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1.
Clin Chim Acta ; 532: 181-187, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that primarily causes respiratory disease; however, infection of other tissue has been reported. Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in tissue specimens may increase understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was developed and validated using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which has a lower limit of detection than reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR. After extraction of total RNA from unstained FFPE tissue, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N1, N2) target sequences were amplified and quantified, along with human RPP30 as a control using the Bio-Rad SARS-CoV-2 ddPCR kit. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all 21 known positive samples and none of the 16 negative samples. As few as approximately 5 viral copies were reliably detected. Since January 2021, many tissue types have been clinically tested. Of the 195 clinical specimens, the positivity rate was 35% with placenta and fetal tissue showing the highest percentage of positive cases. CONCLUSION: This sensitive FFPE-based assay has broad clinical utility with applications as diverse as pregnancy loss and evaluation of liver transplant rejection. This assay will aid in understanding atypical presentations of COVID-19 as well as long-term sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Formaldehyde , Humans , Paraffin Embedding , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966062

ABSTRACT

Mammalian chromosomes undergo varying degrees of compression to form three-dimensional genome structures. These three-dimensional structures undergo dynamic and precise chromatin interactions to achieve precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Most eukaryotic DNA viruses can invade their genomes into the nucleus. However, it is still poorly understood how the viral genome is precisely positioned after entering the host cell nucleus to find the most suitable location and whether it can specifically interact with the host genome to hijack the host transcriptional factories or even integrate into the host genome to complete its transcription and replication rapidly. Chromosome conformation capture technology can reveal long-range chromatin interactions between different chromosomal sites in the nucleus, potentially providing a reference for viral DNA-host chromatin interactions. This review summarized the research progress on the three-dimensional interaction between virus and host genome and the impact of virus integration into the host genome on gene transcription regulation, aiming to provide new insights into chromatin interaction and viral gene transcription regulation, laying the foundation for the treatment of infectious diseases.

3.
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1966069

ABSTRACT

Viral infection in cell culture and tissue is modeled with delay reaction-diffusion equations. It is shown that progression of viral infection can be characterized by the viral replication number, time-dependent viral load, and the speed of infection spreading. These three characteristics are determined through the original model parameters including the rates of cell infection and of virus production in the infected cells. The clinical manifestations of viral infection, depending on tissue damage, correlate with the speed of infection spreading, while the infectivity of a respiratory infection depends on the viral load in the upper respiratory tract. Parameter determination from the experiments on Delta and Omicron variants allows the estimation of the infection spreading speed and viral load. Different variants of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are compared confirming that Omicron is more infectious and has less severe symptoms than Delta variant. Within the same variant, spreading speed (symptoms) correlates with viral load allowing prognosis of disease progression.

4.
Thorax ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examine differences in posthospitalisation outcomes, and health system resource use, for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 during the UK's first pandemic wave in 2020, and influenza during 2018 and 2019. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used routinely collected primary and secondary care data. Outcomes, measured for 90 days follow-up after discharge were length of stay in hospital, mortality, emergency readmission and primary care activity. RESULTS: The study included 5132 patients admitted to hospital as an emergency, with COVID-19 and influenza cohorts comprising 3799 and 1333 patients respectively. Patients in the COVID-19 cohort were more likely to stay in hospital longer than 10 days (OR 3.91, 95% CI 3.14 to 4.65); and more likely to die in hospital (OR 11.85, 95% CI 8.58 to 16.86) and within 90 days of discharge (OR 7.92, 95% CI 6.20 to 10.25). For those who survived, rates of emergency readmission within 90 days were comparable between COVID-19 and influenza cohorts (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.29), while primary care activity was greater among the COVID-19 cohort (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.37). CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted for COVID-19 were more likely to die, more likely to stay in hospital for over 10 days and interact more with primary care after discharge, than patients admitted for influenza. However, readmission rates were similar for both groups. These findings, while situated in the context of the first wave of COVID-19, with the associated pressures on the health system, can inform health service planning for subsequent waves of COVID-19, and show that patients with COVID-19 interact more with healthcare services as well as having poorer outcomes than those with influenza.

