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International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S39, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325220


While the World Health Organization strongly recommends HIV self-testing (HIVST) as an approach to HIV testing services, scale up has been minimal in low- and middle-income countries. Vietnam has successfully delivered HIVST at scale for key populations (KP), including men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, female sex workers and their partners. We reviewed data from the USAID/PATH Healthy Markets (2014-2021), including consumer surveys, HIVST usability and performance assessments, and service data to summarize the five stages of HIVST scale-up in Vietnam: 1) Assessing HIVST acceptability, preferences, and willingness to pay (WTP);2) Piloting HIVST;3) Developing HIVST policies and assessing products;4) Facilitating HIVST market authorization;and 5) Implementing differentiated service models. A '5A' approach was employed to shape HIVST markets, i.e., improving affordability, enhancing availability, assuring quality, ensuring appropriate design, and boosting awareness and demand. We assessed key factors related to HIVST supply and demand. In terms of supply, the median price people were willing to pay was US$4.3 per test. HIVST products with stringent regulatory approval successfully obtained free sale certificate registration, and blood-based HIVST products were highly accurate (99%-99.8%). Differentiated HIVST distribution models played a significant role in scaling-up HIVST and ensuring uninterrupted access to essential HIV services, e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis monitoring during COVID-19 lock-downs. Related to demand and testing uptake, the majority of KPs accessing HIVST were first time HIV testers. Creative online-to-offline behavior change communication increased client awareness, trust, and use of HIVST. HIVST was successful in reaching first-time testers who may not otherwise test or seek facility-based care. HIVST is an effective strategy for reaching undiagnosed individuals and is accepted and preferred by KPs. HIVST scale-up requires enabling policy, intensive demand generation efforts, and differentiated service models.Copyright © 2023

International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S40-S41, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324692


Influenza infection is asymptomatic in up to 75% of cases, but outbreaks result in significant morbidity. Reports found that severe influenza complications tend to occur among the very young (<5 years) and very old (>65 years), especially those with underlying co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Even with no co-morbidity, some older persons with severe influenza may require hospitalisation or intensive care, with increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. In South-East Asia, influenza was often seen as a mild problem and was not deemed notifiable until the appearance of the Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in 2009. For decades the data made available were based on extrapolated estimates collected mainly from paediatric populations, resulting in inconsistent findings. Following expanded surveillance across the region using national surveillance systems for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), and better diagnostic methods, improved estimates of disease burden was achieved in South-East Asia. However, two studies conducted in 2008-2010 reported findings ranging from 2-3% to 11%. With regards to increased risk of complications, the estimated global annual attack rates for influenza were 5-10% in adults and 20-30% in children, resulting in 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 290,000-650,000 deaths. A study In Singapore reported that influenza is associated with annual excess mortality rates (EMR) of 11-14.8 per 100 000 person-years, especially affecting the elderly;these rates are comparable to that of the USA. As for hospitalisation rates of children under 5 years with seasonal influenza, the USA estimated a rate of 1.4 per 100,000. Comparable rates were reported in Singapore (0.7-0.9), Thailand (2.4), Viet Nam (3.9-4.7), and the Philippines (4.7). In 2018, an updated study reported a mean annual influenza-associated respiratory EMR of 4.0-8.8 per 100 000 individuals, with South-East Asia showing a high mortality rate of 3.5-9.2 per 100,000 individuals. It was already estimated in Thailand in 2004 that influenza resulted in USD23-63 million in economic costs, with the main contribution from lost productivity due to missed workdays. Thus, comparable to countries in temperate climate, the clinical and socioeconomic impact of influenza in South-East Asia appear to be just as substantial. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, global influenza incidence dropped dramatically. In South-East Asia, the trend in influenza detections was similar to the rest of the world, with numbers slightly higher than average in early 2020, followed by a quick drop-off by the end of April 2020. After April 2020, the detection rate remained low until late July 2020, when Influenza A(H3N2) predominated in Cambodia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Timor-Leste;influenza B in Lao People's Democratic Republic but with an upsurge in A(H3N2) activity. Following a two-year hiatus, influenza outbreaks began to re-emerge significantly since early 2022. From February through August 2022, influenza activity in the southern hemisphere remained lower than in pre-COVID-19 pandemic years, but was at the highest level compared to similar periods since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reasons for the reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic include non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), reduced population mixing and reduced travel, and possibly viral interference between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus in the same host. In general, the reduction in influenza detections however does not appear to be associated with lack of testing. The World Health Organisation (WHO) continues to recommend that vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection and severe outcomes caused by influenza viruses. Although influenza vaccine is not commonly used in most countries in South-East Asia, its burden is similar in other parts of the world where influenza vaccine is now routinely used. Currently, the countries in South-East Asia that are providing free influenza vacc na ion for those at high risk include Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines and Lao People's Democratic Republic.Copyright © 2023

Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 144(Supplement 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2314877
4th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Education, WAIE 2022 ; : 76-80, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2268134
AI Crypto and Security Workshop, AI-CryptoSec 2022, Theory and Application of Blockchain and NFT Workshop, TA-BC-NFT 2022, and Mathematical Science of Quantum Safety and its Application Workshop, MathSci-Qsafe 2022 held in conjunction with 4th International Conference on Science of Cyber Security Workshops, SciSec 2022 ; 1680 CCIS:83-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2263700
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2262982
Textile Outlook International ; - (216):58-93, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2247156
6th International Conference on Digital Technology in Education, ICDTE 2022 ; : 25-30, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2285188
6th International Conference on Digital Technology in Education, ICDTE 2022 ; : 230-236, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2285184
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 6(3):267-275, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2284457
6th International Conference on Digital Technology in Education, ICDTE 2022 ; : 200-206, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2283969
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 7(11):2971-2984, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2276424
51st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, Internoise 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2274122
Vietnam Journal of Chemistry ; 61(1):1-14, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2274071
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology ; 30(3):e532-e544, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2270423