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1.
International Journal of Wine Business Research ; 35(1):121-141, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2229170

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper focuses on the wine tourist market in the central region of Portugal, and it aims to analyze the wine tourist's demographic and travel behavior and preferences profile, based on their level of wine involvement.Design/methodology/approach>This paper presents results from an exploratory study with a quantitative design, including a total of 1,029 survey responses from visitors of three wine routes. A K-mean cluster analysis was carried out, and the emerging groups of wine tourists were statistically compared (ANOVA or Chi-squared test).Findings>Participants present a demographic profile of the wine route visitor similar to that found in other studies, with an average involvement with wine. There were three clusters of wine tourists, with different levels of involvement with wine: less wine-involved;medium wine-involved;and highly wine-involved. Significant differences between the three mentioned categories are visible for gender, age and attractions visited and expenses, suggesting the possibility of a differentiated market approach. Additionally, most respondents report high interest in a variety of attractions that are not exclusively wine-related. This finding supports the conceptualization of (particularly rural) wine tourism as "terroir tourism.”Research limitations/implications>The pandemic context in which data collection was undertaken led to a smaller sample than expected, which was also more domestic than would have been in "non-COVID” times.Practical implications>This study provides relevant insights about visitors of wine routes in Central Portugal, which may resonate in other wine tourism destinations. Implications for both theory and practice are also discussed.Originality/value>This paper fulfills an identified need to study the wine tourism market in the Central Region of Portugal and expands our understanding about wine tourists' profiles, behavior and interests, adding with empirical findings to the debate on heterogeneity in the wine tourist market, the role of wine involvement and of terroir.

2.
Sustainability ; 15(2):1164, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216831

ABSTRACT

Excessive production, consumption, and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste contribute to plastic pollution, which has a negative impact on the environment and human health. The KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practices) study is thought to be useful in mitigating plastic pollution because understanding the public's knowledge, attitude, and practices toward plastic pollution can help identify problems and challenges, allowing appropriate policy decisions to be made to set up plans or implement interventions. This study assesses Malaysians' level of knowledge, attitude, and practices toward plastic pollution, as well as the variation of plastic pollution related to KAP among various socio-demographic groups. For this study, an online survey received 294 valid responses. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring, and response cross-tabulation were calculated. This study received 294 valid responses via an online survey. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring, and response cross-tabulation were estimated. A one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and binary logistic regressions was performed. Respondents' overall knowledge score (95% CI mean score: 3.88–10.94 on a scale of 11) and practice score (95% CI 1.09–6.53 on a scale of 6) were poor across socio-demographics when a cut point of 80% was used. Older (>46 years) respondents seemed to have more knowledge than younger (18–30 years) respondents (odds ratio, OR 4.304;p < 0.01). However, respondents between the ages of 31 and 45 reported significantly (p < 0.01) higher attitudes (OR 4.019) and practices (OR 4.056;p < 0.05). Respondents with environmental-related university education had a higher likelihood of knowing about plastic pollution (OR 10.343;p < 0.01). To encourage good practices toward minimizing plastic use and pollution, conclusions are drawn about undertaking interventions such as raising environmental awareness, incorporating plastic pollution topics into formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities in nearby communities.

3.
Education Research International ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2194247

ABSTRACT

Medical schools in the United States, as well as across the world, have undergone curriculum reform in the delivery of anatomy courses, which recently required social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to compare total teaching time across three major types of anatomy curricular formats in preclerkship and clerkship phases of US medical education, and quantitatively describe which tools/teaching modalities are used within different curricula structures across preclinical and clinical anatomy courses as well as evaluate the relative percent of the curricular time their use comprised prior to and during the pandemic. An optional survey instrument (with skip patterns), developed using Qualtrics Software and approved by the author's home Institutional Review Board, was sent to anatomy course directors at 152 allopathic medical schools, from all four geographic and size categories delineated by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data were analyzed using Qualtrics XM Stats iQ software. Thirty allopathic US medical institutions were represented in this survey, among which there existed an even distribution across the three integration formats with the majority of instruction occurring in the first-year curriculum. Total anatomy teaching time varied widely, but cadaveric dissection and lectures were the predominant teaching modalities, even during the pandemic. Traditional dissection comprised the majority of contact time compared to alternative modalities, but less than half of respondents currently incorporate new modalities. Approximately half of the schools changed to an all-virtual format for 2020–2021. Among those that were fully virtual, time using 3D anatomy significantly increased. Our results demonstrate that traditional anatomic educational practices remain the mainstay of medical education. Surprisingly, total contact hours in anatomic education varied widely, but there were striking similarities in the use of traditional tools.

