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1.
Microb Pathog ; : 105687, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: and Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is currently considered as the most challenging issue in the field of health and medicine by causing a global pandemic. Vaccines are counted as a promising candidate to terminate this deadly pandemic. Various structural proteins in SARS-CoV-2 have recently drawn attention to be utilized as candidate vaccines to stimulate immune responses against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In current study, the RBD protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli host. Then, the expressed RBD protein was purified and its characterizations were evaluated through various methods. Gold nanoparticles, which were utilized as a carrier for candidate Nano-vaccine, were synthesized via oxidation-reduction reaction. While Gold NPs-conjugated RBD was injected into the second treatment group, in the first candidate vaccine, RBD was injected into the first treatment group solely. Complete and Incomplete Freud's Adjuvant were also utilized for both treatment groups to enhance the immune responses against RBD antigen. Immunizations were repeated 2 times in 14-day intervals to boost the immune system of BALB/c mice. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were examined through immune and cytokine assays. RESULTS: Our outcomes demonstrate that strong short-term humoral immunity (IgM) was induced in both the first and second treatment group, while long-term humoral responses (IgG) were only observed in the second treatment group. While stronger short- and long-term humoral (IgM and IgG, respectively) were observed in the second treatment group, particular cytokines production (TNF-ɑ and IFN-γ) as a marker of cell-mediated responses were significantly higher in the first treatment group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study results show the high potentiality of RBD protein as an appropriate stimulating antigen in vaccine synthesis and testifies RBD-based candidate vaccines to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Our outcomes also recommend that Nano-vaccines can be more suitable candidates when stronger long-term immune responses matter.

2.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966900

ABSTRACT

We aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Colombia and Peru. We performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc). We Included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between May 20, and November 5, 2021. We Included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. We estimated crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95 %CI. We analyzed a sample of 44,678 adults from Colombia and 24,302 from Peru. The prevalence of parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 was 7.41 % (n = 3,274) for Colombia and 6.64 % (n = 1,464) for Peru. In Colombia, age above 35 years old, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children and adolescents against COVID-19. In Peru, female gender, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, having had COVID-19, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children against COVID-19. Living in a town, a village, or a rural area was associated with a higher prevalence of non-intention to vaccinate children and adolescents against COVID-19. About 9 out of 10 parents in Colombia and Peru intend to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19. This intention is associated with some factors which are similar between the two countries, as well as other factors and variations among the different regions of each country.

3.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100197, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966899

ABSTRACT

This research estimated the optimal size and composition of the portfolio, and its benefit-cost ratio, of COVID-19 vaccines that Colombia should negotiate as a price-taking country. The Advance Market Commitments (AMC) mathematical model was applied using the parameters from the Colombian context and from a literature review. The findings indicate that the optimal portfolio of Colombia should include 13 vaccines, mainly from two platforms: i) RNA and ii) inactivated virus. The benefit-cost ratio was always greater than one in the baseline scenario and after performing many sensitivity analyses on parameters such as the percentage of the population at risk, the price per treatment, and the herd immunity threshold, among others. In a context of high uncertainty, the best decision - with high benefit - is to anticipate the negotiation processes with the providers of COVID-19 vaccines, which will generate positive economic and health impacts.

