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1.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097119

ABSTRACT

In efforts to prevent the spread of COVID-19, jurisdictions across the globe, including Canada, enacted containment measures that affected intimacy and sexual relations. This article examines how public health measures during COVID-19 impacted the sexual practices of sexual minority men- gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men-and how they adopted and modified guidelines to prevent the transmission of COVID-19, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted 93 semi-structured interviews with men (n = 93) in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, between November 2020 to February 2021 (n = 42) and June to October 2021 (n = 51). Across jurisdictions, participants reported changes to sexual practices in response to public health measures and shifting pandemic contexts. Many men indicated that they applied their HIV/STI risk mitigation experiences and adapted COVID-19 prevention strategies to continue engaging in casual sexual behaviours and ensure sexual safety. 'Social bubbles' were changed to 'sex bubbles'. Masks were turned into 'safer' sex tools. 'Outdoor gathering' and 'physical distancing' were transformed into 'outdoor sex' and 'voyeuristic masturbation'. These strategies are examined in connection to the notion of 'reflexive mediation' to illustrate how sexual minority men are simultaneously self-responsibilising and resistant, self-monitoring and creative.

2.
J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096154

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has been overwhelming the healthcare system worldwide. A rapidly growing number of younger pediatric patients in Thailand necessitated the formulation of favipiravir, the most locally accessible antiviral agent against COVID-19, into a child-friendly dosage form as a safer alternative to a dispersion of crushed tablets in simple syrup. While striving to quickly develop a liquid formulation that is feasible for any local hospital production units, an oral solution was chosen due to its simplicity. Despite the large dose and poor aqueous solubility of favipiravir, a combination of pH control and use of poloxamer as a solubilizing agent has enabled us to streamline the manufacturing process of a 200 mg/15 mL oral solution for hospital compounding. To ensure its efficacy and safety, a specification for quality control was also established in accordance with the ICH quality guidelines and USP. The finished product stability was subsequently demonstrated under the conditions of 5°C ± 3°C, 25°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH, 30°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH, and 40°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH. The results indicated that our formulation can be stored at 30°C ± 2°C/75% RH for 30 days, which will very well serve the need to allow drug distribution and patient use during the crisis, while the shelf-life can be extended to 60 days when stored at 5°C ± 3°C. Thus, accessibility to an essential medical treatment has been successfully enhanced for pediatric patients in Thailand and neighboring countries during the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Front Reprod Health ; 4: 967770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089952

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has temporarily disrupted access to clinic-based sexual health care for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands. The importance of home-based sexual health care has been underpinned as an extension of clinic-based care. This paper aims to assess intention to use, and acceptability of home-based sexual health care among MSM who previously attended clinic-based sexual health care. In November 2020, 424 MSM who had attended an STI clinic pre-pandemic were invited to participate in an online survey; 154 MSM completed the survey (response 36%). Intention to use self-sampling STI/HIV tests was assessed (median; scale 0-100) and compared across sociodemographic and sexual behavior characteristics by Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Descriptive analyses provided insights in acceptability of home-based sexual health care. Of participants (median age 47), 60.4% (93/154) tested for STI/HIV in the past 6 months, most of them attended a clinic. The median score on intention to use self-sampling tests was 86.5 (SD = 33.4) and did not differ by sociodemographic or sexual behavioral characteristics (all p-values > 0.1). Participants were positive toward online sexual health counseling (median attitude = 75.0, SD = 29.6) and their main preferred topics were PrEP use and STI/HIV testing. MSM who attended clinic-based care expressed intention to use self-sampling tests and a positive attitude toward online sexual health counseling. Home-based sexual health care elements are not currently integrated within Dutch clinic-based sexual health care and should be considered an addition for continued provision of care and extended reach of MSM.

