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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343211

ABSTRACT

We exploit the extensive job loss associated with the devastating fourth wave of COVID-19 in Vietnam to examine the impact of unemployment on young people's experiences of anxiety and depression. Using data from a longitudinal study with individual and survey-wave fixed effects, we show that job loss significantly increases levels of anxiety, but not depression. Specifically, job loss leads to a 5.9 percentage point increase in the probability of experiencing symptoms consistent with either mild or severe anxiety, almost doubling the pre-wave baseline. This effect is driven by individuals in the top earnings tercile who no longer live in their natal household - suggesting that the impact of job loss on anxiety is most acute among young people who are under pressure as the primary earners in their household. Perceived financial strain and food insecurity explain up to 22% of the estimated increase in anxiety. Our results support expanding mental health programmes to explicitly target young adults who have lost their job.

2.
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education ; 14(5):667-678, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026400

ABSTRACT

In the context of globalization, ICT is increasingly applied in a wide range of educational activities, especially during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Vietnam, switching from face-to-face to online teaching has been one of the fulfilled objectives of continuing educational activities. This paper is among the first studies to evaluate primary school students' transversal competencies in this context. Through an online survey, 661 fifth-grade students self-assessed their transversal competencies, e.g. problem-solving skills, creative skills, ICT skills, and social and cross-cultural skills. ANOVA analysis revealed that the use of ICT skills and Social and cross-cultural skills among students in private schools is greater than that of students in public schools. In addition, the results of the Pearson correlation analysis pointed out that students' transversal competencies have a strong positive correlation with online learning activities. These findings not only contribute to supporting Vietnamese educational institutions and educational policymakers to adjust online teaching activities to enhance transversal competencies for primary school students but are also a valuable reference for countries with similar backgrounds.

3.
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (Online) ; 17(16):269-288, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024445

ABSTRACT

The unexpected prolonged expansion of the Covid-19 pandemic has urged nu-merous educational institutions worldwide, including Vietnam, to offer online courses. Identifying factors that impact student satisfaction and academic achievement, hence, becomes crucial in online learning environments. The current study examines the impact of students' self-regulated learning and Internet self-efficacy on these two learning outcomes in an online environment. The proposed research model consists of two exogenous variables including students' Internet self-efficacy and self-regulated learning, and two endogenous variables, namely students' satisfaction and academic achievement. 710 students from four universi-ties in Vietnam voluntarily participated in this study by completing an online sur-vey questionnaire. The data analysis was performed by Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicated that Internet self-efficacy, goal setting, and help-seeking have direct positive effects on both student satisfaction and academic achievement. Self-evaluation positively affected student satisfaction while it did not have an impact on student academic achieve-ment. Elaboration, environment structuring, and task strategies did not have a sta-tistically significant relationship with student satisfaction as well as their academic achievement. Students' satisfaction has a direct positive impact on their academic achievement. Pedagogical implications and limitations of the study are also deduced.

4.
Social Sciences ; 11(8):324, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024060

ABSTRACT

The rapid and breakthrough development of digital technology in the digital era creates excellent opportunities for Vietnam’s socioeconomic development, profoundly changing all activities and people’s lifestyles. However, due to old age characteristics, older adults become a vulnerable population group and face many difficulties when digital transformation occurs widely in all aspects of life. Research issues raised by the research team, such as sociodemographic characteristics, active aging, the activeness and attitudes of the elderly in Vietnam toward the digital environment, the importance of relevant government policies, and necessary attention from telecommunications and online service providers, are considered the novelties of this study. Among these, sociodemographics were found to be the most important factor influencing the digital adaptation of older people, as they dominate the age-related problems faced by older people. These suggestions were confirmed by evaluating the results of a sociological survey conducted by the research group At Hanoi University of Science and Technology on the influence of the technological environment on older adults’ lives using qualitative research methods. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors influencing the digital adaptability of Vietnamese elderly people in order to propose policy implications to encourage the elderly to adapt to the digital environment in the emerging digital society in Vietnam.

5.
Economies ; 10(8):193, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023278

ABSTRACT

In the present paper, we show how uncertainty emanating from fluctuations in economic uncertainty, news-based uncertainty, and geopolitical risks affect the number of containers exported from Thailand via Penang Port, Malaysia. Our sample extends from January 2009 to May 2020 from three main entry points in the Northern Peninsular Malaysia–Thailand Border: Padang Besar, Surat Thani, and Bukit Kayu Hitam. Two modes of transportation of containers are mainly used for export purposes, namely, road and rai. This study examines the nonlinear effect of uncertainty on trade by employing a two-regime Markov regime-switching approach. The empirical results show that, overall, uncertainty significantly affects the movement of containers in the high-uncertainty regime. Therefore, small ports must continue to diversify their client base to cushion the impact of fluctuations in global trade due to uncertainty.