4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966891

ABSTRACT

In allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients, the cell-mediated and humoral immunogenicity of the 3-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedule has not been investigated in prospective studies. In a prospective cohort, we recruited 122 Allo-SCT recipients since August 2021, when Ontario began offering a 3-dose vaccine schedule for Allo-SCT recipients. We determined humoral and cell-mediated immunity and adverse effects of the 3-dose SARS-COV-2 vaccination schedule in Allo-SCT recipients. In immunogenicity analysis (n=95), the median (IQR) antibody titer against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein after the third dose [10,358.0 U/mL (IQR: 673.9 - 31,753.0)] was significantly higher than that after the first [10.2 U/mL (IQR 0.6 - 37.0)] and the second doses [125.6 U/mL (IQR 2.8 - 1251.0)]; (P<0.0001). The haploidentical donor status was an independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 7.67, 95% CI: 1.86 - 31.60) for suboptimal antibody response (anti-RBD <100 U/mL). S-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were measured in a subset of Allo-SCT recipients (n=20) by flow cytometry. Most developed antigen-specific CD4+ (55-80%) and CD8+ T-cells (80%) after two doses of vaccine. Frequencies of CD4+ polyfunctional (p=0.020) and IL-2 monofunctional (p=0.013) T-cells significantly increased after the third dose. Twenty-three episodes (23/301 doses, 7.6%) of new-onset or worsening pre-existing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred, including four episodes after the 3rd-dose. We observed four relapses (3.27%). Seven patients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection despite vaccination, none requiring hospitalization. In conclusion, the three-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine schedule provided immunity associated with a low risk of GVHD and other adverse effects. SUMMARY: This prospective cohort showed that the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients promoted better humoral and cellar immune responses than after the initial series without increasing the risk of graft-versus-host disease or severe adverse effects.

5.
Int J Pharm ; : 122051, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966635

ABSTRACT

Biopharmaceuticals commonly require freezing to ensure the stability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). At commercial scale, freezing is typically carried out over the course of days in pallets comprising tens of thousands of vials. The selected process conditions have to ensure both complete freezing in all vials and a satisfactory manufacturing throughput. Current process design, however, is mainly experimental, since no mechanistic understanding of pallet freezing and its underlying phenomena has been achieved so far. Within this work, we derive a mechanistic modeling framework and compare the model predictions with engineering run data from the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. The model qualitatively reproduced all observed trends and reveals that stochastic ice nucleation governs both process duration and batch heterogeneity. Knowledge on the ice nucleation kinetics of the formulation to be frozen thus is required to identify suitable freezing process conditions. The findings of this work pave the way towards a more rational design of pallet freezing, from which a plethora of frozen drug products may benefit. For this reason, we provide open source access to the model in the form of a python package (Deck et al., 2021).

6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e104, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965020

ABSTRACT

This analysis compares and systematizes some of the milestones (between December 2020 and October 2021) in the approval by Brazil and Chile of the CoronaVac vaccine made by the Chinese laboratory Sinovac, with regard to how the efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine was determined. To this end, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of official public documentation of the vaccine's approval in both countries; likewise, relevant technical articles on the subject, as well as dissemination and discussion in the media were considered. In both cases, a wide range of private and public actors expressed clearly competing interests in the measurement and dissemination of figures on the vaccine's efficacy. This reveals the challenges that middle-income countries face-and will continue to face-when certifying the quality of products in a pandemic period, and the need to institutionally strengthen regulatory authorities to ensure a sound and accurate evaluation of vaccine quality, in terms of safety and efficiency.


Esta análise compara e sistematiza alguns marcos da aprovação, no Brasil e no Chile, da vacina CoronaVac, do laboratório chinês Sinovac, de dezembro de 2020 a outubro de 2021, especificamente sobre como sua eficácia e imunogenicidade foram fundamentadas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma análise exaustiva da documentação pública oficial sobre a aprovação da vacina em ambos os países. Da mesma forma, foram considerados artigos técnicos pertinentes sobre o assunto, e divulgações e discussões realizadas na mídia. Em ambos os casos, uma disputa de interesses de uma ampla gama de atores privados e públicos em torno da medição e divulgação dos números referentes à eficácia foi claramente expressa. Isso permite visualizar os enormes desafios que os países de renda média enfrentam e enfrentarão para certificar a qualidade dos produtos em um contexto epidemiológico de pandemia e a necessidade de fortalecer institucionalmente as autoridades reguladoras para viabilizar uma avaliação íntegra e acertada da qualidade das vacinas em relação a sua segurança e eficiência.