4.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:2922-2930, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206762

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has major global impact in a short period of time. Almost all sectors were affected by this outbreak, one of which was the pharmaceutical industry. All sectors have been affected by this pandemic, including the pharmaceutical sector. The pharmaceutical supply chain has also been disrupted, one of which is pharmaceutical distribution facilities. In this research, we collect data on pharmaceutical company PT. Kimia Farma, Tbk analysis of variance cycles and delivery performance metrics, this study uses secondary data collected from official company reports, journals, and publications. The research method is qualitative-descriptive, also known as case study research. Based on the results of our analysis, PT Kimia Farma, Tbk has taken action in accordance with the principle of the variance analysis cycle to evaluate and improve the company's performance, there was an increase in sales by increasing manufacturing (production) as well. The success of this sales performance also has a positive impact on net profit. The company has maximized the production of pharmaceutical granules, capsules and tablets to mostly produce COVID-19 medicines, so the company has made positive variants. Likewise with the distribution strategy in its supply chain management which is quite successful, through an end-to-end (upstream to downstream) distribution strategy and digitization, especially to reduce delivery cycle times, and this is the company's main concern. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

5.
International Journal of Business and Economic Development (IJBED) ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164545

ABSTRACT

Multiple financial institutions are struggling to survive in the current business environment, due to the challenges that arose due to outbreak of COVID 19 and subsequent economic contraction in Namibia. The outbreak of war in Ukraine where Russia is attacking Ukraine has made the business operating environment more challenging in Namibia. The contemporary economic challenges require different types of leadership that are able to accurately assess the business environment, and then initiate innovative and creative approaches to addressing them. This research was motivated by the need to explore a leadership style that would be able to help banks to cope with the harsh business environment and also to suggest innovative approaches and strategies that could lead to profitability and competitiveness of the banking sector in Namibia. The study employed a quantitative research approach to analyse the relationship between leadership style and bank profitability and competitiveness. Four branches were selected in Namibia from two regions, to take part in the study, with a population of 164 employees and management. A sample size that represented more than 60% of the population was selected utilizing, using a stratified sampling method. The data analyses were done usingKruskal Wallis Test and the Mann-Whitney Test, as well as the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis.The findings of the study demonstrated that bank profitability and competitiveness in Namibia was linked to leadership styles such as transformational leadership and authentic leadership. The study also noted that organizational style can improve by embracing transformational and authentic leadership style. The study recommended that financial institutions must invest more in developing leadership styles that can lead to more productivity and profitability.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094580

ABSTRACT

Knowing the seasonality of COVID-19 helps decision-makers to take suitable interventions against the pandemic. In this study, we performed the Brown-Forsythe variance analysis on seasonal variations on different indicators based on the data on COVID-19 for the United States provided publicly by WHO. Our study finds that the seasonality of weekly cases and deaths of COVID-19 are strongly statistically supported by the data. The weekly total cases(/deaths) in winter are three to seven times(/two to three times) more than the other three single seasons. The ICU patients in winter and autumn are four to five times more than spring. The weekly hospital admissions in winter are four times more than spring. The mean of the positive rate in winter is five times more than spring. The findings of this research can be a reference in decision-making when taking interventions against the pandemic, such as taking stricter interventions in winter while considering less strict interventions in summer, etc.

7.
Theory and Practice in Language Studies ; 12(9):1838-1847, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040516

ABSTRACT

-Reading through mobile phones is increasingly popularized worldwide, particularly among young adults. However, few researchers investigate EFL learners' attitudes towards smartphone-based reading. The present research conducted a questionnaire survey to explore EFL learners' perceptions and beliefs by integrating the reading attitude model with the technology acceptance model UTAUT2. One hundred ninety-two participants responded to the questionnaire. The statistical data analysis, including t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA), indicated that Chinese EFL learners were generally positive in smartphone-based reading. Although they did not show keen feelings about it or form a habit of using the smartphone for EFL reading, they could perceive its usefulness and ease of use and positively believed in its future use in EFL reading. Additionally, gender differences did not impact EFL learners' overall attitudes. Still, participants' interest in English and experiences in mobile reading did suggest positive influences on their attitudes towards reading through the phone. Finally, the implications of the results and pedagogical practice of smartphone use in EFL reading are discussed.