4.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(11): 100714, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086833

ABSTRACT

Background: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used for decades, but only caused allergic reactions exceptionally. Introduction of PEG-containing COVID-19 vaccines might have fostered public interest beyond medical reasoning. Objectives: To investigate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the public interest in PEG allergy in Germany and the published PEG allergy cases worldwide. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to measure public interest in PEG allergy analyzing Google search volume in Germany from February 2018 to January 2022. Medically confirmed "PEG allergy" cases were analyzed by looking at the numbers of PubMed case reports and case series from 1977 until January 2022. Results: Web results in Germany before COVID-19 show search volumes related to "PEG allergy/testing" was negligible, with 10 search queries per month. The pandemic led to a >200-fold increase from 250 queries 2 years before to 55 720 queries 2 years thereafter, reflecting tremendous public interest. Additionally, the maximum monthly search volume from before to during the pandemic increased immensely for "vaccination" (57-fold), "vaccination and adverse effects" (85-fold), "vaccination and allergy" (71-fold). In contrast, the increase of publication numbers for the search term "PEG allergy" was small from 2019 to 2021 (2.5-fold). Only a very low number of 211 cases with "PEG allergy" worldwide since 1977 could be identified. Conclusion: PEG allergy became a topic of major public interest because of COVID-19 vaccination. Scientific publications have increased to a lesser extent, probably promoted by public awareness. Conversely, the overall number of cases published with PEG allergy remain very low. The current high demand for COVID-19 vaccination allergy testing is triggered by public interest instead of medical reasoning.

6.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754795
7.
Canadian Liver Journal ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082440

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 204,000 Canadians. Safe and effective direct-acting antiviral therapies have contributed to decreased rates of chronic HCV infection and increased treatment uptake in Canada, but major challenges for HCV elimination remain. The 11th Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus took place in Ottawa, Ontario on May 13, 2022 as a hybrid conference themed 'Getting back on track towards hepatitis C elimination.' It brought together research scientists, clinicians, community health workers, patient advocates, community members, and public health officials to discuss priorities for HCV elimination in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which had devastating effects on HCV care in Canada, particularly on priority populations. Plenary sessions showcased topical research from prominent international and national researchers, complemented by select presentations. This event was hosted by the Canadian Network on Hepatitis C (CanHepC), with support from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and in partnership with the Canadian Liver Meeting. CanHepC has an established record in HCV research and in advocacy activities to address improved diagnosis and treatment, and immediate and long-term needs of those affected by HCV infection. The Symposium addressed the remaining challenges and barriers to HCV elimination in priority populations and principles for meaningful engagement of Indigenous communities and individuals with living and lived experience in HCV research. It emphasized the need for disaggregated data and simplified pathways for creating and monitoring interventions for equitably achieving elimination targets.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 959227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080289

ABSTRACT

The development and administration of COVID-19 vaccines has been an essential element in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, countries worldwide have faced challenges in planning and implementing vaccination strategies. The aim of the current paper is to describe the situation faced by small countries in the WHO European Region in implementing their national vaccination strategies during the first stages of the planned roll-out (up to May 2021). This paper uses information from the WHO Small Countries Initiative (SCI), which includes a network of 11 countries with populations of ≤ 2 million (Andorra, Cyprus, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, and Slovenia). The SCI countries faced many challenges including: a lack of appropriate vaccination centers, adequate workforce, and registration/booking systems to cope with the unprecedented vaccine storage and administration demands; difficulties for high-risk groups (e.g., older individuals and those with health problems or cognitive impairment) to access vaccination sites or use digital registration/booking systems; vaccine wastage due to canceled appointments; and inequalities in vaccine uptake. Innovative programmatic interventions were implemented to facilitate the vaccination uptake of the populations such as: the creation of non-medical vaccination sites and mobile vaccination units; on-site vaccination of people in long-term residential facilities and long-term medical wards; diversifying health workforce like redeployment of healthcare professionals and use of medical students and retired medical professionals; campaigns with clear information to the general public (in multiple languages where necessary) both offline and online; use of digital registration/booking systems and alternative (non-digital) registration/booking systems for relevant individuals; and administration of excess vaccine doses to non-priority groups to avoid wastage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Vaccination , World Health Organization
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 990055, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080276