7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(2): 99-106, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine hesitancy presents one of the critical constraints in combating COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for measuring factors that contribute to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: The key constructs in the study instrument were factors that constitute the "3C" model of vaccine hesitancy: Confidence, Complacency and Convenience. Using a cross-sectional, online survey design, the 8-item COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 667 adult citizens of Serbia in December 2020. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the model that assumes three latent variables. To ensure that the instrument measures the same constructs in different groups, the measurement invariance examination was conducted. To examine criterion validity, Spearman's correlation was applied to determine the association between the instrument total score and the single-item measuring the likelihood of getting vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis established the three-factor structure, with subscales fitting within the "3C" model of vaccine hesitancy comprising confidence, convenience and complacency. The full scalar invariance was found across gender, and the partial scalar invariance was achieved for the age, region and education level. A higher level of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was associated with the lower likelihood to get vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSION: Our scale is brief and consistent, maintaining a good fit across key socio-demographic subgroups. This result implies that the scale could be useful for quick assessment of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in various target populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
8.
Can J Public Health ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore Nova Scotian experiences, barriers, and facilitators associated with pandemic public health measures (PHM), including COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, individual interviews with Nova Scotians between May and August 2021, during the third wave of COVID-19 cases and provincial lockdown. Participants were recruited across the province from three sectors: decision makers, community leaders, and community members using purposive and snowball sampling. Direct content analysis and thematic analysis were used to identify key themes via the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: The experiences of 30 Nova Scotian interviewees clustered around four themes: Communication of PHM, Responsibly Observing PHM: A Community Coming Together, Navigating PHM, and Vaccine Confidence & Hesitancy. Consistent communication of PHM through briefings with the chief medical officer of health and provincial channels reduced misinformation and encouraged PHM compliance. While adherence was high throughout the province, inconsistent enforcement of these measures proved challenging to individuals navigating PHMs. A high level of COVID-19 vaccine confidence and acceptance was identified, and a strong sense of provincial pride prevailed in keeping COVID-19 numbers and transmission low. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into Nova Scotians' unique experiences with COVID-19 PHM. Provincial public health experts and government leaders communicated PHM with various levels of success, Nova Scotia Strong, a sentiment of unity and communitarianism that sprang from public response to tragic events. Future work should aim to include under-represented communities to facilitate broader inclusion.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Explorer les expériences des Néo-Écossais et les éléments qui entravent ou qui favorisent les mesures sanitaires pandémiques (MSP), dont la vaccination contre la COVID-19, en Nouvelle-Écosse. MéTHODE: Nous avons mené des entretiens individuels semi-directifs avec des Néo-Écossais entre mai et août 2021, au cours de la troisième vague de cas de COVID-19 et de confinement dans la province. Des participants de trois groupes (décideurs, responsables locaux et résidents) ont été recrutés dans toute la province à l'aide de sondages intentionnels et cumulatifs. Nous avons utilisé l'analyse directe de contenu et l'analyse thématique pour cerner les principaux thèmes à l'aide du cadre des domaines théoriques (cadre TDF). RéSULTATS: Les expériences des 30 Néo-Écossais interrogés s'articulaient autour de quatre thèmes : Communication des MSP, Observance responsable des MSP : une communauté qui se rassemble, S'y retrouver dans le dédale des MSP et Confiance envers les vaccins et hésitation vaccinale. La communication cohérente des MSP lors des breffages du médecin-hygiéniste en chef et par les canaux provinciaux a réduit la mésinformation et encouragé l'observance des MSP. Cette observance était élevée à l'échelle de la province, mais l'application incohérente des mesures a rendu difficile pour les gens de s'y retrouver dans le dédale des MSP. Un niveau élevé de confiance et d'acceptation des vaccins contre la COVID-19 a été observé, et un profond sentiment de fierté provinciale a pris le dessus pour réduire le nombre de cas et la transmission de la COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Cette étude vient éclairer les expériences uniques des Néo-Écossais face aux MSP liées à la COVID-19. Les spécialistes provinciaux de la santé publique et les chefs du gouvernement ont communiqué les MSP de façon coordonnée et ont bénéficié du sentiment d'unité et de l'esprit communautaire (Nova Scotia Strong) qui ont émergé dans la population à la suite d'autres tragédies. Les démarches futures devraient chercher à inclure les communautés sous-représentées.