5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory infections are ubiquitous. The COVID-19 pandemic has refocused our attention on how morbid and potentially fatal they can be, and how host factors have an impact on the clinical course and outcomes. Due to a range of vulnerabilities, patients with sarcoidosis may be at higher risk of poor outcomes from respiratory infections. The objective of the SARCoidosis Outcomes in all respiratory Viral Infectious Diseases (SARCOVID) Study is to determine the short-term and long-term impacts of respiratory viral illnesses (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19) in sarcoidosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Up to 20 clinical sites across the USA are participating in the recruitment of 2000 patients for this observational, prospective study. To ensure that the study cohort is representative of the general population with sarcoidosis, participating sites include those dedicated to reaching under-represented minorities or patients from non-urban areas. Baseline data on demographic features, comorbidities, sarcoidosis characteristics and pre-enrolment lung function will be captured at study entry. During this 3-year study, all acute respiratory infectious events (from SARS-CoV-2 and any other respiratory pathogen) will be assessed and recorded at quarterly intervals. The level of required medical care and survival outcomes determine infection severity, and the impact of infection on quality of life measures will be recorded. Post-infection lung function and imaging results will measure the long-term impact on the trajectory of sarcoidosis. Patients will be analysed according to the clinical phenotypes of cardiac and fibrotic pulmonary sarcoidosis. Control groups include non-infected patients with sarcoidosis and patients with non-sarcoidosis interstitial lung disease. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Each site received local institutional review board approval prior to enrolling patients, with the consent process determined by local institution standards. Data will be published in a timely manner (goal <12 months) at the conclusion of the 3-year follow-up period and will be made available upon request.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation is a major factor in the development of severe Covid-19. The homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 have been implicated as mediators of tissue inflammation, but data on their regulation in SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. We thus investigated the levels of these chemokines in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Serial blood samples were obtained from patients hospitalized with Covid-19 (n = 414). Circulating CCL19 and CCL21 levels during hospitalization and three-month follow-up were analyzed. In vitro assays and analysis of RNAseq data from public repositories were performed to further explore possible regulatory mechanisms. RESULTS: A consistent increase in circulating levels of CCL19 and CCL21 was observed, with high levels correlating with disease severity measures, including respiratory failure, need for intensive care, and 60-day all-cause mortality. High levels of CCL21 at admission were associated with persisting impairment of pulmonary function at the three-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight CCL19 and CCL21 as markers of immune dysregulation in Covid-19. This may reflect aberrant regulation triggered by tissue inflammation, as observed in other chronic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Determination of the source and regulation of these chemokines and their effects on lung tissue is warranted to further clarify their role in Covid-19.

7.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 93, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960516

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, such as Omicron (B.1.1.529), continue to emerge. Assessing the impact of their potential viral properties on the probability of future transmission dominance and public health burden is fundamental in guiding ongoing COVID-19 control strategies. Methods: With an individual-based transmission model, OpenCOVID, we simulated three viral properties; infectivity, severity, and immune-evading ability, all relative to the Delta variant, to identify thresholds for Omicron's or any emerging VOC's potential future dominance, impact on public health, and risk to health systems. We further identify for which combinations of viral properties current interventions would be sufficient to control transmission. Results: We show that, with first-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and limited physical distancing in place, a VOC's potential future dominance is primarily driven by its infectivity, which does not always lead to an increased public health burden. However, we also show that highly immune-evading variants that become dominant, even in the case of reduced variant severity, would likely require alternative measures to avoid strain on health systems, such as strengthened physical distancing measures, novel treatments, and second-generation vaccines. Expanded vaccination, that includes a booster dose for adults and child vaccination strategies, is projected to have the biggest public health benefit for a highly infective, highly severe VOC with low immune-evading capacity. Conclusions: These findings provide quantitative guidance to decision-makers at a critical time while Omicron's properties are being assessed and preparedness for emerging VOCs is eminent. We emphasise the importance of both genomic and population epidemiological surveillance.