8.
Annals of Oncology ; 33(Suppl. 3):S234-S234, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035758

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic brought pressure to Portuguese National Health Service (NHS). We aim to assess pandemic impact on diagnosis and management of breast cancer (BC) in a high-volume Portuguese comprehensive cancer centre, which was classified as a COVID-free institution by public health authorities.

9.
Huanjing yu Zhiye Yixue = Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine ; 39(8):871, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030329

ABSTRACT

[Background] Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, staff of the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) have been burdened with heavy epidemic prevention control, and excessive occupational stress can cause depression and other psychological problems. [Objective] To explore the status of occupational stress, resilience, and depression of CDC staff and potential relationships between them. [Methods] From December 2020 to April 2021, a survey was conducted at provincial and municipal levels, and the stratified cluster sampling method was used at county (district) level to select a total of 3514 samples. Their occupational stress, resilience, and depression status were evaluated using the Chinese Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale (ERI), the Chinese Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Independent samplet test, analysis of variance, χ2 test, Pearson correlation analysis, and mediation test (structural equation model) were conducted. [Results] The positive rate of occupational stress was 34.29% in the CDC staff, the resilience score was 66.28±15.32, and the positive rate of depression was 48.58%. Significant differences were found in the positive rates of occupational stress among different groups of gender, age, education background, marital status, administrative duty, weekly exercise frequency, chronic disease prevalence, and participation in epidemic control (P<0.05);in the resilience scores among different groups of gender, age, administrative duty, weekly exercise frequency, chronic disease prevalence, and participation in epidemic control (P<0.05);in the positive rates of depression among different groups of gender, age, educational background, personal monthly income, weekly exercise frequency, chronic disease prevalence, and participation in epidemic control (P<0.05). Occupational stress was negatively correlated with resilience (r=−0.165,P<0.01). Resilience was negatively correlated with depression (r=−0.383,P<0.01). Occupational stress was positively correlated with depression (r=0.343, P<0.01). The structural equation embracing a partial mediating effect of resilience on the relationship occupational stress and depression was established, and the partial mediating effect was 0.039, accounting for 10.46% of the total effect. [Conclusion] High positive rates of occupational stress, reduced resilience, and depression are shown among CDC staff in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic, and resilience partially mediates the effect of occupational stress on depression. The study findings suggest that improving resilience may reduce occupational stress and depression in CDC staff.

10.
Research in Learning Technology ; 30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026352

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of course videos needs to be analysed, and in doing so, it is important to consider the utilisation behaviours and opinions of learners. In this regard, this study was primarily conducted to analyse Kyrgyz learners’ utilisation of videos in a general chemistry course provided at the university level. This study was conducted during the 2019–2020 spring term at a state university in the Kyrgyz Republic and was structured using a mixed-method approach. The total number of participants was 105 Kyrgyz learners studying at the undergraduate level. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey, which consisted of demographic questions and items related to the utilisation of chemistry videos. Qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 13 learners. It was demonstrated through the data that learners used chemistry videos for 1–2 h per week. Also, the learners’ utilisation did not change with regard to their success from watching the videos. Learners’ utilisation of the chemistry videos was based on five factors: intrinsic motivation, self-concept of ability, self-perception of conscientiousness, video use and expectations of an online video library. This study also provided results regarding Kyrgyz learners’ problems and suggestions related to their utilisation of the videos.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10785, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024200

ABSTRACT

The increase in the use of social media as a 21st century communication tool is in parallel increasing the threat to national security globally. This study explores the perception of United Arab Emirate community members (specifically youth) on the influence of social media as a threat;the wide use of SM platforms for Emirate of Sharjah (Dibba Al-Hisn, Khor Fakkan, Kalba) were analyzed utilizing a descriptive-analytical method. The results of the study on the effects and consequences of social media on national security in the UAE, rates social media as having the highest level of influence on political implications followed in decreasing order of influence by, economic, cultural and societal, ethical and religious dimensions, and the least potential influence being on perceived national security implications. Further, the results of a one-way variance analysis indicate the potential for the perceived level of national security experienced by youth community members in the UAE to be predicted through social media. A unique feature of this study is the analysis of the influence of the five dimensions of national security on each other and national security collectively from an Arab youth perspective. Further, the study design is replicable and offers, (a) an opportunity for wider utilization as an avenue for contributing to understanding the impact of social media on the perception of a country’s national security, and (b) a fundamental baseline for future research.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10479, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024173