9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 952781, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963648

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination have been sporadically reported during the previous months, warranting further investigation for their prevalence and suspected relationship with vaccine-elicited immune response. Methods: A retrospective analysis using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) data was conducted to evaluate AEs within the oral cavity (mucosa, tongue, lips, palate, dentition, salivary glands) and AEs involving taste and other sensations. Oral AEs reported after receiving COVID-19 vaccination (test group) and seasonal influenza vaccination (control group) were extracted and cross-tabulated to assess their relative prevalence. Results: Among the 128 solicited (suspected) oral AEs, oral paresthesia (0.872%) was most reported after receiving COVID-19 vaccines, followed by the swelling of lips (0.844%), ageusia (0.722%), oral hypoesthesia (0.648%), swollen tongue (0.628%), and dysgeusia (0.617%). The reported prevalence of oral AEs was higher in the COVID-19 vaccine group than in the seasonal influenza group. The distribution pattern of the most reported oral AEs was similar for both COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccines. Female sex, older age (>39 years old), primer doses, and mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines exhibited a higher reported prevalence of oral AEs. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, COVID-19 vaccines were found to be associated with rare oral AEs that are predominantly similar to those emerging following seasonal influenza vaccines. The most commonly reported oral AEs were oral paraesthesia (mouth-tingling), lip swelling, and ageusia, representing various pathophysiologic pathways that remain unclear. Taste-related AEs should be acknowledged in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the public should be adequately informed about a potential taste dysfunction after receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Dentists and dental teams need to be aware of the prevalence, severity, and prognosis of oral AEs to inform their patients and increase public confidence in vaccines.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Ageusia/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1669-1672, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963350

ABSTRACT

During July-December 2021, after COVID-19 restrictions were removed in England, invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in children <15 years of age was higher (1.96/100,000 children) than during the same period in 2020 (0.7/100,000 children) and in prepandemic years 2017-2019 (1.43/100,000 children). Childhood vaccine coverage should be maintained to protect the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , England/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines
11.
Journal of Population and Social Studies ; 30:764-777, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964994

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of vaccinations to combat COVID-19, some people are still wary. This study examines factors affecting attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Data were collected using an online survey to determine the factors that affect people's attitudes reluctant to have the COVID-19 vaccine. In total, 958 respondents participated in this study. The main factors affecting people's attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine in the UAE are medical concerns, religious concerns, misinformation about vaccines on social media, the rapid speed of vaccine development, and the risks of side effects associated with the vaccine. There was no difference in gender, but the older respondents (55 and above), those less educated, unemployed, and those who work in the private sector have more fears and hesitancy toward taking the vaccine.

12.
Era's Journal of Medical Research ; 8(2):162-166, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964969

ABSTRACT

A new variant of coronavirus B.1.1.529. appeared on the scene, when discovered by the researchers in South Africa on Nov 24.2021. It is a heavily mutated variant of coronavirus discovered thus far with over 50+ mutations with 32 mutations over the spike protein itself. Spike proteins help the virus to bind to the bodily receptors of humans to gain entry inside. In comparison to the delta variant, which had nine mutations, it means that Omicron has better chances of evading the host immunity and is also more transmissible. And rightly so, it has been declared as a variant of concern(V°C) by the WHO. The presence of S-gene is of the determinants for the detection of the virus. But omicron seems to have missed this gene- being called as S-gene dropout or S-gene target failure (S- spike glycoprotein).

13.
International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics ; 14(2):344-357, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964796

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 virus in the world and Indonesia since March 2020 has made it difficult for all elements of society. At the same time, there is one alternative solution to provide an overview to the public and the government so that they can take further action in dealing with the pandemic, that is by modeling the spread of COVID-19. One of the known disease modeling is SIR model, which is a model that divides individuals into certain groups/compartments. The SIR model and one of its derivatives, namely SIR-D, was developed to analyze and simulate several scenarios of the spread of a pandemic. There are 3 simulation scenarios made, namely a scenario without vaccination, a scenario with vaccination, and a scenario with vaccination without being accompanied by strict health protocols. The simulations of the models show that the vaccination process has an impact on reducing the spread of COVID-19, although it is less significant due to the vaccination process that is not optimal and comprehensive. Meanwhile, if the vaccination process is not carried out according to health protocols, then the spread of the pandemic will increase rapidly and form a second wave in Indonesia. This indicates that the vaccination process cannot be underestimated, and the public must continue to keep following health protocol. In general, it can be concluded that the epidemiological model used can provide an overview of the COVID-19's spread simulation with accuracy level MAPE, 0.41198 for the SIR model and 0.01712 for the SIR-D model.