ABSTRACT

Background: Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) is an effective sampling strategy to recruit hard-to-reach populations but the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of this strategy in the collection of data involving human subjects, particularly among marginalized and vulnerable populations, is not known. Based on an ongoing study using RDS to recruit and study the interactions between HIV infection, injection drug use, and the microbiome in Puerto Rico, this paper explores the effectiveness of RDS during the pandemic and provided potential strategies that could improve recruitment and data collection. Results: RDS was employed to evaluate its effectiveness in recruiting a group of people who inject drugs (PWID) and controls (N = 127) into a study in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were distributed among three subsets: 15 were HIV+ and PWID, 58 were HIV- PWID, and 54 were HIV+ and not PWID. Findings: Results show that recruitment through peer networks using RDS was possible across all sub-groups. Yet, while those in the HIV+ PWID sub-group managed to recruit from other-sub groups of HIV- PWID and HIV+, this occurred at a lower frequency. Conclusion: Despite the barriers introduced by COVID-19, it is clear that even in this environment, RDS continues to play a powerful role in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Yet, more attention should be paid at how future pandemics, natural disasters, and other big events might affect RDS recruitment of vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations.

10.
Int J Drug Policy ; 110: 103873, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify missed opportunities for healthcare providers to discuss HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Participants were 395 HIV-negative PWID recruited for the 2018 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey in San Francisco, California via respondent-driven sampling. Adjusted logistic regression tested whether discussing PrEP with a provider in the last year was associated with sociodemographic characteristics, structural factors, and accessing HIV/STI and substance use treatment services. RESULTS: Most PWID (86.3%) reported seeing a healthcare provider, but only 15.0% of these reported discussing PrEP with a healthcare provider. PWID who were sexual minority men had greater odds of having a discussion about PrEP with a healthcare provider than PWID who were heterosexual men (aOR=3.42, 95% CI=1.21-9.73) or heterosexual women (aOR=3.69, 95% CI=1.08-12.62). Additionally, factors associated with discussing PrEP included: being tested for HIV (aOR=4.29, 95% CI=1.21-15.29), having a healthcare provider recommend HIV testing (aOR=2.95, 95% CI=1.23-7.06), and receiving free condoms from a prevention program (aOR=5.45, 95% CI=1.78-16.65). CONCLUSIONS: In the face of low PrEP uptake, continuing HIV transmission, and many missed opportunities to discussed PrEP (e.g., PWID who are women, substance use treatment services), these findings from San Francisco indicate that healthcare providers and public health efforts need to systematically offer PrEP to PWID. Additional research may clarify missed opportunities in other locations as well as the impact of COVID-19.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 109622, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076056

ABSTRACT

People living with (PLWH) and at risk for HIV and people who use drugs (PWUD) are at heightened risk for health consequences of COVID-19 because of compromised immunity and high comorbidities. We studied their use of COVID-19 testing during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Eight NIDA funded cohorts across North America in the Collaborating Consortium of Cohorts Producing NIDA Opportunities (C3PNO) administered multiple waves of a COVID-19 survey. Respondents were at least 18 years of age, half PLWH, and many active substance users. Wave one of the COVID-19 survey was May-November, 2020 and wave two October 2020-April 2021. Associations of COVID-19 testing with demographics, socio-demographics, substance use, and HIV-status were assessed. Of the 3762 responses from 2331 individuals, half reported ever COVID-19 testing (49.1 %), with 4.3 % reporting a positive test (163/3762 surveys=4.3 %) and 41.5 % of people reporting current symptoms reported having been tested. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, and cohort type associations with COVID-19 testing included African American/Black identification compared to Caucasian/white (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 0.68; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 0.88); being unemployed (AOR=0.61; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.73), and living with HIV (AOR=0.76; 95 % CI0.65, 0.90). Findings from these C3PNO COVID-19 modules suggests that in the first year of the pandemic COVID-19 testing was not broadly accessed by these marginalized populations including PLWH and those unemployed. Factors associated with not testing may also parallel those for vaccination and identify populations needing better access to COVID-19 prevention.