6.
Global Business Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020908

ABSTRACT

Using monthly inward foreign direct investment (FDI) data for the period from January 2020 to September 2021, our study aims to investigate how the COVID-19 burden (cases and deaths) and policy responses of Vietnam and 40 investment partners affected Vietnam’s FDI attraction. Estimates for the baseline models as well as for different types of income levels show that Vietnam’s COVID-19 burden negatively affects its inward FDI, while no evidence reveals the effect of investment partners’ COVID-19 burden. We find that Vietnam’s COVID-19 cases negatively affect its inward FDI from the European region, while no evidence reveals an effect from the Asian region. When including policy responses in the estimation, we find a disadvantageous impact of investment partners’ COVID-19 cases and deaths as well as Vietnam’s COVID-19 deaths on Vietnam’s inward FDI. In general, the effects of COVID-19 cases are significantly lower than those of COVID-19 deaths. Estimates show that stringent measures in Vietnam and investment partners negatively affect FDI flows into Vietnam, while containment and health measures have a positive effect. The study suggests that efforts should focus on reducing the number of COVID-19 deaths rather than the number of COVID-19 cases, minimizing the application of stringency measures by Vietnam and investment partners, applying health methods, and expanding trade agreements networks. © 2022 International Management Institute, New Delhi.

7.
International Journal of Emerging Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2018474

ABSTRACT

Purpose The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been negatively affecting international trade between countries;however, there is a lack of empirical studies on developing countries such as Vietnam. This article aims to investigate how the COVID-19 cases and related deaths and policy response by Vietnam and trading partners to the pandemic affect Vietnam's export activities. Design/methodology/approach The authors use the monthly trade data from the General Department of Vietnam Customs and employ the Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood (PPML) estimator to empirically investigate the effects of COVID-19 and policy response to the pandemic on Vietnam's exports at aggregate and sectoral levels over a 33-month period. Findings In the first year of the pandemic (January-December 2020) as well as the whole study period (January 2019-September 2021), trading partners' COVID-19 burden adversely affected Vietnam's aggregate exports, and the effect of COVID-19 deaths is significantly larger than that of COVID-19 cases. In the first year of the pandemic, estimates show a negative effect of Vietnam's COVID-19 cases on its exports, while no evidence reveals the impact of Vietnam's COVID-19 deaths. However, during the entire study period, there are remarkable adverse effects of Vietnam's COVID-19 deaths on its exports. The effect of the COVID-19 burden in Vietnam and in its trading partners differs significantly across major subsectors. In the first year, there is a positive role of government response to the pandemic by Vietnam and its trading partners in Vietnam's aggregate exports, while in the whole study period, only a positive effect of Vietnam's government response is found. Economic support and free trade agreements (FTAs) have a positive effect on Vietnam's exports. In the first year of the pandemic, Vietnam's export losses due to COVID-19 outweighed its export gains from the pandemic. However, Vietnam's exports have significantly improved over the nine months of 2021. Research limitations/implications Efforts should aim to reduce the number of COVID-19 deaths rather than focus on reducing the number of COVID-19 cases. The application of stringency measures by both exporters and importers should be minimized, or at least those measures need to be combined with health methods, such as testing policy and contact tracing, short-term investment in healthcare and especially investments in vaccines. In addition, economic support, particularly debt relief, needs to be widely applied to assist firms, especially those involved in international trade. The expansion of FTA networks and diversifying export destinations may be helpful in maintaining production networks and export activities. Practical implications In the long-term period, the application of stringency measures by both exporters and importers should be minimized, or at least those measures need to be combined with health methods such as testing policy and contact tracing, short-term investment in healthcare and especially investments in vaccines. In addition, economic assistance, particularly debt relief, needs to be widely applied to assist firms, especially those involved in international trade activities. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, the paper is among the first studies empirically investigating the impacts of COVID-19 and policy response to the pandemic on aggregate and sectoral exports from Vietnam. The paper also measures the absolute value of export gain and export loss due to the pandemic between Vietnam and trading countries.