14.
Al-Zahra: Journal for Islamic and Arabic Studies ; 18(2), 2021.
Article in Arabic | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964771

ABSTRACT

This research aims to know the ruling on the validity of fasting by receiving a vaccine for the Coronavirus or not, through the fatwa of the Indonesian Council of Scholars, compared to the fatwas of the fatwa councils in the Islamic world, using the analytical and comparative methodology. Fasting is obligatory for Muslims in the month of Ramadan in particular, and it may be required in other months. On the other hand, the Coronavirus may spread in the world at the end of the year 2019. As of February 28, 2021, it has recorded one million and 335 thousand infections and 36 thousand and 166 deaths, and in Indonesia, which leads the government to take preventive measures, including positively receiving the Coronavirus vaccine for the people. And when Ramadan came, people were wondering about the ruling on taking it while fasting, and the Fatwa Committee of the Indonesian Council of Scholars issued a fatwa that fasting is not invalidated by receiving the vaccine, and it became clear that this fatwa agrees with the fatwas of the fatwa councils in the Islamic world.

15.
Business & Management Studies: An International Journal ; 10(2):588-604, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964756

ABSTRACT

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Twitter kullanıcılarının aşı pasaportlarına yönelik yaklaşımlarını anlamak, bu yaklaşımların nedenlerini açıklamak ve bu yaklaşımlar ile sürdürülebilirlik arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koymaktır. Çalışmada bu amaçlara ulaşmak adına NVivo 12 programı ile 56 farklı hashtag'den 104 binden fazla tweet ve retweet elde edilmiştir. Bu verilerin analizi tümevarımsal analiz yöntemiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre zorunlu aşı pasaportlarına yönelik üç temel görüş bulunmaktadır. Bunlar;aşı pasaportlarını tamamiyle destekleyenler, aşı pasaportlarını tamamiyle reddedenler ve bu pasaportların zorunlu olmasını reddedenlerdir. Aşı pasaportlarını tamamiyle destekleyenler;aşıların insan sağlığına olumlu etkisi, sosyal yaşama geri dönme arzusu ve ekonomiyi yeniden canlandırma isteğiyle bu yaklaşımı sergilemektedir. Aşı pasaportlarını tamamiyle reddedenler ve bu pasaportların zorunlu olmasını reddedenler ise aşı tereddüdü, eşitlik ve ayrımcılık kaygıları, özgürlük endişeleri ve yeni bir dünya düzeni yaratıldığına dair inançlar nedeniyle bu yaklaşımları sergilemektedir. Araştırmadaki önemli sonuçlardan biri de sürdürülebilirlikle ilgilidir. Bu sonuca göre aşı pasaportlarını destekleyenler ekonomik ve sosyal sürdürülebilirlik üzerinde dururken;desteklemeyenler sosyal sürdürülebilirlik boyutunu reddederek bu uygulamaların zorunlu olmasının nedenini tümüyle ekonomik sürdürülebilirlikle ilişkilendirmektedir. Onlara göre hükümetler, otoriteler ve büyük ticari işletmeler karlılığı halk sağlığının üzerinde tutmaktadır.Alternate : The study aims to understand the approaches of Twitter users toward vaccination passports, explain the reasons for these approaches, and reveal the relationship between these approaches and sustainability. More than 104 thousand tweets and retweets from 56 different hashtags were obtained with the NVivo 12 program to achieve these goals. The analysis of these data was carried out with the inductive analysis method. According to the research results, there are three basic views on compulsory vaccination passports. These;Those who fully support vaccination passports, reject vaccination passports altogether, and reject mandatory passports. Those who fully support their vaccination passports;demonstrate this approach with the positive effect of vaccines on human health, the desire to return to social life, and the desire to revive the economy. Those who reject vaccination passports entirely and those who refuse to make these passports compulsory exhibit these approaches because of their vaccine hesitation, concerns about equality and discrimination, concerns about freedom, and the belief that new world order has been created. One of the actual results of the research is related to sustainability. According to this result, while those who support vaccination passports focus on economic and social sustainability, those who accept the social sustainability dimension associate the reason why these practices are compulsory with economic sustainability. According to them, governments, authorities and large commercial enterprises place profitability above public health.