12.
Asian Journal of Law and Society ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069831

ABSTRACT

Taiwan's record of preventing infections and deaths from COVID-19 outshines that of almost every other nation, far outstripping the performance of the US, all European countries, and almost all Asian countries. Yet Taiwan is the nation closest to Wuhan, font of the pandemic. Equally importantly, Taiwan's public health achievement has occurred without the government dictates such as business and residential lockdowns that have aroused controversy and caused economic and psychological distress around the globe. This essay relates the story of Taiwan's actions during the crucial early months of 2020 and explores the factors-historical, geographical, legal, institutional, strategic, and cultural-accounting for Taiwan's remarkable success. Prominent among those factors are the legal and institutional infrastructure of preparedness that Taiwan constructed following its unhappy experience with the 2003 SARS outbreak, and the prompt and decisive measures taken upon discovery of the Wuhan outbreak on 31 December 2019. A dialogue between the judiciary and the legislative and executive branches of government following the SARS episode enabled the infrastructure of preparedness to be created through a process consonant with democratic government, respecting principles of individual liberty and fairness. Risk communication techniques were skilfully employed to build public trust in expert advice about measures for infection prevention. Persuasion, not compulsion, was the norm. Cultural factors including customary acceptance of mask-wearing and authoritative advice, and perhaps a high level of risk-aversity, also played an important part. Taiwan's pandemic control policies have drawn criticism of government overreach. Some recommendations, such as for outdoor masking, bear little rational relation to infection prevention and are best characterized as mere "hygiene theatre." Nevertheless, early-2020 government measures received a high level of public approval. Taiwan's successful response to the pandemic illustrates the nation's nature: a disciplined democracy.

13.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100329, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069607

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 is a global health concern due to its rapid spread and impact on morbidity and mortality. Implementing preventive measures plays an essential role in curbing the spread of COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to assess COVID-19 preventive practice and associated factors in Ethiopia. Study design: This study was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Methods: Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, EMBASE, African Journal Online (AJOL) and Science Direct search engines were used to identify relevant articles published up to early December 2021. The Joana Brigg's Institute (JBI) checklist was used for quality appraisal. A random-effect model was fitted to calculate the pooled estimates. Higgins I2 statistics and Egger's test with funnel plots were analysed to check heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. Due to significant heterogeneity, subgroup analysis by region, study population, study design and publication year, as well as sensitivity analysis, were done to assess the source of heterogeneity. Results: The pooled level of poor preventive practice for COVID-19 in Ethiopia was 51.60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.30-62.90). Poor COVID-19 preventive practice declined from 61% in studies published in 2020 to 45% in 2021. Lack of knowledge about COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.61 [95% CI: 2.49-10.73]), a negative attitude towards COVID-19 management (AOR = 2.64 [95% CI: 1.82-3.82]), rural residence (AOR = 2.95 [95% CI: 2.12-4.12]), a low educational level (AOR = 2.93 [95% CI: 2.16-3.98]) and being female (AOR = 1.75 [95% CI: 1.27-2.40]) were significantly associated with a poor level of COVID-19 preventive practice in Ethiopia. Conclusions: The level of poor COVID-19 preventive practice in Ethiopia was relatively high. Poor COVID-19 prevention practices were significantly correlated with inadequate COVID-19 knowledge, a negative attitude towards COVID-19 management, low educational attainment, living in a rural area and being female. Creating awareness and health education programmes targeting COVID-19 prevention should be strengthened, especially in the target populations identified in this study.