8.
3rd International Conference on Innovations in Digital Economy, SPBU IDE 2021 ; 1619 CCIS:101-111, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013995

ABSTRACT

Instruments for the sustainable growth attract a lot of attention. An assessment of e-commerce development through the example of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam allows determining the prospects for this branch of digital economy in most of the developing countries. The aim of this study is to assess the role of e-commerce in sustainable economic growth and to identify areas in which the strategy for e-commerce development in Vietnam until 2025 can be improved. The research methods include dynamic SWOT analysis, correlation analysis, and cluster analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Within the study the conditions for the development of the e-commerce market in Vietnam are identified;the role of e-commerce in ensuring sustainable economic growth is analyzed;the relationship between e-commerce and other economic and social factors affecting growth and development is analyzed;directions for the development of e-commerce in each Vietnamese province are proposed. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the approach proposed for assessing the contribution of e-commerce to the sustainable growth of GDP and the classification of e-commerce development policies based on the level of regional development. The authors provide recommendations for improving the government strategy for e-commerce development in Vietnam based on the grouping of administrative entities according to their technological and infrastructural development. The results of the study can be used in the elaboration of the government policy on the development of e-commerce and the digital economy in general – not only in Vietnam, but in other developing countries as well. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 22(9):172-181,172A-178A, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012146

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates what determinants, and to what extent, they influence students' satisfaction in unstable learning contexts. Using a national-scaled sample of Vietnamese HEIs with a sound theoretical background, we find that regardless of instabilities from external shocks, the key factors that shape students' satisfaction are fixed by traditional norms (self-efficacy, infrastructure, lecturer) rather than occasional factors occurring from each event. We find in particular that self-efficacy is the most influential factor for students' satisfaction and friendship is the most prominent element that enhances students' self- efficacy. Overall, this paper enriched the literature on student satisfaction, especially during unstable contexts. Thus, it has important implications for educators and HEIs stakeholders in management planning in the time to come.

10.
Journal of Mekong Societies ; 18(2):27-45, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2011596

ABSTRACT

Food issues have become more important in the context of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting the social survey and non-traditional security issue approaches, the study seeks to examine the precarity of people residing in Ho Chi Minh City, and is focused mainly on community food issues in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also aims to investigate the situation in Ho Chi Minh City during the coronavirus period and examine food security issues within urban settings as a feasible solution to food and nutrition concerns in Ho Chi Minh City during the 4th wave of SARS-CoV-2. Research shows that people in Ho Chi Minh City have faced many economic difficulties and limited food access during the pandemic, and witnessed changes in the procurement of food resources. The autonomic response pattern of people is to grow their own edibles at home. Indeed, policies and support from local authorities still need to play a more decisive role in ensuring food security for the city when there is a crisis similar to COVD-19 in the future. © 2022, Khon Kaen University. All rights reserved.

11.
Heliyon ; : e10474, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004110

ABSTRACT

The energy sector in Vietnam has developed rapidly as the country is transitioning to renewable energy. Moreover, the Vietnamese government also motivates the engagement of private investors in the energy sector to enhance the competitiveness of the energy market. Therefore, this paper investigates how innovation investments and ownership concentration affect the financial sustainability of energy companies in Vietnam. We employ the Fixed Effect Model and Generalized Method of Moments estimations to analyze the sample, including 600 firm-year observations of 103 energy companies from January 2007 to December 2020. The empirical findings show that innovations and block-holders support firms to grow sustainably. The positive relationship between innovation investments and financial sustainability is robust even when we employ alternative proxies of innovation investments. Our study indicates that block-ownership affects sustainable developments of smaller energy firms, while innovation investments significantly improve the sustainability of larger energy firms. Finally, our study reports that the Covid-19 pandemic adversely affects the financial sustainability of energy firms. Our findings align with agency theory, resource-based theory, and prior literature. Our findings recommend that energy firms motivate innovation investments such as training and R&D activities to grow sustainably. In addition, the Vietnamese government should encourage small energy firms to attract blockholders to improve financial sustainability.

12.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999633

ABSTRACT

Speed read UN report shows clear links between global disasters Lack of risk management and climate change among common causes Tackling root causes across disciplines is essential, report says Extreme events are increasingly compounding each other, even if they initially seem wide apart and unconnected, making it more crucial to tackle their root causes, says a report. In turn, deforestation is linked to Western demand for meat, and has a knock-on effect on climate change, exacerbating extreme events elsewhere in the world, says the report. Need to strengthen Strengthening networks for sharing prevention and response experiences between countries, and mechanisms for international cooperation and allocation of funds, is critical says Tran Si Pha, head of the disaster management department at the Vietnam Red Cross Society.

