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1.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199607

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in 2019, has far-reaching ramifications, including economic losses and health challenges that still affect various parts of the world. During our review, we learned that the entire world is working to stop the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. We explore ways that may lower the danger of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and useful strategies to avoid the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 spreading through food. While hygienic protocols are required in the food supply sector, cleaning, disinfection, and the avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories and other related goods at different stages of the manufacturing process remain especially important because the virus can survive for long periods of time on inert materials such as food packaging. Furthermore, personal hygiene (regular washing and disinfection), wearing gloves and using masks, garments, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene provide on-site safety for food sector personnel, supply chain intermediaries, and consumers. Restrictions imposed in response to the pandemic (e.g., closure of physical workplaces, canteens, cafes, restaurants, schools, and childcare institutions), changes in household grocery shopping frequency, individuals' perceived risk of COVID-19, income losses due to the pandemic, and sociodemographic factors are among the factors. The conclusions drawn from this study consider the implications of healthy diets, food system resilience, behavior change, and nutritional imbalance for policymakers and food supply chain participants, as well as the antimicrobial effects of vitamins and nutrients. During a public health crisis, people should eat less, necessitating preventive policies and nutritional advice to deal with this.

2.
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 13(12):11-16, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2198402

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing, mask, and sanitizers are advised to cut the chain of transmission of the droplet and airborne infection since the first case of COVID-19 was reported from Wuhan. Universal mask usage is advised by the center for disease control. Despite this, it is assumed that there is no adequate mask practice. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the study are as follows: (1) To assess the knowledge and practice regarding optimal mask usage in a different setting by the general community. (2) To identify the barriers for optimal mask usage as experienced by users. Materials and Methods: We did a cross-sectional study in Kerala using self-made validated questionnaire translated to Malayalam, the regional language distributed by web based Google form. The sample size was calculated as 200 with an assumption of awareness regarding mask usage among the general public to be at least 60% with a confidence interval of 95 and allowable error of 10% Knowledge was considered as high if 80–100%, moderate if 60–79% and low if 0–59%. The practice was considered as good if >75, 74–50 satisfactory and if <50, it is termed as unsatisfactory. Results: Overall knowledge regarding masks and their usage was 52. 88% which is low. Only 38% were doing satisfactory practice. There were lacunae in knowledge regarding mask reusage (39.9%), ideal masks in hospital settings (43.3%). Only 26.4% practiced optimal method of mask removal and 38.4% safe mask disposal. Major barriers for mask usage were suffocation (49.3%) and exertional dyspnea (46.9%). Conclusion: More awareness needs to be created among the public for COVID appropriate behavior with a focus on mask usage. There is a need to address the commonly observed barriers for adhering to mask practice. [ FROM AUTHOR]

3.
Bmc Infectious Diseases ; 22(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2196085

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPatients' race and ethnicity may play a role in mortality from Covid-19. Studies in China, the US, and Europe have been conducted on the predictors of Covid-19 mortality, yet in the EMR countries, such studies are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to describe the hospitalization rate, ICU-admission, and in-hospital mortality of Covid-19 and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Saudi Arabia. MethodsE-medical records were examined for all Covid-19 patients diagnosed in five tertiary hospitals affiliated with the Saudi-National Guard-Health Affairs during March 21, 2020, and September 12, 2021, based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, (n = 35,284). Data were collected on patients' characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory findings, hospitalization, ICU admission, and in-hospital and overall mortality. Logestic regressions were used to identify the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The best laboratory parameters cut-off values to predict in-hospital mortality were identified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Significance was considered at p < 0.05. ResultsOf all 35,284 Covid-19 patients, 81.8% were adults and 21.7% were hospitalized. Compared to non-hospitalized patients, hospitalized patients were more of female gender (52.1% versus 47.3%, p < 0.001) and had higher mean age (p < 0.001), higher mean BMI (p < 0.001), and higher rates of: diabetes (p < 0.001), hypertension (p < 0.001), ischemic heart disease (p < 0.001), cancer (p < 0.001), COPD (p < 0.001) and asthma (p = 0.011). The study showed 3.1% overall case-fatality, 20.3% ICU admission rate, and 9.7% in-hospital mortality. Predictors of in-hospital mortality among adult patients were;patients' age & GE;70 years (OR = 6.93, 95% CI 1.94-24.79), ischemic heart disease (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.05-3.09), ICU admission (OR = 24.38, 95% CI 15.64-38.01), abnormal C-reactive protein "CRP " (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.08-3.16), abnormal D-dimer (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.15-3.36), lymphopenia (OR = 2.76, 95% CI 2.03-3.3.76), high neutrophil count (OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.54-2.87), and abnormal procalcitonin (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.88-5.90). The best laboratory parameters cut-off values to predict in-hospital mortality were CRP > 72.25 mg/L (AUC = 0.64), d-dimer > 1125 mu g/L (AUC = 0.75), neutrophils count > 5,745 x 10<