ABSTRACT

Due to the rapid expansion of the leisure industry, there were about 32,000 golf caddies in South Korea in 2020, an increase of 18.5% compared to 2016. Consequently, they face an increasing industrial accident rate, which is presumed to be the result of exposure to various harmful factors. Through a survey and oral interview of 221 caddies across more than 20 golf courses, health protective measures, protective measures for caddies, preparation for golf cart operation, physical burden, compliance with golf cart safety during games, and golf course responses to emotional labor were investigated in this study to identify safety and health problems of caddies and suggest prevention measures. Preliminary interviews were conducted to confirm golf courses’ safety and health status and participants’ characteristics. Golf caddies’ health and safety were confirmed using frequency analysis, independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that caddies’ workplaces were relatively vulnerable to safety and health issues and caddies were exposed to various harmful risk factors. In addition, it was confirmed that golf caddy protective measures, golf cart safety compliance, physical burden, and health protection affect golf courses’ response level to caddies’ emotional labor.

13.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 15(8):337, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023840

ABSTRACT

This paper develops a dynamic portfolio selection model incorporating economic uncertainty for business cycles. It is assumed that the financial market at each point in time is defined by a hidden Markov model, which is characterized by the overall equity market returns and volatility. The risk associated with investment decisions is measured by the exponential Rényi entropy criterion, which summarizes the uncertainty in portfolio returns. Assuming asset returns are projected by a regime-switching regression model on the two market risk factors, we develop an entropy-based dynamic portfolio selection model constrained with the wealth surplus being greater than or equal to the shortfall over a target and the probability of shortfall being less than or equal to a specified level. In the empirical analysis, we use the select sector ETFs to test the asset pricing model and examine the portfolio performance. Weekly financial data from 31 December 1998 to 30 December 2018 is employed for the estimation of the hidden Markov model including the asset return parameters, while the out-of-sample period from 3 January 2019 to 30 April 2022 is used for portfolio performance testing. It is found that, under both the empirical Sharpe and return to entropy ratios, the dynamic portfolio under the proposed strategy is much improved in contrast with mean variance models.

14.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021496

ABSTRACT

Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are potentially at increased vulnerability during the Covid-19 pandemic and require additional help to reduce risk. Self-management is one effective strategy and this study investigated the effect of sociodemographic and health factors on the self-management of some non-communicable diseases, namely hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, among Chilean adults during the Covid-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out on 910 participants with NCDs, from Santiago, Chile. An adapted and validated version of the "Partners in Health" scale was used to measure self-management. Exploratory Factor analysis yielded five dimensions of this scale: Disease Knowledge, Healthcare Team Relationship, General Self-Management and Daily Routines, Drug Access and Intake, and Monitoring and Decision-Making. The average of these dimensions was calculated to create a new variable Self-Management Mean, which was used as a dependent variable together with the five separate dimensions. Independent variables included age, gender, years of schooling, number of diseases, the percentage of Multidimensional Poverty Index in the commune of residence, and self-rated health status. Beta regressions and ANOVA for the Beta regression residuals were utilized for analyses. Beta regression model explained 8.1% of the variance in Self-Management Mean. Age, years of schooling, number of diseases and self-rated health status were statistically associated with Self-Management Mean and dimensions related to daily routines and health decision making, such as Disease Knowledge, General Self-Management and Daily Routines, and Monitoring and Decision-Making. Gender and the percentage of Multidimensional Poverty Index in the commune of residence were insignificant. Strategies for self-management of NCDs during a crisis should consider age, years of schooling, number of diseases, and self-rated health status in their design.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9071, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994154

ABSTRACT

The effects of hesperidin and different casings on pH, moisture content, water-holding capacity, and total viable count (TVC) of sausages stored for 171 days were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Sausages stuffed in a modified casing with treatment B (soy lecithin concentration: 1:30, soy oil concentration: 2.5%, lactic acid concentration: 21 mL/kg NaCl [solid], treated time: 90 min) had a significantly lower pH value (6.89 ± 0.01) at d 31 but higher (6.55 ± 0.03) than that of control casings at d 171 (p < 0.05). Hesperidin plays an important role in antimicrobial property that renders the sausages with modified casing by treatment A (soy lecithin concentration: 1:27.5, soy oil concentration: 1.25%, lactic acid concentration: 19.5 mL/kg NaCl [solid], treated time: 75 min) stable (p > 0.05), with the final TVC of 5.03 ± 0.10 log cfu/g. According to the PCA results, water-holding capacity has a positive correlation to pH. Moisture content was the best discriminator for differentiating sausages with control and modified casings, whilst pH was able to discriminate sausages stored after 138 days from other days.

