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1.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

2.
Virus Evolution ; 8(veac080), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2051563

ABSTRACT

The first SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) to be designated was lineage B.1.1.7, later labelled by the World Health Organization as Alpha. Originating in early autumn but discovered in December 2020, it spread rapidly and caused large waves of infections worldwide. The Alpha variant is notable for being defined by a long ancestral phylogenetic branch with an increased evolutionary rate, along which only two sequences have been sampled. Alpha genomes comprise a well-supported monophyletic clade within which the evolutionary rate is typical of SARS-CoV-2. The Alpha epidemic continued to grow despite the continued restrictions on social mixing across the UK and the imposition of new restrictions, in particular, the English national lockdown in November 2020. While these interventions succeeded in reducing the absolute number of cases, the impact of these non-pharmaceutical interventions was predominantly to drive the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages that preceded Alpha. We investigate the only two sampled sequences that fall on the branch ancestral to Alpha. We find that one is likely to be a true intermediate sequence, providing information about the order of mutational events that led to Alpha. We explore alternate hypotheses that can explain how Alpha acquired a large number of mutations yet remained largely unobserved in a region of high genomic surveillance: an under-sampled geographical location, a non-human animal population, or a chronically infected individual. We conclude that the latter provides the best explanation of the observed behaviour and dynamics of the variant, although the individual need not be immunocompromised, as persistently infected immunocompetent hosts also display a higher within-host rate of evolution. Finally, we compare the ancestral branches and mutation profiles of other VOCs and find that Delta appears to be an outlier both in terms of the genomic locations of its defining mutations and a lack of the rapid evolutionary rate on its ancestral branch. As new variants, such as Omicron, continue to evolve (potentially through similar mechanisms), it remains important to investigate the origins of other variants to identify ways to potentially disrupt their evolution and emergence.

3.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:93-100, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046953

ABSTRACT

From March to September 2020, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism launched a study with 23 countries to know the measures taken by the public authorities to support the sector during the COVID-19 crisis, to detail the strategies of tourism players to deal with it, to define the rebound in the short and medium term, and finally to imagine the future of tourism, with or without COVID-19. The results of this survey are instructive and also show the many similarities in contexts and reactions around the world.

4.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:118-125, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046930

ABSTRACT

Accor, the European leader in the hotel industry, has been hit hard by the effects of the health crisis since March 2020. With the closure of hotels, hiring freeze, and deployment of partial unemployment, more than 220,000 employees have been affected by the consequences of the pandemic on the hotel group's activity. Beyond the emergency measures put in place, Accor has deployed an unprecedented aid system aimed at financially supporting its employees in the most difficult situation, and at welcoming the most vulnerable people within its establishments. At the same time, the group is already working on its recovery. It is in the process of certifying its hotels to guarantee optimum sanitary conditions, and is adapting a strategy focusing on the development of the lifestyle segment and on local customers.

5.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
6.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:114-117, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046437

ABSTRACT

10% of the French population concentrates a large part of the resources of the communication budgets of institutional tourism organizations. However, the vast majority of French people who go on vacation stay every summer in non-commercial accommodation. The challenges of growth in the tourist economy should therefore not be based on the quest for new customers in new markets, but on greater consumption of leisure activities by local populations. The absence of foreign customers in the summer of 2020 highlighted this mistake in marketing strategy when the potential of local customers is immense. This is demonstrated, in particular, by the success of the OCC'ygene card deployed by the Occitania region and the Regional Committee for Tourism and Leisure (CRTL).

7.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

8.
Espaces, Tourisme & Loisirs ; 358:106-108, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045039

ABSTRACT

The events sector has suffered an unprecedented halt to its activity since March 2020. More than 300,000 jobs have been threatened since trade fairs, seminars, meetings and team building were brought to a halt by the Covid-19 epidemic. Far from being discouraged, the profession quickly thought about new models of encounters by imagining remote devices. The idea has been germinating for some time, but the health crisis has accelerated the trend towards the digitization of events without completely setting aside real encounters, but promoting a new form of hybrid encounters.

9.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE1):E1-E58, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044707

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 48 articles that discuss development and validation of a novel quality assessment tool to measure the quality of nutrition information online;longitudinal association between takeaway food environment and secondary school adolescents BMI and body fat percentage;dietary practices, beliefs, and behaviours among adults with inflammatory bowel disease;postpartum depression in Irish mothers and associations with infant feeding practices;the impact of dietary saturated fat replacement with unsaturated fat on the plasma lipidome and cardiometabolic disease risk;ole of brain serotonin in age-related decline in physical activity in mice;ey stakeholder perceptions of food allergies within the airline industry;sleep quality of higher education students during COVID-19 and its association with diet quality and lifestyle behaviours.

10.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:4, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044639

ABSTRACT

Chinese New Year is observed from January 31 and February 15, 2022, with the holiday falling on February 1. Numerous nations have enacted regulations that prohibit mass gatherings like Chinese New Year celebrations in response to the rising incidence of COVID-19 cases caused by the Omicron variant. All direct flights from the UK to mainland China have been banned, according to the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), and there is no set schedule for a review.