14.
Materials Today: Proceedings ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069467

ABSTRACT

The need and demand of electrical and electronic devices are ever-increasing, as human beings are headed toward modernization and digitization. This step towards the future has its pros and cons, the pros being the advancement of technology and hence saving of human efforts, and the cons being the reduction of physical activities in humans, increase in E-waste and E-pollution, and also considerable damaging effects on the environment and biodiversity. This paper aims to review the detrimental effects of the increase in E-waste and E-pollution, on human beings;be it physical or psychological, and on the ecosystem. Engineering being one of the most widely applied branches, should also try to do its part in making itself sustainable and also trying to be prudent about future generations. This increase in E pollution has caused an indirect increase in plastic and the use of non-biodegradable materials. Recent studies have shown that 80% of E-waste collected from developed countries is exported to developing nations and only 12.5% of electronic waste is being recycled nowadays, the improper disposal of which has, in turn, caused exposure of life and nature to harmful contaminants. In this paper two observers have studied: the possible side effects of E-waste and E-pollution on humans, being exposed to electronics for prolonged durations, and also the side effects of it on nature. The world is in dire need of a solution for the same;educating consumers and users about these damaging consequences can be our first step towards sustainability.

16.
Int J Drug Policy ; 110: 103894, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted supervised consumption site (SCS) operations in Montréal, Canada, potentially including changes in SCS visits, on-site emergency interventions, injection of specific drugs, and distribution of harm reduction materials. METHOD: We used administrative data from all four Montréal SCS from 1 March 2018 - 28 February 2021 to conduct an interrupted time series study with 13 March 2020 as the intervention point. We employed segmented regression using generalised least squares fit by maximum likelihood. We analysed monthly SCS visits and materials distributed as counts, and emergency interventions and drugs injected as proportions of visits. RESULTS: SCS visits (level change = -1,286; 95% CI [-1,642, -931]) and the proportion of visits requiring emergency intervention (level = -0.27% [-0.47%, -0.06%]) decreased immediately in March 2020, followed by an increasing trend in emergency interventions (slope change = 0.12% [0.10%, 0.14%]) over the ensuing 12 months. Over the same period, the proportion of injections involving opioids increased (slope = 0.05% [0.03%, 0.07%]), driven by increasing pharmaceutical opioid and novel synthetic opioid injections. Novel synthetic opioids were the drugs most often injected prior to overdose. The proportion of injections involving unregulated amphetamines increased immediately (level = 7.83% [2.93%, 12.73%]), then decreased over the next 12 months (slope = -1.86% [-2.51%, -1.21%]). There was an immediate increase in needle/syringe distribution (level = 16,552.81 [2,373, 30,732]), followed by a decreasing trend (slope = -2,398 [-4,218, -578]). There were no changes in pre-existing increasing trends in naloxone or fentanyl test strip distribution. CONCLUSION: Reduced SCS use and increasing emergency interventions at SCS are cause for serious concern. Findings suggest increased availability of novel synthetic opioids in Montréal, heightening overdose risk.

17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 110: 103889, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have likely borne disproportionate health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. PWID experienced both interruptions and changes to drug supply and delivery modes of harm reduction, treatment, and other medical services, leading to potentially increased risks for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and overdose. Given surveillance and research disruptions, proximal, indirect indicators of infectious diseases and overdose should be developed for timely measurement of health effects of the pandemic on PWID. METHODS: We used group concept mapping and a systems thinking approach to produce an expert stakeholder-generated, multi-level framework for monitoring changes in PWID health outcomes potentially attributable to COVID-19 in the U.S. This socio-ecological measurement framework elucidates proximal and distal contributors to infectious disease and overdose outcomes, many of which can be measured using existing data sources. RESULTS: The framework includes multi-level components including policy considerations, drug supply/distribution systems, the service delivery landscape, network factors, and individual characteristics such as mental and general health status and service utilization. These components are generally mediated by substance use and sexual behavioral factors to cause changes in incidence of HIV, HCV, sexually transmitted infections, wound/skin infections, and overdose. CONCLUSION: This measurement framework is intended to increase the quality and timeliness of research on the impacts of COVID-19 in the context of the current pandemic and future crises. Next steps include a ranking process to narrow the drivers of change in health risks to a concise set of indicators that adequately represent framework components, can be written as measurable indicators, and are quantifiable using existing data sources, as well as a publicly available web-based platform for summary data contributions.