16.
Retos ; 43:447-451, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989090

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate physical activity in physical education class in disabled and non-disabled high school students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participating subjects were high school students with an average age of 15.2 ± 5.7 years, 106 students without disabilities and 77 students diagnosed with disabilities, physical activity was evaluated before and during the COVID-19 pandemic using the international activity questionnaire IPAQ physics. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) mixed 2 x 2 (groups x measurements), indicated that a statistically significant difference of p = .001 between the groups and p = .005 the measurements with the highest weekly energy expenditure of physical activity, in the student body without disabilities. Conclusions: When comparing the values ​​with an investigation that used the same methodological procedure, students with disabilities report higher sedentary habits than schoolchildren undiagnosed with disabilities, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Alternate : Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad física en la clase de educación física en estudiantado de secundaria con discapacidad y sin discapacidad antes y durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Método: Los sujetos participantes fueron estudiantes de secundaria con una edad promedio de 15.2±5.7 años, 106 estudiantes sin discapacidad y 77 estudiantes diagnosticados con discapacidad, la actividad física se evaluó antes y durante la pandemia por COVID-19 mediante el cuestionario internacional de actividad física IPAQ. Resultados: El análisis de varianza (ANOVA) mixtas 2 x 2 (grupos x mediciones), indicó que una diferencia estadísticamente significativa de p=.001 entre los grupos y p=.005 las mediciones con mayor gasto energético semanal de actividad física, en el estudiantado sin discapacidad. Conclusiones: Al comparar los valores con una investigación que utilizó el mismo procedimiento metodológico, el estudiantado con discapacidad reporta mayores hábitos sedentarios que escolares no diagnosticados con discapacidad, durante la pandemia por COVID-19.Alternate :Objetivo: Avaliar a atividade física em aulas de educação física em alunos do ensino médio com e sem deficiência antes e durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método: Os sujeitos participantes foram alunos do ensino médio com idade média de 15,2 ± 5,7 anos, 106 alunos sem deficiência e 77 alunos com diagnóstico de deficiência, a atividade física foi avaliada antes e durante a pandemia COVID-19 usando o questionário internacional de atividade física IPAQ. Resultados: A análise de variância (ANOVA) mista 2 x 2 (grupos x medidas), indicou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa de p = 0,001 entre os grupos ep = 0,005 as medidas com maior gasto energético semanal de atividade física, no corpo discente sem deficiência. Conclusões: Ao comparar os valores com uma pesquisa que utilizou o mesmo procedimento metodológico, os alunos com deficiência relataram hábitos sedentários mais elevados do que os escolares não diagnosticados com deficiência, durante a pandemia do COVID-19.

17.
Journal of Allied Health ; 51(2):121-129, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970315

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate differences between domestic and international occupational therapy students in their perceptions and experiences of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 151 occupational therapy students enrolled in the 4-year Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (Honours) courses at the University of Canberra and Monash University in Australia. Students completed the Student Engagement in the e-Learning Environment Scale (SELES) and the Distance Education Learning Environment Scale (DELES). Both instruments have established validity and reliability. ANOVA analysis with bootstrapping was completed to examine potential differences in domestic and international students' experiences and perceptions of online learning. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between domestic and international students' scores on the DELES Student Autonomy (p=0.001), Personal Relevance (p=0.001) and Student Interaction and Collaboration (p=0.037) subscales. CONCLUSION: International students experienced greater difficulties during online learning in relation to taking control of their own learning, connecting acquired knowledge with real-world settings, and forging collaborative and interactive working relationships with their peers. Academic, technological, and social support measures are recommended to strengthen students' self-directed learning skills, facilitate them to link what they have learned beyond online settings, and encourage active and collaborative engagement with peers and instructors. J Allied Health 2022;51(2):121-129.