8.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(6): 100652, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960088

ABSTRACT

Disease recovery dynamics are often difficult to assess, as patients display heterogeneous recovery courses. To model recovery dynamics, exemplified by severe COVID-19, we apply a computational scheme on longitudinally sampled blood transcriptomes, generating recovery states, which we then link to cellular and molecular mechanisms, presenting a framework for studying the kinetics of recovery compared with non-recovery over time and long-term effects of the disease. Specifically, a decrease in mature neutrophils is the strongest cellular effect during recovery, with direct implications on disease outcome. Furthermore, we present strong indications for global regulatory changes in gene programs, decoupled from cell compositional changes, including an early rise in T cell activation and differentiation, resulting in immune rebalancing between interferon and NF-κB activity and restoration of cell homeostasis. Overall, we present a clinically relevant computational framework for modeling disease recovery, paving the way for future studies of the recovery dynamics in other diseases and tissues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/genetics , Neutrophils/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Pharmacol Ther ; 237: 108249, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956290

ABSTRACT

Fine control over chloride homeostasis in the lung is required to maintain membrane excitability, transepithelial transport as well as intra- and extracellular ion and water homeostasis. Over the last decades, a growing number of chloride channels and transporters have been identified in the cells of the pulmonary vasculature and the respiratory tract. The importance of these proteins is underpinned by the fact that impairment of their physiological function is associated with functional dysregulation, structural remodeling, or hereditary diseases of the lung. This paper reviews the field of chloride channels and transporters in the lung and discusses chloride channels in disease processes such as viral infections including SARS-CoV- 2, pulmonary arterial hypertension and cystic fibrosis. Although chloride channels have become a hot research topic in recent years, remarkably few of them have been targeted by pharmacological agents. As such, we complement the putative pathophysiological role of chloride channels here with a summary of their therapeutic potential.

10.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 53, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947555

ABSTRACT

Background: The adaptive immune responses of COVID-19 patients contributes to virus clearance, restoration of health and protection from re-infection. The patterns of and the associated characteristics with longitudinal neutralising antibody (NAb) response following SARS-CoV-2 infection are important in their potential association with the population risks of re-infection. Methods: This is a longitudinal study with blood samples and clinical data collected in adults aged 18 or above following diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. NAb levels were measured by the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralisation test (sVNT). Anonymous clinical and laboratory data were matched with surveillance data for each subject for enabling analyses and applying latent class mixed models for trajectory delineation. Logistic regression models were performed to compare the characteristics between the identified classes. Results: In 2020-2021, 368 convalescent patients in Hong Kong are tested for NAb. Their seroconversion occur within 3 months in 97% symptomatic patients, the level of which are maintained at 97% after 9 months. The NAb trajectories of 200 symptomatic patients are classified by the initial response and subsequent trend into high-persistent and waning classes in latent class mixed models. High-persistent (15.5%) class patients are older and most have chronic illnesses. Waning class patients (84.5%) are largely young adults who are mildly symptomatic including 2 who serorevert after 10 months. Conclusions: Characteristic sub-class variabilities in clinical pattern are noted especially among patients with waning NAb. The heterogeneity of the NAb trajectory patterns and their clinical association can be important for informing vaccination strategy to prevent re-infection.

11.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947547

ABSTRACT

Background: Reliable data on the adult SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality rate in Germany are still scarce. We performed a federal state-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence study named SaarCoPS, that is representative for the adult population including elderly individuals and nursing home residents in the Saarland. Methods: Serum was collected from 2940 adults via stationary or mobile teams during the 1st pandemic wave steady state period. We selected an antibody test system with maximal specificity, also excluding seroreversion effects due to a high longitudinal test performance. For the calculations of infection and fatality rates, we accounted for the delays of seroconversion and death after infection. Results: Using a highly specific total antibody test detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses over more than 180 days, we estimate an adult infection rate of 1.02% (95% CI: [0.64; 1.44]), an underreporting rate of 2.68-fold (95% CI: [1.68; 3.79]) and infection fatality rates of 2.09% (95% CI: (1.48; 3.32]) or 0.36% (95% CI: [0.25; 0.59]) in all adults including elderly individuals, or adults younger than 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of study design and test performance for seroprevalence studies, particularly when seroprevalences are low. Our results provide a valuable baseline for evaluation of future pandemic dynamics and impact of public health measures on virus spread and human health in comparison to neighbouring countries such as Luxembourg or France.