4.
Ieee Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2192074

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents unprecedented challenges for the US healthcare system, and the critical care settings are heavily impacted by the pressures of caring for COVID-19 patients. However, hospital pandemic preparedness has been hampered by a lack of disease specific planning guidelines. In this paper, we proposed a holistic modeling and analysis approach, with a system dynamics model to predict COVID-19 cases and a discrete-event simulation to evaluate hospital bed utilization, to support the hospital planning decisions. Our model was trained using the public data from the JHU Coronavirus Resource Center and was validated using historical patient census data from the University of Florida Health Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL and public data from the Florida Department of Health (FDOH). Various experiments were conducted to investigate different control measures and the variants of the virus and their impact on the disease transmission, and subsequently, the hospital planning needs. Our proposed approach can be tailored to a given hospital setting of interest and is also generalizable to other hospitals to tackle the pandemic planning challenge. Note to Practitioners-We proposed a holistic modeling and analysis approach to support hospital preparedness and resource planning during the COVID-19 pandemic. To capture the highly dynamic pandemic environment, we developed a numerical method to estimate R-0, the effective basic reproductive rate, and used the most recent estimated data series of daily R-0 to project the change in R-0 in a short-term forecast window. The prediction of the daily confirmed cases in that forecast window were then obtained based on recursively solving the system dynamics model, and was validated to be very close to the real confirmed cases from the public record. This data-driven approach allows us to gain a systematic understanding of the common trends across different states and regions, and to evaluate the effect of the control measures like the stay-at-home order and the impact of the virus variants on the disease transmission behavior. Furthermore, the dynamic prediction allows us to evaluate the hospital resource needs during different stages of the pandemic. The insights obtained through this effort shed light on the impact of interventions (e.g., vaccines and control measures) on the hospital preparedness to support appropriate hospital resource allocation.

5.
Archives of Hellenic Medicine ; 39(4):452-458, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2168263

ABSTRACT

The frequency of COVID-19 infection in neonates and the management and outcome of SARS-CoV in this age group is a field that is, as yet, poorly documented. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the clinical characteristics, management and outcome of neonates with confirmed COVID-19. Current evidence shows that COVID-19 rarely affects neonates severely, with most cases being asymptomatic, while the most commonly reported clinical symptom is respiratory distress. The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection are similar to those of non-pregnant adult patients with COVID-19. Neonates born to mothers who are categorized as either diagnosed cases, or suspected cases of COVID-19, should be treated according to the latest guidelines. It is of great importance to conduct large-scale, well-designed cohort studies, in order to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on neonatal health.