13.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1):64, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) involved in the COVID-19 response might be at increased risk of developing depression, though evidence is scarce. We investigated effects of COVID-19-related work on changes in depression levels among CHWs in Vietnam and identified sub-groups among CHWs who are at particular risk of developing severe depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 979 CHWs who were involved in the COVID-19 response in Vietnam, in particular during the 2021 Tet holiday outbreak between January and March 2021. Respondents were asked to report depression symptoms at two-time points, before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (average June to December 2019) and during the 2021 Tet holiday outbreak using the PHQ-9 mental health questionnaire. We estimated depression levels at both time points and developed univariate and multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to explore the association between deterioration to high depression levels and selected risk factors. RESULTS: Median depression levels among CHWs in Vietnam doubled from 3 (IQR = 2-7) before COVID-19 to 6 (IQR = 3-9) on the PHQ-9 scale during the Tet holiday outbreak. The proportion with normal/minimal levels decreased from 77.1% (95% CI = 74.4-79.7) to 50.9% (95% CI = 47.7-54) (p-value < 0.001), while the proportion of CHWs with moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression levels increased 4.3, 4.5, and five-fold, respectively. Less sleep and poor sleep quality, working in unfavorable work environments, and being involved in contact tracing and the organization of quarantine for suspected cases were associated with an increased risk of deterioration to high depression levels. CONCLUSIONS: We found a substantial increase in overall depression levels among CHWs in Vietnam due to their COVID-19 related work and a particularly worrisome rise in CHWs suffering from severe depression. CHWs are an indispensable yet often overlooked cadre of work in many low- and middle-income countries and shoulder a heavy psychological burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted psychological support for CHWs is needed to improve their mental health and to ensure the sustainability of community-based health interventions during COVID-19 and future epidemics.

14.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(9):1147-1158, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994654

ABSTRACT

To understand the genetic diversity of porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCo V) in Guangxi Province, clinical diarrhea samples were collected from suspected piglets in Guangxi Province from2017 to 2019, detected by RT-PCR for PDCoV, and the positive samples were used for amplification and sequence of S, M, N genes. Finally, 16 S, M and N gene sequences of PDCoV were obtained. Homology analysis showed that the S, M, N gene nucleotide identity among Guangxi strains were 95.8% -99.9%, 95.9%-100% and 97.9%-99.9%, respectively. The nucleotide identity of S, M and N genes among Guangxi strains and other reference strains were 95.1%-100%, 95.0%-100%and 96.3%-99.9%, respectively. Sequence alignment showed that S1 protein existed amino acid mutations and insertions, and there were some variations among different epidemic strains. Phylogenetic trees based on S, M and N genes obtained similar topological diagram and all strains could be divided into Group I, Group II and GroupIII, of which Group I came from USA, Japan and Korea, Group II came from China, and Group III came from China, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. Most strains from Guangxi Province distributed in Group II, individual strain distributed in Group III and some strains formed a single small branch. The evolutionary rates of S, M and N genes of Guangxi strains and other reference strains were 2.57 x 10-4, 2.07 x 10-4, 1.70 x 10-4 substitutions/site/year, respectively, showing that the evolutionary rate of S gene was the fastest. The results indicated that the S, M, N genes of PDCo V strains from Guangxi Province had some variations and existed genetic diversity.

15.
Independent Journal of Management & Production ; 13(5):1235-1255, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994595

ABSTRACT

The field of cashback and rewards applications is still a relatively new platform in the e-commerce platform that has not had many research papers pay attention to. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to customers' impulsive online purchasing intentions when using cashback and rewards applications (apps) in Ho Chi Minh City. Using the theory of behavioral intention (TRA, TPB, TAM, UTAUT 1,2) of Ajzen and Fishbein (1975, 1980), Ajzen (1985, 1991), Davis (1989) and Venkatesh, Thong and Xu (2012), and the Motivation Model - MM of Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw (1992) as the foundation for proposing a research model, this research was conducted. Thus, six factors influence consumers' online purchasing intentions via cashback and rewards apps: Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Convenience Social Influence, Price Value, Trust, and Perceived Enjoyment. These factors are considered under two aspects: extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Official quantitative research conducted in Ho Chi Minh City surveyed 220 consumers. According to Cronbach's Alpha, EFA factor analysis, and regression correlation, the six factors that suggest studying consumers' online shopping intentions via cashback and rewards apps in Ho Chi Minh City in the same direction are Price Value, Social Influence, Trust, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Convenience, and Perceived Enjoyment, in order of strength. In general, when factors are classified as intrinsic or extrinsic motivations, research indicates that extrinsic motivations have a greater influence on users' intention for using. Additionally, the research reveals no differences in online shopping intention via cashback and rewards apps based on income or age, but did discover differences based on gender. Since then, proposing some governance implications for Vietnamese online shopping businesses in order to provide solutions for future sales growth. As a result, the company may consider segmenting its users according to gender in order to prioritize the creation of extrinsic influences in addition to intrinsic motivational stimuli. It will effectively promote customers' consumption behavior.