12.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6148-6169, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935724

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses or cytokine storm associated with viral infections results in deleterious consequences such as vascular leakage, severe hemorrhage, shock, immune paralysis, multi-organ failure, and even death. With the emerging new viral infections and lack of effective prophylactic vaccines, evidence-based complementary strategies that limit viral infection-mediated hyperinflammatory responses could be a promising approach to limit host tissue injury. The present review emphasizes the potentials of antiinflammatory phytochemicals in limiting hyperinflammatory injury caused by viral infections. The predominant phytochemicals along with their mechanism in limiting hyperimmune and pro-inflammatory responses under viral infection have been reviewed comprehensively. How certain phytochemicals can be effective in limiting hyper-inflammatory response indirectly by favorably modulating gut microbiota and maintaining a functional intestinal barrier has also been presented. Finally, we have discussed improved systemic bioavailability of phytochemicals, efficient delivery strategies, and safety measures for effective antiinflammatory phytotherapies, in addition to emphasizing the requirement of tightly controlled clinical studies to establish the antiinflammatory efficacy of the phytochemicals. Collectively, the review provides a scooping overview on the potentials of bioactive phytochemicals to mitigate pro-inflammatory injury associated with viral infections.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Virus Diseases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Intestines , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Cells ; 11(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938703

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections with newly emerging zoonotic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, often lead to the perturbation of the human innate and adaptive immune responses causing severe disease with high mortality. The responsible mechanisms are commonly virus-specific and often include either over-activated or delayed local interferon responses, which facilitate efficient viral replication in the primary target organ, systemic viral spread, and rapid onset of organ-specific and harmful inflammatory responses. Despite the distinct replication strategies, human infections with SARS-CoV-2 and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses demonstrate remarkable similarities and differences regarding the mechanisms of immune induction, disease dynamics, as well as the long-term sequelae, which will be discussed in this review. In addition, we will highlight some important lessons about the effectiveness of antiviral and immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies that this pandemic has taught us.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(12): 712, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939531

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: DEAD-box protein (DDX)5 plays important roles in multiple aspects of cellular processes that require modulating RNA structure. Alongside the canonical role of DDX5 in RNA metabolism, many reports have shown that DDX5 influences viral infection by directly interacting with viral proteins. However, the functional role of DDX5 in virus-associated cancers, as well as the identity of DDX5 in virus infection-associated signaling pathways, has remained largely unexplained. Here, we further explore the precise functions of DDX5 and its potential targets for antiviral treatment. Methods: We searched the PubMed and PMC databases to identify studies on role of DDXs, especially DDX5, during various viral infection published up to May 2022. Key Content and Findings: DDX5 functions as both a viral infection helper and inhibitor, which depends on virus type. DDXs proteins have been identified to play roles on multiple aspects covering RNA metabolism and function. Conclusions: DDX5 influences viral pathogenesis by participating in viral replication and multiple viral infection-related signaling pathways, it also plays a double-edge sword role under different viral infection conditions. Deep investigation into the mechanism of DDX5 modulating immune response in host cells revealed that it holds highly potential usage for future antiviral therapy. We reviewed current studies to provide a comprehensive update of the role of DDX5 in viral infection.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934119