6.
Altre Modernita ; - (28):303-318, 2022.
Article in Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2207139

ABSTRACT

Since January 2020, the Covid-19 began to spread around the world. Wuhan, as the centre of the epidemic in China at that time, endured various difficulties such as blockade and shortage of medical resources. Under such difficulties, some writers tried to create new works. Among them. Fang Fang's Wuhan Diary has received a lot of attention both in China and internationally. It describes the difficulties both physical and psychological under the lockdown, and also criticizes the inaction of some bureaucracies and the dereliction of duty by some officials. After "Wuhan Diary" was translated into different languages and published in various countries overseas, there were many criticisms in China. These criticisms can be summarized into three aspects: First, lack of authenticity;second, the narrative is one-sided and cannot represent the life of Wuhan people;third, publishing overseas is a betrayal of the country. At the same time, there are voices of support. Some netizens believe that Fang Fang has discovered social problems, which is a kind of progress. The reason for the criticism is that the Wuhan described by Fang Fang failed to satisfy the Chinese people's desire for positive energy under the epidemic. In addition, exposing the suffering of Wuhan people to the world seems to be a very "losing face" behaviour, and "face" is the cornerstone of Chinese society. Can Wuhan Diary be both a story of the city and a betrayal of the nation? © 2022 Universita degli Studi di Milano. All rights reserved.

7.
Paediatrics Eastern Europe ; 10(4):447-464, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206219

ABSTRACT

Purpose. The study of epidemiological and clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children who were hospitalized against the backdrop of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. In 19 months (May 2020 – December 2021) 63 patients with a diagnosis of "Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 were observed in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care departments of the Healthcare Institution "City Children's Infectious Clinical Hospital" in Minsk, Republic of Belarus. MIS-C was diagnosed according to CDC/WHO criteria, 2020. All calculations were carried using the R Statistical Package, version 4.1. The results of the analysis were considered statistically significant with p<0.05. Results. Focusing on the periods of circulation of dominant coronaviruses, we generated 3 groups of patients. The 1st group included 40 patients (63.5%) received treatment from 05.25.2020 to 02.21.2021 ("wuhan" strains);the 2nd group comprised 9 children (14.3%) from 02.23.2021 to 06.13.2021 ("alpha");and the 3rd group consists of 14 children (22.2%) from 07.01.2021 to 11.19.2021 ("delta"). 47 (74.6%) patients had complete and incomplete Kawasaki Disease phenotype of MIS-C;nonspecific phenotype was observed in 16 (25.4%) children. The mean age didn`t differ in study groups. It was 7±2.5;9.4±4.2;7.9±5 years respectively. All children presented hyperthermic syndrome with febrile fever 3–4 times a day of an average duration of 3.2 (1–15) days. Clinically, the course of MIS-C in children was not dependent on the circulating strain of the virus, and gastrointestinal dysfunction was observed with equal frequency in all three groups (73%, 78% and 57%, respectively). The only statistically significant increase in number of children with cheilitis was observed in the 2 group – 8 (89%) and the 3 group – 13 (93%), p=0.002. Neurological disorders such as headache, hyperesthesia, hallucinations, photophobia were more frequently observed in the 1st group of children – 19 (48%) cases, and less frequently in the 2nd and 3rd group (in 11% and 14% of cases), p=0.022. Pathological blood flow regurgitation was the most common disorder (68–71%). Several biochemical markers of inflammation levels, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were high. CRP levels were 162 mg/l (130;245);130 mg/l (90;160);130 mg/l (106;149) in 1–2–3 study groups, respectively. In children of the 1st group CRP level was significantly higher, p=0.052. PCT level was higher in patients of the 3rd group (4.2 ng/ml (2.4;8.8);3.9 ng/ml (3.2;11.9);8.7 ng/ml (3.4;14.1), respectively, p=0.625). Conclusion. The study revealed no appreciable association between clinical or laboratory features of MIS-C and the dominant circulating strain of SARS-CoV-2 within given time periods. During "alpha" and "delta" strains circulation, only a decrease in the number of patients with neurological disorders and an increase in the frequency of cheilitis were of significant differences, p=0.002. The remaining indicators of organ dysfunction were similar in all three groups of children. There was 1 (1.6%) fatal outcome in our study. © 2022, Professionalnye Izdaniya. All rights reserved.

