VPD), little is known about the effect of social distancing on incidence of VPDs. We investigated the impact of social distancing practiced during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the incidence of selected VPDs in South Korea. National surveillance data on monthly incidence of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, varicella, mumps, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and pertussis were retrieved and compared the VPD incidences in 2020 to the average of the last 4 years (2015-2019) of the corresponding months. In 2020, there were 44% decline for mumps, 44% decline for varicella, 28% decline for pertussis, 22% decline for IPD, 14% decline in incidence of hepatitis A, and no change for hepatitis B incidences, compared to baseline years (2015-2019). The largest decline of total VPDs was in April (65%) and in May (67%), during the intensified social distancing measures. In the setting of sustained vaccination coverage, social distancing may provide additional public health benefit in controlling the VPDs.


Subject(s)
Physical Distancing , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/immunology , Vaccines/immunology
14.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 119-124, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050531

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been affecting various sectors, including regular health services negatively. Vaccination, which saves the lives of 2-3 million populations of different age groups every year, is one of the most affected services by COVID-19. The routine vaccination services and outreach programs have been halted owing to lockdowns imposed on account of escalated cases of COVID-19 all over the world, affecting millions of lives at the stake of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) henceforth. However, as it is becoming evident that we will have to live with COVID-19 for some time and many countries have lifted the lockdown, vaccination programs and campaigns have resumed with stringent preventive measures to be followed for COVID-19. These programs and campaigns have been trying to overlook and provide the missed vaccination during the imposed lockdown period and continue the other vaccination services to the public in the best possible ways. The collaborative approaches of various health-related organisations, governments and the healthcare workers are necessary to deliver the routine and mass vaccination services in an improvised manner.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(1)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030506

ABSTRACT

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination coverage may decline due to limited accessibility to healthcare. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination coverage and the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the Republic of Korea. National vaccination coverage of 10 essential vaccines administered to children between January-June 2019 and January-June 2020 was analyzed. The national incidence of selected VPDs was compared for the corresponding periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the vaccination rate in children aged 0-35 months in Korea did not decrease significantly, whereas the vaccination rate for children aged 4-6 years decreased by 1.4-1.9%. The overall incidence of VPDs decreased by 10-50% between 2019 and 2020, especially with varicella. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a decrease in vaccination coverage among Korean children, which prevented a surge in VPD incidence. Maintaining essential vaccination coverage without interruption is important during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908823

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting national and international public health. Routine childhood immunization may be adversely affected by COVID-19 mitigation measures. We aimed to identify the prevalence of delayed immunization and explore the reasons and barriers for delayed immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire for parents of children under two years of age during the period from 1 May to 30 June 2020. Most of the 749 participants (82.6%) were mothers, with 31 to 40 years being the most common age group (49.8%). Nearly three-quarters (73.2%) of the parents had appointments scheduled for their child's vaccination during the pandemic, and approximately 23.4% of the parents reported a delay of more than one month in the immunization of their child. The most common reason for the delay was the fear of being infected by COVID-19 (60.9%). Large household size and lack of insurance were risk factors for immunization delay. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the timeliness of routine childhood immunization in Saudi Arabia. Childhood immunization should be prioritized, as well as the implementation of focused strategies to achieve significant and sustainable vaccination rates during pandemics.

17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(11): 2594-2600, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786982

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed multiple substantial challenges, affecting not only public health but also economic systems, socio-cultural patterns, and political institutions. Studies have focused on the relationships between complex emergencies and natural disasters with outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, there is a dearth of relevant literature on the impact of a global pandemic on vaccination programs - an important topic because delays or stops in such programs are likely to result in outbreaks and epidemics of other infectious diseases. Thus, this article discusses the negative and positive impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic may exert on vaccination for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Negative impacts include the increased risk of VPD outbreaks in low-resource countries where vaccination programs must be temporarily halted to prevent the spread of infection. Positive effects include the strong possibility that the universally-recognized need for a coronavirus vaccine may increase people's appreciation for vaccines in general, resulting in improved vaccination uptake once the pandemic passes. Concerned stakeholders, such as governments and the World Health Organization (WHO), should seize this moment to effectively build on these positive impacts by planning renewed and revitalized post-COVID vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Primary Prevention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621605

ABSTRACT

Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases' surveillance. Their active surveillance has increased data accuracy and utility for syndromic conditions (e.g. encephalitis), pathogen-specific diseases (e.g. pertussis, rotavirus, influenza), and adverse events following immunisation (e.g. febrile seizure), enabled correlation of biological specimens with clinical context and supported responses to emerging infections (e.g. pandemic influenza, parechovirus, COVID-19). The demonstrated long-term value of continuous, rather than incident-related, operation of these networks in strengthening routine surveillance, bridging research gaps, and providing scalable public health response, supports their applicability to other countries.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Accuracy , Health Policy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , National Health Programs/standards , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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