11.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55(40):1-42, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044481

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Scotland provided a commentary on quarterly epidemiological data in Scotland for April to June (Q2) 2021 on the following: Clostridioides difficile infection, Escherichia coli bacteraemia, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and surgical site Infection. Data are provided for the 14 NHS boards and one NHS Special Health board. Results showed that there were 277 CDI cases, of which 73.3% (203) were healthcare infections. In theprevious quarter there were 262 cases. There were 1103 ECB cases, of which 48.2% (532) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 961 cases. There were 408 SAB cases, of which 63.7% (260) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 388 SAB cases. Epidemiological data for SSI were not included for this quarter due to the pausing of surveillance to support the COVID-19 response. The data used for this report is part of the mandatory surveillance in Scotland. ARHAI Scotland supports NHS boards to analyse their data. Local monitoring in hospital and community settings isrequired to reduce these infections.

12.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:38, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044474

ABSTRACT

On 21 September 2021, the Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) annual report 2020 was published by Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Scotland. The report reflects the work undertaken on healthcare associated infection (HCAI) prevention and reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) during 2020. Data are provided for common HCAIs, which are an important cause of severe illness, death, and higher treatment costs. This year the report also includes analysis of hospital onset COVID-19 and its impact on other Scottish national surveillance systems. In 2020, the global pandemic brought new problems, and NHS National Services Scotland's ARHAI Scotland was a key part of the national COVID-19 response to the pandemic. This report shows how far ARHAI Scotland has come in helping to reduce HCAIs in NHS Scotland. It also gives data to help local and national efforts to prevent HCAIs.

13.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 32: 102-108, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the numbers of practicing physicians and total numbers of hospital beds in European Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. METHODS: Data analyzed were derived from the "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2020" database between 1980 and 2018. The selected countries were compared according to the type of healthcare system and geographical location by parametric and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: In 1980, Bismarck-type systems showed an average number of physicians of 2.3 persons/1000 population; in Beveridge-type systems, it was 1.7 persons. By 2018, it leveled out reaching 3.9 persons in both healthcare system types. In 1980, average physician number/1000 was 2.5 persons in Eastern Europe; in Western Europe, it was 1.9 persons. By 2018 this proportion changed with Western Europe having the higher number (3.7 persons; 3.9 persons). In 1980, average number of hospital beds/1000 population was 9.6 in Bismarck-type systems whereas in Beveridge-type systems it was 8.8. By 2018, it decreased to 5.6 in Bismarck-type systems (-42%) and to 3.1 in Beveridge-type systems (-65%). In 1980, the average number of hospital beds/1000 population in Eastern Europe was 10.3; in Western Europe, it was 8.5. By 2018, the difference between the 2 regions did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of physicians was 33% higher in 1980 in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe, by 2018 the number of physicians was 5% higher in Western Europe. In general, regardless of the healthcare system and geographical location, the proportion of physicians per 1000 population has improved due to a larger decrease in the number of hospital beds.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Humans , Hospital Bed Capacity , Europe/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Europe, Eastern
14.
Turkish Journal of Public Health ; 20(2):235-243, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040552

ABSTRACT

Objective: Currently the Covid-19 pandemic is studied with great expectations by several epidemiological models with the aim of predicting the future behaviour of the pandemic. Determining the level of disorder in the pandemic can give us insight into the societal reactions to the pandemic the socio-economic structures and health systems in different countries.

15.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

16.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039235

ABSTRACT

Background: After 18 months of responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still no agreement on the optimal combination of mitigation strategies. The efficacy and collateral damage of pandemic policies are dependent on constantly evolving viral epidemiology as well as the volatile distribution of socioeconomic and cultural factors. This study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the efficacy of the type, duration, and stringency of COVID-19 mitigation policies in terms of transmission control and economic loss, personalised to individual countries.

17.
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy ; 38(2):153-164, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036713

ABSTRACT

Many south-east European states made the transition from socialist to market economies. All described here had to reform their pension systems to match the new context in which these operated. The experiences of 10 countries are reviewed – seven of which were once part of Yugoslavia. Some countries’ reforms were more radical than others. Five of them merely adapted the Bismarckian systems they had inherited;four others adopted the “three pillar” model that the World Bank had been propagating. One went further than that. The four who followed World Bank model were often forced to backtrack. Whatever the longer-term benefits, they generated their own shorter-term fiscal problems. Nonetheless, the most radical reformer gives some indications of possible ways forward. The south-eastern European states do not have financial markets that can support capitalised/funded pension systems. Nor do they have the resources to pay proportional pensions that, at the same time, keep retired people out of poverty. The article suggests that their governments should concentrate upon improving economic performance to satisfy longer term aspirations and on ensuring that pensioners are able to live properly if not luxuriously by using tax-financed transfer measures. Provision above this level can be secured through savings plans, but it must be accepted that the investments to secure those savings will have to be made abroad.

18.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

19.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(8):1093-1097, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034142

ABSTRACT

Objective: The characteristics of imported coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) cases from outside China were analyzed to provide evidence for prevention and control backflow of the epidemic.

20.
Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

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