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with cutaneous and systemic manifestations. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune dysfunction all contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis with host-microbe interaction governing the progression of this disease. Emerging evidence has indicated that infection is an environmental trigger for psoriasis and plays multiple roles in its maintenance as evidenced by the frequent association between guttate psoriasis onset and acute streptococcal infection. Different infectious factors act on immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines that can induce or aggravate psoriasis. In addition to bacterial infections, viral and fungal infections have also been shown to be strongly associated with the onset or exacerbation of psoriasis. Intervention of skin microbiota to treat psoriasis has become a hot research topic. In this review, we summarize the effects of different infectious factors (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) on psoriasis, thereby providing insights into the manipulation of pathogens to allow for the identification of improved therapeutic options for the treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Immune System Diseases , Psoriasis , Streptococcal Infections , Humans , Immune System Diseases/complications , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus
17.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 85, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931498

ABSTRACT

Background: While evaluating COVID-19 vaccine responses using a rapid neutralizing antibody (NAb) test, we observed that 25% of mRNA vaccine recipients did not neutralize >50%. We termed this group "vaccine poor responders" (VPRs). The objective of this study was to determine if individuals who neutralized <50% would remain VPRs, or if a third dose would elicit high levels of NAbs. Methods: 269 healthy individuals ranging in age from 19 to 80 (Average age = 51; 165 females and 104 males) who received either BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines were evaluated. NAb levels were measured: (i) 2-4 weeks after a second vaccine dose, (ii) 2-4 months after the second dose, (iii) within 1-2 weeks prior to a third dose and (iv) 2-4 weeks after a third mRNA vaccine dose. Results: Analysis of vaccine recipients reveals that 25% did not neutralize above 50% (Median neutralization = 21%, titers <1:80) within a month after their second dose. Twenty-three of these VPRs obtained a third dose of either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine 1-8 months (average = 5 months) after their second dose. Within a month after their third dose, VPRs show an average 5.4-fold increase in NAb levels (range: 46-99%). Conclusions: The results suggest that VPRs are not permanently poor responders; they can generate high NAb levels with an additional vaccine dose. Although it is not known what levels of NAbs protect from infection or disease, those in high-risk professions may wish to keep peripheral NAb levels high, limiting infection, and potential transmission.

19.
Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology ; 11(1):23-31, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1925068

ABSTRACT

Background: Scientists believe that the new coronavirus causing COVID-19 is airborne. It has been approved that wearing masks and hand washing prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the association between wearing facemasks, hand washing, and COVID-19 contraction in the population of Tabriz, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this analytical study, necessary information was collected via four online multi-optional questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, the COVID-19 virus, mask-wearing behaviors, and hand hygiene habits among 360 individuals (120 cases and 240 controls). Based on data normality, quantitative variables were reported as mean ± standard deviation or the median (min-max). In addition, the relationship between qualitative variables was evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test, and correlations were assessed by the Spearman's test. Results: Elderly individuals and their care seekers had fewer potentials for exposure to COVID-19 (p = 0.010), but healthcare workers were at a higher risk of contracting the virus than other occupations (p = 0.002). In addition, smokers were at a lower risk of the disease than other healthy people (p = 0.009). Furthermore, the incidence of COVID-19 was significantly higher among individuals not wearing facemasks than others (p = 0.007). Conclusions: we concluded that wearing a facemask was more effective than hand washing and antiseptics in preventing the incidence of COVID-19 contraction;thus, people not wearing facemasks were at a higher risk of the viral infection. © The Author(s) 2022;All rights reserved. Published by Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences Press.

20.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923822

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the greatest pandemic of this era and has affected more than 10 million people across 213 nations. However, the etiology, management, and treatment of COVID-19 remain unknown. A better understanding of the novel virus would help in developing accurate diagnostic methods and efficacious drugs for the treatment of patients of all age groups. To control the pandemic urgently, many drugs are being repurposed and several clinical trials are in progress for the same. As cytokine storm has been observed to be one of the common mechanisms of immune response in COVID-19 patients, several drugs are under trials to control the cytokine storm. In this review, we discuss the different categories of drugs in clinical trials for the management of cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients. Hitherto, several promising candidates such as IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors have failed to display efficacy in the trials. Only corticosteroid therapy has shown benefit so far, albeit limited to patients on ventilator support. Thus, it is crucial to seek novel strategies to combat hyperinflammation and increase survival in COVID-19 afflicted patients.

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