18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2123201, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068494

ABSTRACT

Adult immunization coverage remains low in the US, particularly for people who use drugs (PWUD), a population that experiences a disproportionate burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. The extent of and characteristics associated with vaccine confidence (VC) held by PWUD is poorly understood. As VC strongly correlates with vaccine uptake, this cross-sectional study identifies mutable factors associated with VC and quantifies its relationship to immunization status within a highly vulnerable, underimmunized population of PWUD. Using a community-engaged research strategy with select partner organizations hosting syringe exchange programs in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas, USA, we surveyed participants ages 18-69 years served by these organizations from 2019 to 2020. Survey measures included sociodemographics, health behavior including immunization receipt, and vaccine confidence in adult vaccinations using a modified Emory Vaccine Confidence Index (EVCI). The findings reflect relatively low VC among the 1,127 recruited participants, with 56% expressing low VC (EVCI 0-12), 35% medium (EVCI 13-20) and 10% high (EVCI 21-24). EVCI varied by city, with lowest confidence in Atlanta and highest in Las Vegas. VC was associated with past receipt of specific vaccines, including hepatitis A, MMR, Tdap, and influenza. VC varied by specific sociodemographic correlates such as housing insecurity (reduced confidence) and receipt of public benefits or disability (increased confidence). This study identified correlates associated with VC based on site and sociodemographic characteristics for this priority population, highlighting the need for specific interventions to raise VC among PWUD, especially among those experiencing housing insecurity and without public benefits.

19.
Ymer ; 21(8):321-325, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067694

ABSTRACT

People have long been affected by epidemics and pandemics of communicable illnesses. The outbreaks have been around for thousands of years. Even in our modern day, epidemics have ravaged civilization till it leads people to despair. In the meanwhile, viruses have always offered huge difficulties that have ignited horrific epidemics and pandemics. A pandemic is the widespread spread of a new sickness. Viral respiratory diseases, such as those caused by a novel influenza virus or the coronavirus COVID-19, are the most likely to evolve into a pandemic. A pandemic is not the same as an epidemic. In an epidemic, many more cases of a health condition occur than would typically develop in a community or area, however the ailment does not move outside. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for declaring when a worldwide epidemic is underway. The WHO achieves this by monitoring outbreaks of a disease and receiving advice from worldwide health experts. This paper depicts the impact of COVID-19 in globally in various fields and also visualize the current status of this pandemic. © 2022 University of Stockholm. All rights reserved.

20.
J Biomed Phys Eng ; 12(5): 539-542, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067608

ABSTRACT

An accumulating body of evidence shows that various ethnicities are differentially affected by SARS-COV-2 infection. Moreover, some evidence shows that due to the vaccine inequity and millions of people living with HIV, a major catastrophe could occur in African countries that possibly affects the whole world. Given the possibility that Neanderthal genes confer a slight increase in susceptibility, this difference, at least to some extent, might possibly decrease the risk of the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants among black people in Africa. Recent studies show less death and fewer cases among the ethnic group classified as "Black Africans". Although Neanderthal DNA might explain some differences in morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, a multitude of confounders complicate things to where drawing definite conclusions is hard or even impossible. Using selective-pressure-free treatments (e.g. low dose radiotherapy) for COVID-19 pneumonia would be of crucial importance everywhere, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where "long COVID" in millions of people with HIV paves the road for the more frequent emergence of new variants.

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