16.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):430-434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994246

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in March 2022 and the risk of importation.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9746, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994203

ABSTRACT

With fast-growing aviation markets, many developing countries are showing remarkable economic development in global terms. As significant growth of air transportation is crucially interrelated with regional growth, it is essential to identify relevant criteria to ensure effective allocation of investments in this regard. This study aimed to investigate airport centrality using social network analysis to detect the key hubs and examine the interrelationship between airport centrality and regional economy indicators in Vietnamese regions. The results revealed that the cities of Tan Son Nhat, Noi Bai, and Da Nang were the key regional hub airports in the air transport network and the development of these leading cities had played a significant role in promoting the improvement of the entire domestic air network. Moreover, the results showed a strong positive correlation between airport centrality and regional growth features. Therefore, policymakers can optimize their decision-making processes in relation to sustainable regional development by considering air transport mobility and network in addition to conventional socioeconomic criteria.

18.
Journal of Territorial and Maritime Studies ; 9(2):65-82, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993712

ABSTRACT

Article Type: Research Paper Purpose-The intensification in the South China Sea (SCS) evolved through time concentrating on assertions of sovereignty by the multiplicity of claimants, increasing of competition over maritime resources and worsening geopolitical rivalries among great powers. The Asia- Pacific and Indian Ocean regions are amongst the most dynamic in the world as well as centers of economic growth for decades. Southeast Asia lies in the center of these dynamic regions and is a very important conduit and portal to the same. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has placed the promotion of regional peace and security at the forefront of its endeavors and had taken a proactive approach in evolving a comprehensive regional security architecture by building ASEAN- centric regional security frameworks, namely ASEAN Outlook on the Indo- Pacific, which undertake cooperation in a broad range of areas, including maritime cooperation as well as the ASEAN Regional Forum and the Code of Conduct (COC). The existing and arising geopolitical challenges facing countries in the region revolve around maritime issues. Methodology, Approach-This research employs a doctrinal approach and draws data from primary and secondary sources, including desktop research, with a particular emphasis on recent journals, documents, and official reports. Findings-Despite the efforts made by ASEAN to balance the influence of great powers, its individual member states crafttheir own diplomatic relations according to their economic needs and development. Analysis is on the ASEAN intergovernmental policies and mechanisms, as well as the complexity of geopolitical interest in the South China Sea Dispute. As ASEAN Framework has very weak foundations, it is crucial for ASEAN to focus on the implementation of COC and multilateralism to strengthen its ability to shape regional security dynamic. ASEAN already possesses the mechanisms;all that remains is to endow it with significant implementation powers. Practical Implications-Useful for under- and post- graduate students in writing a literature review. This paper analyses the scholarly and theoretical impact in international law and international relations. Originality, Value-This article analyses the ASEAN mechanism in addressing the maritime dispute in the SCS arising from the shiftof geopolitics in the Indo- Pacific region and is relevant to the contribution of dispute resolution to the current South China Sea conflict.

19.
International Journal of eBusiness and eGovernment Studies ; 14(2):35-56, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989005

ABSTRACT

The application of information technology in the actions of state agencies toward the creation of e-government is an inevitable trend and a popular model in many nations;constructing e-government has become a crucial undertaking, particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic. As the top objective of any government, e-government enables individuals to engage, obtain government services, boost transparency, decrease expenses, and enhance operational efficiency. This article suggests an e-Government Architecture Framework produced by Vietnam’s National Foundation for Science and Technology Development, a government agency. This framework was developed as a research framework to expand in developing countries to improve their capacity to connect, integrate, share, and reuse information deployed at these agencies and the National Systems (National Document Unified Axis System and National Government Service Platform) and national data databases (National Database on Business Registration;National Land Database and National Database on Population). The proposed framework will increase the adaptability of the procedure for building and deploying information systems and components under local requirements. © 2022

20.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-341894

ABSTRACT

In evaluating surveys conducted in Thailand and Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic, we find that the marginal propensity to consume is significantly larger for positive than for negative income shocks. This result contradicts a prediction from the lifecycle permanent income model with borrowing constraints as well as empirical evidence from industrialized countries. However, our finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky’s prospect theory, according to which the combination of income uncertainty and loss aversion can induce households to react more strongly to positive than to negative shocks.

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