8.
Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio Per Le Scienze Mediche ; 181(9):605-609, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2205182
9.
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Informatics ; 40(3-4):633-656, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203918

ABSTRACT

Many regions of the world are now facing the second wave of boomed cases of COVID-19. This time, the second wave of this highly infectious disease (COVID-19) is becoming more devastating. To control the existing situation, more mass testing, and tracing of COVID-19 positive individuals are required. Furthermore, practicing to wear a face mask and maintenance of physical distancing are strongly recommended for everyone. Taking all these into consideration, an optimal control problem has been reformulated in terms of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in this paper. The aim of this study is to explore the control strategy of coronavirus-2 disease (COVID-19) and thus, minimize the number of symptomatic, asymptomatic and infected individuals as well as cost of the controls measures. The optimal control model has been analyzed analytically with the help of the necessary conditions of very well-known Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical simulations of the optimal control problem are also performed to illustrate the results.

10.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science ; 43(12):5522-5533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203843

ABSTRACT

During the CIVID-19 pandemic, water samples were collected from 26 sampling points in 18 typical drinking water sources in Wuhan, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methods were used to measure the concentrations of 31 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water samples. The pollution characteristics of PPCPs were analyzed and their ecological and health risks were assessed. The results showed that a total of 23 PPCPs were detected in the 26 sampling points. Among them, five types of PPCPs were detected with a detection rate of 100%, with total concentrations ranging from 102.44 ng•L -1 to 745.78 ng•L -1, and the average concentration was 206.87 ng•L -1. The highest concentrations were in salicylic acid (SA) and doxycycline (DIC), ranging from 28.24 to 534.24 ng•L -1 and 28.72 to 416.6 ng•L -1, respectively. According to the spatial distribution of PPCPs, the concentration of antibiotics in the Hanjiang River was higher than that in the Yangtze River, whereas the concentration of other types of PPCPs in the Yangtze River was higher than that in the Hanjiang River. The ecological risk assessment results showed that the toxic risk in algae was higher than those in invertebrates and fish. The risks of salicylic acid (SA), doxycycline (DIC), lincomycin (LIN), and chlortetracycline (CTE) to algae were at a high level, and the ecological risk of PPCPs in the Hanjiang River was generally higher than that in the Yangtze River. The health risk assessment results showed that the risk to adults and children by drinking water ranged from 1.14 × 10 -4 to 0.136 and from 1.04 × 10 -4 to 0.821, respectively. The health risk to children was higher than that to adults, although their levels were low. Compared with the concentrations of PPCPs in drinking water sources of Wuhan in recent years, under the CIVID-19 pandemic, the pollution status of PPCPs in the Yangtze River was at a medium level, whereas it was at a high level in the Hanjiang River. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

11.
Annali Italiani Di Chirurgia ; 93(4):391-397, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156586

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The histopathological effects of the COVID-19 period on the upper gastrointestinal system are not clearly known. This study is the first in the literature to compare the results of upper endoscopic biopsy before and during the COVID-19 period. METHODS: Data of 10510 patients who underwent upper endoscopy with a given biopsy sample during the procedure between March 2019 and March 2021 were retrospectively scanned. Patients are divided into two groups as the pre-pandemic period patients and the COVID-19 pandemic period patients. The pathological data of these patients were statistically analyzed according to the Sydney classification. RESULTS: Group 1 comprised of 6,787 patients with 3,915 females and 2872 males (F:M=1.3:1), while Group 2 with 1,734 females and 1,455 males (F:M=1.2:1), and this gender difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.002). A comparison of the patient groups in terms of the inflammation, activation, intestinal metaplasia, and presence of H. pylori revealed a significant difference, with higher rates recorded in the COVID-19 period than in the pre-pandemic period (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the pandemic period, the results of the upper endoscopic biopsy are adversely affected by various factors compared to the pre-pandemic period.