18.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(1):113, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918476

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The novel coronavirus (SAR-CoV-2) pandemic has revolutionized medical education worldwide. Most medical schools have adopted the online teaching and assessments. Students attending modified clerkships and assessments under the stress of the pandemic, perform and score differently when compared to normal clerkships. We aimed to identify the impact of COVID-19 on final year MBBS students' EOC (End of Clerkship) examination by comparing them with their scores prior to the COVID and with scores of the previous final year. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shifa College of Medicine. Final year MBBS students' scores of years 2019 and 2020 were included. Students' EOC MCQ and OSCE scores were compared in pre-COVID and COVID affected rotations of the same year and with the previous year (2019). Data were analyzed in SPSS version 21, means scores were calculated, and one-way ANOVA was applied. Pearson correlation was calculated for correlation assessment of MCQ and OSCE scores. Results: There were 118 students. The mean EOC, OSCE, and MCQ scores in rotations one to four were 72.8±6.4, 73.3±8.1, 71.6±7.4, 72.7±6.7 and 44.4±8, 47.2±8.4, 46.1±8.2, 48.8±8.1, respectively. Oneway ANOVA results before and after COVID lockdown were statistically insignificant (p=0.3) for OSCE and significant for MCQ in the final year class of 2020 (p=0.001). The Pearson correlation assessment between MCQ and OSCE scores (n=416) had a significant positive correlation (r=0.42, p=0.000). The overall comparison between scores of the final year class of 2019 and 2020 showed significant improvement in Surgery and Obstetrics/Gynae scores in 2020. Conclusion: During the COVID pandemic, the final year students' performance in EOC MCQ and OSCE over all remained unaffected.

19.
Parikalpana: K I I T Journal of Management ; 18(1):85-97, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912564

ABSTRACT

India has enjoyed impressive economic growth over the past two decades. The country possesses the world's second-largest road system, fourth-largest rail system, and fifth-largest electric power generating manufacturing capability. Despite progress and good prospects for the future, investors continue to face many challenges, which have worsened after Covid-19. Nearly 90% of the world's population has faced travel restrictions, a sharp decline in the global economy during the Covid-19 pandemic. There had been significant downward trend in the infrastructure investment during Pandemic, keeping in view the slowdown of private investment in infrastructure;the present study was carried out to investigate the complexities in PPP infrastructure projects by looking at the elements that impede the successful implementation of PPP in India. The study relies on primary and secondary data. To better understand the constraints to PPP implementation, a questionnaire survey was performed to collect the viewpoints of partners who have a good grasp of the PPP concept and have worked on PPP projects in India. There was a total of 94 valid submissions. The overall findings show that the top five challenges for speeding PPP in India are 'Inefficient and inequitable risk allocation in PPPs,' 'Over leveraged debt and paucity of equity,' 'Weak regulatory and institutional frameworks,' 'Delay in issuing clearances by authorities,' and 'Land selection and acquisition.

20.
International Journal of Wine Business Research ; 34(3):373-391, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1909115

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this paper is to investigate if differences exist between the four wine-consuming generations in wine purchasing behavior, the desirability of wine attributes when making a purchase decision and information sources used. It examines if generational market segmentation is an actionable and valuable strategy for the wine industry. Generation Z, Millennials, Generation X and Baby-Boomers are the four generations examined. This research also investigates if the generations behaved differently concerning wine consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, expectations concerning future wine purchasing behavior are examined.Design/methodology/approach>An online survey was conducted between April 29, 2020 and May 7, 2020, with a sample size of 944 consumers from Western US States (California, Washington, Idaho, Oregon and Nevada). One-way analysis of variance technique and Chi-square tests were used to examine differences.Findings>Segmentation by generation is appropriate when creating products, pricing, determining channels of distribution and creating messaging for a specific wine brand. The COVID-19 pandemic caused channel shifting that is expected to continue after the pandemic.Originality/value>This is the second academic paper that examines differences in wine purchasing behavior between generations including Generation Z and the only study that examines the purchasing behavior changes and expectations for the future by generation concerning the COVID-19 pandemic.Research limitations/implications>A national survey should be conducted to confirm that the results from the sample that was mostly from California and neighboring states reflect the national wine consumer in the USA.Practical implications>The research identifies the products, prices, channels of distribution and messaging that are appropriate to target each generation.

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