16.
Webology ; 19(1):2491-2503, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964725

ABSTRACT

The digital age has changed humans in accessing information from offline media to online media. The presence of digital media, such as smartphone help people get current issues quickly without limits of time and place. With advances in information technology, internet users not only can receive information but also send information in the form of comments and share information. The current internet media that has become a gateway for information is social media. This paper aims to discuss information dissemination on current issues in social media. The data sources for this paper were social media texts and online questionnaire results. The research question in this paper is what current issues are communicated in social media and how is the cyber communities' digital literacy on current issues in social media. The research findings show that 90.03% of people access information through social media, the frequency of time spent with social media to access information is 81%, and the type of social media used to access information is Facebook (38.4%), WhatsApp (20.2%), YouTube (18.4%), Twitter (8.3%) and Tiktok (6.1%). Furthermore, the current issues that can be accessed by media users are covid-19 vaccination and intolerance. The major problem with social media as a gateway to information is the digital literacy of the cyber communities on the spread of fake news related to the Covid-19 vaccination and intolerance.

17.
Webology ; 19(1):2138-2151, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964719

ABSTRACT

This research seeks to characterize the global scientific production on social networks during the Covid-19 pandemic between the months of January 2020 to September 2021. A bibliometric study was carried out in five databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Academic, Microsoft Academic and Crossref). Bibliometric indicators were analyzed in a universe of 7889 articles obtained through Publish or Perish v. 7.19 and the same analytical software of the chosen databases. The results indicate that the article with the most citations is "Students under lockdown: Comparisons of students' social networks and mental health before and during the COVID-19 crisis in Switzerland". The author with the most scientific production on the subject of social networks is J. Wu. Regarding the journal with the largest number of articles on the subject, IEE Access stands out, a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. While the United States stands as the country with the highest production of articles on social networks. It is concluded that scientific production was mainly directed to the study of the behavior of social networks during the pandemic. This increase generates an attractive phenomenon for researchers, who wish to evaluate and document totally new events for society. Stands as the country with the highest production of articles on social networks. It is concluded that scientific production was mainly directed to the study of the behavior of social networks during the pandemic. This increase generates an attractive phenomenon for researchers, who wish to evaluate and document totally new events for society. Stands as the country with the highest production of articles on social networks. It is concluded that scientific production was mainly directed to the study of the behavior of social networks during the pandemic. This increase generates an attractive phenomenon for researchers, who wish to evaluate and document totally new events for society.

18.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy ; 16(2):235-252, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964362