12.
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology ; 24(1):47-53, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2155516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to examine the demographic, clinical, and imaging characteristics of patients with COVID???19 pneumonia and also to identify the factors affecting mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective single???center observational study. A total of 126patients with COVID???19 pneumonia who were polymerase chain reaction confirmed and underwent thorax computer tomography(CT) were analyzed. The patients' demographic and clinical data were obtained from the electronic medical record. Thorax CT findings were re???evaluated retrospectively by thoracic radiologists according to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia guidelines of the Radiological Society of North America. The extent of lesions was evaluated by CT lobe score, which was the sum of individual lobe scores(0-5 point) of the lungs. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 60.4 +/- 18.6years and 54%(n=68) were male. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, and shortness of breath. The average time interval between the onset of symptoms and thorax CT acquisition was 6.6 +/- 8.3days. The most common radiological findings included ground???glass opacity(98.4%), consolidation(72.2%), and vascular enlargement(69.8%), respectively. The deceased patients had more common consolidation, vascular enlargement, and high lobe scores in thorax CT as compared to survivors. According to logistic regression analysis age(P=0.003), lobe score(P=0.001), numbers of comorbidities(P=0.017), symptoms duration(P=0.034), and vascular enlargement(P=0.045) were independent risk factors on 30???day mortality. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that age, symptoms duration, the number of comorbidities, lobe score, and vascular enlargement in thorax CT are associated with the prognosis of COVID???19 pneumonia

13.
6th International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies, ISMSIT 2022 ; : 976-981, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152475

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, a major outbreak called novel corona virus is infecting people all over the world now. It is believed to be a beta corona virus of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Infected people are unable to detect this disease as they feel normal till 10-12 days. After that, the virus infects the whole body and starts to find another body to infect, multiplying it day by day. As per the media news and other sources, epidemic is spreading globally, especially in countries like China, Italy where its effect is at peak, killing thousands of people. Based on the data of infected Covid-19 people in India, we systematically discuss the outbreak of epidemic corona virus in India. Defining the structure of active cases day by day, we predict the future of Covid-19 in India. We also suggest important measures to help prevent the spread of Covid-19 in India. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163186

ABSTRACT

IntroductionCardiac injury has received considerable attention due to the higher risk of morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease. However, in a developing country, there is a scarcity of data on cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients related to inflammatory biomarkers. MethodsTherefore, the present research retrospectively analyzes data from three territorial hospitals in Pakistan's Punjab province to investigate the potential impact of the cardiac injury on the mortality and severity of COVID-19-infected patients. We evaluated 2,051 patients between January 16 and April 18, 2022, with confirmed COVID-19. The in-hospital mortality recorded for the selected sample size was about 16.28%. ResultsThe majority of the participants were identified as male (64%) with a median age of 65 years. Also, fever, fatigue, and dyspnea were reported as common symptoms. An aggregate of 623 patients (30.38%) had a cardiac injury, and when these patients are compared to those without cardiac injury, the participants were significantly older and had more comorbidities with higher leukocyte counts, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, myohemoglobin, creatinine kinase-myocardial band, serum creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin-I, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide had a significant amount of multiple ground-glass opacity and bilateral pulmonary infiltration in radiographic results. Participants with heart injury required more non-invasive or invasive mechanical respiration than those who did not have a cardiac injury. Individuals with cardiac injury had higher rates of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), d-dimer concentration, and respiratory failure than those without cardiac injury. Patients who had had a cardiac injury died at a higher rate than those who had not suffered cardiac damage. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, participants with cardiac injury showed greater odds of COVID-19 mortality and were found associated with older age (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 0.04-3.19), elevated cardiac troponin I (OR = 18.64, 95% CI = 13.16-23.01), the complication of sepsis (OR = 10.39, 95% CI = 7.41-13.39) and ARDS (OR = 6.65, 95% CI = 4.04-8.91). ConclusionCardiac injury is a frequent complication among patients with coronavirus-induced infection in Punjab, Pakistan, and it is significantly linked to a greater risk of in-hospital mortality.

15.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 903, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to control the corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have adopted social quarantine policies, with older adults in Wuhan suffering the longest and most severe conditions. But few studies have explored the impact of this on the mental health of older adults in Wuhan. The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in the residential status and mental health of this group when 1 year after the social isolation policies in Wuhan. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted to assess the questionnaire of older adults in a total of 21 streets in 5 central and 2 distant urban districts of Wuhan. Using a self-compiled living status questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the General Anxiety Disorder-7, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, our survey evaluated the living status, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, loneliness and social support of all the participants. RESULTS: A total of 400 valid samples were obtained. One year after experiencing social isolation, older adults had not changed much from their pre-epidemic living status and mostly lived with their partners. They had satisfactory social support (33.86 ± 6.92) and low levels of depression (3.12 ± 4.30), anxiety (1.52 ± 3.19) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (21.41 ± 7.39), but there were moderate levels of loneliness (38.27 ± 9.31). Among them, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly higher (ps < 0.05) in older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts while experiencing social isolation. CONCLUSION: One year after experiencing Wuhan's harsh social isolation, older adults in the Wuhan community did not experience significant symptoms of depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress, but loneliness has increased and the mental health of older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts needs attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Aged , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Loneliness/psychology
16.
Extreme Medicine ; - (3):5-12, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146636

ABSTRACT

The second generation COVID-19 vaccines should produce the long-term protective immune response to the existing and novel strains of SARS-CoV-2. The Convacell® vaccine was designed to produce such immune response by using N protein as an antigen. N-protein is not susceptible to fast accumulation of mutations and is highly homologous to nucleocapsid proteins of other β-coronaviruses. The study was aimed to perform in vitro assessment of the Convacell® vaccine ability to produce immune response to the Wuhan, Delta, and Omicron strains. Mononuclear cells of vaccinated volunteers and survivors were subjected to N protein stimulation. After that specific activation of the cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that a sibstantial percentage of CD4 and CD8 cells produced IFNγ and IL2 in response to stimulation. No significant reduction of the response to strains Delta and Omicron compared to the Wuhan strain was revealed. The findings support the direction of the N protein based vaccine design towards creation of the universal vaccine. © 2022 Federal Medical Biological Agency Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved.

17.
Istanbul Medical Journal ; 23(4):310-315, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2144345

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated pneumonia that emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was later declared by the World Health Organization to be a pandemic has called coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Our study aims to determine the anxiety levels, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms levels and psychiatric symptoms of healthcare workers working at pandemic hospital and effects of these symptoms on psychological adjustment to healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. Methods: This study was cross-sectional survey study and conducted between March 2020-June 2020 with 973 consenting participants working at the pandemic hospital. For the study, we used an online questionnaire, which consisted of three parts: an online-informed consent, basic sociodemographic information and a set of online questions. The data were collected by the researchers. All procedures were approved by our hospital's Ethics Committee. Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale (TSSS) was used for the study. Results: Nine hundred and seventy-three persons participated in the study. Among the three groups, nurses also had the highest fear of dying during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001);the highest feelings of hopelessness about the future during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001);the highest increase in level of anxiety (p<0.001), and the highest experience of recent sleep disturbances (p<0.001). Women had a statistically significantly higher mean TSSS score and mean TSSS score of participants with doctors or medical specialization was lower than participants with other levels of education (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although the rate of PTSD was significantly higher in nurses in our study, PTSD was also seen in the other two groups. Indeed, it was much higher in people working in environments at high risk for COVID-19 than in the other groups. This may be the consequence of nurses' having greater exposure to COVID19-infected patients. This situation may be related to long working hours, inadequate rest and burnout. We recommend that healthcare workers work in the shift. [ FROM AUTHOR]