ABSTRACT

The fourth booster vaccination was approved in Israel during Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surge due to increasing SARS-CoV2 breakthrough infections among recently vacci-nated, reasons for this resurgence is not clear. In this Observational study, we analyzed verified SARS-CoV2 infections among over 60 years of age based on vaccination schedule (December 20, 2020-January 29, 2022);infec-tions, severe illness and deaths based on vac-cine immunity (between August 1, 2021-Janu-ary 29, 2022) using Israel COVID-19 dashboard data. There were a total of 214,394 SARS-CoV2 infections (December 20, 2020-Janaury 29, 2022;based vaccination schedule), 165,899 infections;6,267 severe illnesses and 2,031 deaths (August 1, 2021-Janaury 29, 2022) an-alyzed based vaccine immunity among over 60 years old. Vaccination with two doses, main-tained vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 93.2% (95% CI 90-95.5%) for 16 weeks until May 8, 2021 with 14.2% breakthrough infections. When there were no public health restrictions (June-July 2021) partially vaccinated has significantly lower infection rates (X2 [2, N=721]=190.79,p<0.001) with VE of 80.4% (95% CI 69.1-98.3%), while in-fection rates among vaccinated with two doses and unvaccinated are not statistically significant and decline of VE to 6.4% (95% CI -9.9-19.3%) among vaccinated with two doses. After rein-statement of restrictions since July 29, 2021, the VE of vaccinated with two doses improved to 68.0% (95% CI 56.7-76.7%), the third booster showed significantly higher breakthrough infec-tions (26.4%) and a shorter period of 12 weeks effectiveness until October 23, 2021 and by No-vember 20, 2021 the infections rates of vacci-nated with third booster are not statistically bet-ter than partially vaccinated (X2 [1, N=54]=1,85, p=0.17). During the Omicron variant surge, the VE of third booster declined to 42.7% (95% CI 39.9-45.3%) and the infection rates were sig-nificantly higher than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=5898]=8.50, p=0.003) as of January 15, 2022 and subsequently showed improvement in VE to 51.7% (95% CI 50.2-53.2%) and signifi-cantly lower infection rates than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=12380]=98.28, p=<0.001) by January 29, 2022. The vaccinated without valid-ity group (partially vaccinated;past 1-2 doses with expired Green Passes) showed significant-ly lower infection rates (X2 [1, N=15727]=295.3, p<0.001) during December 5,2021-January 29, 2022 period compared to vaccinated with validity (95% of them received third booster dose, and have Green Pass access) group that showed significantly increased infection rates and substantially increased percentages of se-vere illness and deaths.

19.
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review ; 24(2):163-167, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964334

ABSTRACT

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only casual method of allergy treatment. It is based on regular administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen to induce immunological tolerance to a particular sensitising factor. Due to proven efficacy, including preventive effect as well as favourable safety profile, it should be widely applicable, particularly among older children and adolescents. While the number of patients suffering from non-communicable diseases, including allergies, is rising, there is a false im-pression that the impact of infectious diseases can be disregarded. Thanks to prophylactic vaccines, many infectious diseases that used to be a threat to people’s lives have been forgotten. In order to tackle familiar and emerging infectious diseases (such as COVID-19), there is a need to keep in mind vaccinations in all age groups. As allergen immunotherapy and prophylactic vaccines affect the immunologic system, performing both interventions in one patient may raise concerns about safety and effectiveness. However, a large-scale study on this topic has not been performed to date. This article summarises immunological responses occurring after contact with pathogens and allergens as well as describes reactions triggered by prophylactic vaccines and AIT. What is more, possible interference of receiving both a prophylactic vaccine and AIT is discussed. © by Wydawnictwo Continuo.

20.
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review ; 24(2):156-161, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964331

ABSTRACT

Background. The difficulty of accessing accurate information during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many questions being asked to family physicians about vaccination. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of Family Medicine (FM) residents in Ankara about the inactivated and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines being administered in Turkey. Material and methods. An anonymous online survey was distributed to FM residents between 22.05.2021–06.06.2021. Information on socio-demographic data and residents’ attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines administered in Turkey were evaluated. Results. 11.1% of the participants were not vaccinated for the following reasons: having positive Anti-Spike antibody values, think-ing that there had not been enough studies on vaccines, vaccine safety concerns, belief that innate immunity would be more pro-tective, pregnancy, breastfeeding or not believing in the protection of the vaccine. While 12.2% of the participants recommended Sinovac-CoronaVac, 23.7% recommended Pfizer/BioNTech, and 63.3% stated that they would evaluate the patient and make recom-mendations. Most of the participants stated that they thought the Pfizer/BioNTech is more protective against new variants (70.4%), more effective and produces a higher antibody response (84.2%) and provides longer-term protection (74.8%). However, 74.1% of the participants stated that they thought Sinovac-CoronaVac is safer. Sinovac-CoronaVac was recommended to patients with a history of allergic reaction/anaphylaxis (69.8%), autoimmune diseases (60.4%), oncology/chemotherapy patients (49.6%), immunosuppressed patients (49.6) and lactating women (44.6%). Conclusions. In some case-basis recommendations, it was seen that the residents showed a traditionalist approach. Informing individuals based on scientific information on the safety and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines by family physicians is crucial. © by Wydawnictwo Continuo.

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