18.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(11): e37698, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 23, 2020, the city of Wuhan, China, was sealed off in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies have found that the lockdown was associated with both positive and negative emotions, although their findings are not conclusive. In these studies, emotional responses to the Wuhan lockdown were identified using lexicons based on limited emotion types. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to map Chinese people's emotional responses to the Wuhan lockdown and compare Wuhan residents' emotions with those of people elsewhere in China by analyzing social media data from Weibo using a lexicon based on the circumplex model of affect. METHODS: Social media posts on Weibo from 2 weeks before to 2 weeks after the Wuhan lockdown was imposed (January 9, 2020, to February 6, 2020) were collected. Each post was coded using a valence score and an arousal score. To map emotional trajectories during the study period, we used a data set of 359,190 posts. To compare the immediate emotional responses to the lockdown and its longer-term emotional impact on Wuhan residents (n=1236) and non-Hubei residents (n=12,714), we used a second data set of 57,685 posts for multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Most posts (248,757/359,190, 69.25%) made during the studied lockdown period indicated a pleasant mood with low arousal. A gradual increase in both valence and arousal before the lockdown was observed. The posts after the lockdown was imposed had higher valence and arousal than prelockdown posts. On the day of lockdown, the non-Hubei group had a temporarily boosted valence (γ20=0.118; SE 0.021; P<.001) and arousal (γ30=0.293; SE 0.022; P<.001). Compared with non-Hubei residents, the Wuhan group had smaller increases in valence (γ21=-0.172; SE 0.052; P<.001) and arousal (γ31=-0.262; SE 0.053; P<.001) on the day of lockdown. Weibo users' emotional valence (γ40=0.000; SE 0.001; P=.71) and arousal (γ40=0.001; SE 0.001; P=.56) remained stable over the 2 weeks after the lockdown was imposed regardless of geographical location (valence: γ41=-0.004, SE 0.003, and P=.16; arousal: γ41=0.003, SE 0.003, and P=.26). CONCLUSIONS: During the early stages of the pandemic, most Weibo posts indicated a pleasant mood with low arousal. The overall increase in the posts' valence and arousal after the lockdown announcement might indicate collective cohesion and mutual support in web-based communities during a public health crisis. Compared with the temporary increases in valence and arousal of non-Hubei users on the day of lockdown, Wuhan residents' emotions were less affected by the announcement. Overall, our data suggest that Weibo users were not influenced by the lockdown measures in the 2 weeks after the lockdown announcement. Our findings offer policy makers insights into the usefulness of social connections in maintaining the psychological well-being of people affected by a lockdown.

19.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 83, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067033

ABSTRACT

The emergence and global spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to understanding how to prevent or control a future viral pandemic. We review the tools used for this retrospective search, their limits, and results obtained from China, France, Italy and the USA. We examine possible scenarios for the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population. We consider the Chinese city of Wuhan where the first cases of atypical pneumonia were attributed to SARS-CoV-2 and from where the disease spread worldwide. Possible superspreading events include the Wuhan-based 7th Military World Games on October 18-27, 2019 and the Chinese New Year holidays from January 25 to February 2, 2020. Several clues point to an early regional circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in northern Italy (Lombardi) as soon as September/October 2019 and in France in November/December 2019, if not before. With the goal of preventing future pandemics, we call for additional retrospective studies designed to trace the origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065670

ABSTRACT

Considering the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic had and still has on human psychological health, it is expected that it might also affect household dogs' and cats' welfare. The current study explores the behavioral changes in dogs and cats before (BL) and during the lockdown (DL), as reported by their owners in China. Besides demographic parameters, variables related to the daily management of dogs and cats were analyzed in relation to behavioral problems, stress-related behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors before and during the lockdown. A total of 261 questionnaires were collected. In general, behavioral problems and stress-related behaviors in dogs (p < 0.001) and cats (p < 0.001) decreased DL compared to BL, while anxiety-related behaviors in cats did not show any differences between the two periods considered. On the other hand, anxiety-related behaviors were more frequent in dogs DL (36.3%) compared to BL (35%), which were associated with reduced frequency of play activities with the owners (p = 0.016) and altered sleeping habits (p < 0.01). During the lockdown, dogs' and cats' daily routines and management (feeding and sleeping habits, dogs' walks, dogs' and cats' play activities, litter box management, and cats' lifestyle) experienced changes, but they were not associated with any behavioral issues. On the other hand, the behavioral issues considered for dogs and cats were more frequent BL, which were influenced by the daily management of the pets. The current study showed how critical the attention the owners can provide to the pets could be, to improve their companion animals' welfare. Therefore, it is important to provide pet owners with behavioral management support both during particularly difficult periods such as a lockdown and during regular daily routines.

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